Abstract

We investigated the ~2 μm spectroscopic and lasing performance of Tm3+ and Tm3+-Ho3+ co-doped tungsten tellurite glass single mode fibers with a commercial 800 nm laser diode. The double cladding single mode (SM) fibers were fabricated by using rod-in-tube method. The propagation loss of the fiber was ~2.5 dB/m at 1310 nm. The spectroscopic properties of the fibers were analyzed. A 494 mW laser operating at ~1.9 μm was achieved in a Tm3+ doped 20 cm long fiber, the slope efficiency was 26%, and the laser beam quality factor M2 was 1.09. A 35 mW ~2.1 μm laser output was also demonstrated in a 7 cm long of Tm3+-Ho3+ co-doped tungsten tellurite SM fiber.

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  1. B. M. Walsh, “Review of Tm and Ho materials; spectroscopy and lasers,” Laser Phys. 19(4), 855–866 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. Richards, A. Jha, Y. Tsang, D. Binks, J. Lousteau, F. Fusari, A. Lagatsky, C. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “Tellurite glass lasers operating close to 2 μm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(3), 177–193 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Mori, Y. Ohishi, and S. Sudo, “Erbium-doped tellurite glass fibre laser and amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 33(10), 863–864 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. Richards, Y. Tsang, D. Binks, J. Lousteau, and A. Jha, “Efficient approximately 2μm Tm3+-doped tellurite fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 33(4), 402–404 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Y. Tsang, B. Richards, D. Binks, J. Lousteau, and A. Jha, “Tm3+/Ho3+ codoped tellurite fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 33(11), 1282–1284 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, and E. Snitzer, “Tellurite glass: new candidate for fiber devices,” Opt. Mater. 3(3), 187–203 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. R. Oermann, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Y. Li, T. C. Foo, and T. M. Monro, “Index matching between passive and active tellurite glasses for use in microstructured fiber lasers: erbium doped lanthanum-tellurite glass,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15578–15584 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. B. Richards, Y. Tsang, D. Binks, J. Lousteau, and A. Jha, “~2 μm Tm3+/Yb3+-doped tellurite fiber laser,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 20(S1), 317–320 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. Wu, Z. Yao, J. Zong, A. Chavez-Pirson, N. Peyghambarian, and J. Yu, “Single frequency fiber laser at 2.05 μm based on Ho-doped germanate glass fiber,” Proc. SPIE 7195, 71951K, 71951K-7 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  15. B. Richards, S. Shen, A. Jha, Y. Tsang, and D. Binks, “Infrared emission and energy transfer in Tm3+, Tm3+-Ho3+ and Tm3+-Yb3+-doped tellurite fibre,” Opt. Express 15(11), 6546–6551 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

B. Richards, A. Jha, Y. Tsang, D. Binks, J. Lousteau, F. Fusari, A. Lagatsky, C. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “Tellurite glass lasers operating close to 2 μm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(3), 177–193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Li, G. Zhang, and L. Hu, “Watt-level ~2 μm laser output in Tm3+-doped tungsten tellurite glass double-cladding fiber,” Opt. Lett. 35(24), 4136–4138 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (6)

J. Wu, Z. Yao, J. Zong, A. Chavez-Pirson, N. Peyghambarian, and J. Yu, “Single frequency fiber laser at 2.05 μm based on Ho-doped germanate glass fiber,” Proc. SPIE 7195, 71951K, 71951K-7 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. E. P. dos Santos, F. C. Fávero, A. S. L. Gomes, J. Xing, Q. Chen, M. Fokine, and I. C. S. Carvalho, “Evaluation of the third-order nonlinear optical properties of tellurite glasses by thermally managed eclipse Z-scan,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 024512 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Richards, Y. Tsang, D. Binks, J. Lousteau, and A. Jha, “~2 μm Tm3+/Yb3+-doped tellurite fiber laser,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 20(S1), 317–320 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Walsh, “Review of Tm and Ho materials; spectroscopy and lasers,” Laser Phys. 19(4), 855–866 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Oermann, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Y. Li, T. C. Foo, and T. M. Monro, “Index matching between passive and active tellurite glasses for use in microstructured fiber lasers: erbium doped lanthanum-tellurite glass,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15578–15584 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lin, A. Zhang, E. J. Bushong, and J. Toulouse, “Solid-core tellurite glass fiber for infrared and nonlinear applications,” Opt. Express 17(19), 16716–16721 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

2007 (1)

1997 (1)

A. Mori, Y. Ohishi, and S. Sudo, “Erbium-doped tellurite glass fibre laser and amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 33(10), 863–864 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, and E. Snitzer, “Tellurite glass: new candidate for fiber devices,” Opt. Mater. 3(3), 187–203 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Wang, D. P. Machewirth, F. Wu, E. Snitzer, and E. M. Vogel, “Neodymium-doped tellurite single-mode fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 19(18), 1448–1449 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Binks, D.

Brown, C.

B. Richards, A. Jha, Y. Tsang, D. Binks, J. Lousteau, F. Fusari, A. Lagatsky, C. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “Tellurite glass lasers operating close to 2 μm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(3), 177–193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bushong, E. J.

Camerlingo, A.

Carvalho, I. C. S.

F. E. P. dos Santos, F. C. Fávero, A. S. L. Gomes, J. Xing, Q. Chen, M. Fokine, and I. C. S. Carvalho, “Evaluation of the third-order nonlinear optical properties of tellurite glasses by thermally managed eclipse Z-scan,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 024512 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chavez-Pirson, A.

J. Wu, Z. Yao, J. Zong, A. Chavez-Pirson, N. Peyghambarian, and J. Yu, “Single frequency fiber laser at 2.05 μm based on Ho-doped germanate glass fiber,” Proc. SPIE 7195, 71951K, 71951K-7 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q.

F. E. P. dos Santos, F. C. Fávero, A. S. L. Gomes, J. Xing, Q. Chen, M. Fokine, and I. C. S. Carvalho, “Evaluation of the third-order nonlinear optical properties of tellurite glasses by thermally managed eclipse Z-scan,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 024512 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dasgupta, S.

dos Santos, F. E. P.

F. E. P. dos Santos, F. C. Fávero, A. S. L. Gomes, J. Xing, Q. Chen, M. Fokine, and I. C. S. Carvalho, “Evaluation of the third-order nonlinear optical properties of tellurite glasses by thermally managed eclipse Z-scan,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 024512 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H.

Fávero, F. C.

F. E. P. dos Santos, F. C. Fávero, A. S. L. Gomes, J. Xing, Q. Chen, M. Fokine, and I. C. S. Carvalho, “Evaluation of the third-order nonlinear optical properties of tellurite glasses by thermally managed eclipse Z-scan,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 024512 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Feng, X.

Flanagan, J. C.

Fokine, M.

F. E. P. dos Santos, F. C. Fávero, A. S. L. Gomes, J. Xing, Q. Chen, M. Fokine, and I. C. S. Carvalho, “Evaluation of the third-order nonlinear optical properties of tellurite glasses by thermally managed eclipse Z-scan,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 024512 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Foo, T. C.

Frampton, K. E.

Fusari, F.

B. Richards, A. Jha, Y. Tsang, D. Binks, J. Lousteau, F. Fusari, A. Lagatsky, C. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “Tellurite glass lasers operating close to 2 μm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(3), 177–193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gomes, A. S. L.

F. E. P. dos Santos, F. C. Fávero, A. S. L. Gomes, J. Xing, Q. Chen, M. Fokine, and I. C. S. Carvalho, “Evaluation of the third-order nonlinear optical properties of tellurite glasses by thermally managed eclipse Z-scan,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 024512 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Horak, P.

Hu, L.

Jha, A.

Lagatsky, A.

B. Richards, A. Jha, Y. Tsang, D. Binks, J. Lousteau, F. Fusari, A. Lagatsky, C. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “Tellurite glass lasers operating close to 2 μm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(3), 177–193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, K.

Li, Y.

Lin, A.

Loh, W. H.

Lousteau, J.

B. Richards, A. Jha, Y. Tsang, D. Binks, J. Lousteau, F. Fusari, A. Lagatsky, C. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “Tellurite glass lasers operating close to 2 μm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(3), 177–193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Richards, Y. Tsang, D. Binks, J. Lousteau, and A. Jha, “~2 μm Tm3+/Yb3+-doped tellurite fiber laser,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 20(S1), 317–320 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Richards, Y. Tsang, D. Binks, J. Lousteau, and A. Jha, “Efficient approximately 2μm Tm3+-doped tellurite fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 33(4), 402–404 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Tsang, B. Richards, D. Binks, J. Lousteau, and A. Jha, “Tm3+/Ho3+ codoped tellurite fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 33(11), 1282–1284 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Machewirth, D. P.

Monro, T. M.

Mori, A.

A. Mori, Y. Ohishi, and S. Sudo, “Erbium-doped tellurite glass fibre laser and amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 33(10), 863–864 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Oermann, M. R.

Ohishi, Y.

A. Mori, Y. Ohishi, and S. Sudo, “Erbium-doped tellurite glass fibre laser and amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 33(10), 863–864 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Petropoulos, P.

Peyghambarian, N.

J. Wu, Z. Yao, J. Zong, A. Chavez-Pirson, N. Peyghambarian, and J. Yu, “Single frequency fiber laser at 2.05 μm based on Ho-doped germanate glass fiber,” Proc. SPIE 7195, 71951K, 71951K-7 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Price, J. H. V.

Richards, B.

Richardson, D. J.

Rutt, H. N.

Shen, S.

Sibbett, W.

B. Richards, A. Jha, Y. Tsang, D. Binks, J. Lousteau, F. Fusari, A. Lagatsky, C. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “Tellurite glass lasers operating close to 2 μm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(3), 177–193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Snitzer, E.

J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, and E. Snitzer, “Tellurite glass: new candidate for fiber devices,” Opt. Mater. 3(3), 187–203 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Wang, D. P. Machewirth, F. Wu, E. Snitzer, and E. M. Vogel, “Neodymium-doped tellurite single-mode fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 19(18), 1448–1449 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sudo, S.

A. Mori, Y. Ohishi, and S. Sudo, “Erbium-doped tellurite glass fibre laser and amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 33(10), 863–864 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Toulouse, J.

Tsang, Y.

Vogel, E. M.

J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, and E. Snitzer, “Tellurite glass: new candidate for fiber devices,” Opt. Mater. 3(3), 187–203 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Wang, D. P. Machewirth, F. Wu, E. Snitzer, and E. M. Vogel, “Neodymium-doped tellurite single-mode fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 19(18), 1448–1449 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walsh, B. M.

B. M. Walsh, “Review of Tm and Ho materials; spectroscopy and lasers,” Laser Phys. 19(4), 855–866 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. S.

J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, and E. Snitzer, “Tellurite glass: new candidate for fiber devices,” Opt. Mater. 3(3), 187–203 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Wang, D. P. Machewirth, F. Wu, E. Snitzer, and E. M. Vogel, “Neodymium-doped tellurite single-mode fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 19(18), 1448–1449 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, N. M.

Wu, F.

Wu, J.

J. Wu, Z. Yao, J. Zong, A. Chavez-Pirson, N. Peyghambarian, and J. Yu, “Single frequency fiber laser at 2.05 μm based on Ho-doped germanate glass fiber,” Proc. SPIE 7195, 71951K, 71951K-7 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xing, J.

F. E. P. dos Santos, F. C. Fávero, A. S. L. Gomes, J. Xing, Q. Chen, M. Fokine, and I. C. S. Carvalho, “Evaluation of the third-order nonlinear optical properties of tellurite glasses by thermally managed eclipse Z-scan,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 024512 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yao, Z.

J. Wu, Z. Yao, J. Zong, A. Chavez-Pirson, N. Peyghambarian, and J. Yu, “Single frequency fiber laser at 2.05 μm based on Ho-doped germanate glass fiber,” Proc. SPIE 7195, 71951K, 71951K-7 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.

J. Wu, Z. Yao, J. Zong, A. Chavez-Pirson, N. Peyghambarian, and J. Yu, “Single frequency fiber laser at 2.05 μm based on Ho-doped germanate glass fiber,” Proc. SPIE 7195, 71951K, 71951K-7 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, A.

Zhang, G.

Zong, J.

J. Wu, Z. Yao, J. Zong, A. Chavez-Pirson, N. Peyghambarian, and J. Yu, “Single frequency fiber laser at 2.05 μm based on Ho-doped germanate glass fiber,” Proc. SPIE 7195, 71951K, 71951K-7 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. Mori, Y. Ohishi, and S. Sudo, “Erbium-doped tellurite glass fibre laser and amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 33(10), 863–864 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

F. E. P. dos Santos, F. C. Fávero, A. S. L. Gomes, J. Xing, Q. Chen, M. Fokine, and I. C. S. Carvalho, “Evaluation of the third-order nonlinear optical properties of tellurite glasses by thermally managed eclipse Z-scan,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 024512 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. (1)

B. Richards, Y. Tsang, D. Binks, J. Lousteau, and A. Jha, “~2 μm Tm3+/Yb3+-doped tellurite fiber laser,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 20(S1), 317–320 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. (1)

B. M. Walsh, “Review of Tm and Ho materials; spectroscopy and lasers,” Laser Phys. 19(4), 855–866 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

B. Richards, A. Jha, Y. Tsang, D. Binks, J. Lousteau, F. Fusari, A. Lagatsky, C. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “Tellurite glass lasers operating close to 2 μm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(3), 177–193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Opt. Mater. (1)

J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, and E. Snitzer, “Tellurite glass: new candidate for fiber devices,” Opt. Mater. 3(3), 187–203 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. Wu, Z. Yao, J. Zong, A. Chavez-Pirson, N. Peyghambarian, and J. Yu, “Single frequency fiber laser at 2.05 μm based on Ho-doped germanate glass fiber,” Proc. SPIE 7195, 71951K, 71951K-7 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Transmittance spectrum of core glass in the range of UV-vis and mid-IR. (Thickness of the test sample is 1.0 mm).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The emission spectra of bulk glass and 12.5 cm length of tellurite fiber with varying absorbed pump power, using a 800 nm laser diode (LD). The spectra have been normalized with respect to the peak at 1.82 μm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The emission spectra of 1 mol% Tm3+ and 1 mol%Tm3+-0.5 mol%Ho3+ co-doped bulk glasses (left); The emission spectra of Tm3+-Ho3+ co-doped tellurite fibers (right).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The visible up-conversion emission spectrum of Tm3+-Ho3+ co-doped tellurite fiber (left); the fiber with strong visible emission (right).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Sketch of Tm3+ and Tm3+-Ho3+ co-doped tungsten tellurite fiber laser experiment setup.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The Tm3+ doped tungsten tellurite SM fiber beam quality measurement, the inset in the beam profile (left); the spectrum of Tm3+ doped tellurite fiber laser, the inset is the laser output power versus pump power (right).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The spectrum of the Tm3+-Ho3+co-doped tungsten tellurite fiber laser, the inset is cross section of the fiber.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Thermal properties, refractive indices and numerical apertures of the core and cladding glasses

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