Abstract

We demonstrate the first optical parametric oscillator (OPO) based on chalcogenide glass. The parametric gain medium is an As2Se3 chalcogenide microwire coated with a layer of polymer. The doubly-resonant OPO oscillates simultaneously at a Stokes and an anti Stokes wavelength shift of >50 nm from the pump wavelength that lies at λP = 1,552 nm. The oscillator has a peak power threshold of 21.6 dBm and a conversion efficiency of >19%. This OPO experiment provides an additional application of the chalcogenide microwire technology; and considering the transparency of As2Se3 glass extending far in the mid-infrared (mid-IR) wavelengths, the device holds promise for realizing mid-IR OPOs utilizing existing optical sources in the telecommunications wavelength region.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. K. O. Hill, B. S. Kawasaki, Y. Fujii, and D. C. Johnson, “Efficient sequence‐frequency generation in a parametric fiber‐optic oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36(11), 888 (1980).
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  7. J. E. Sharping, M. Fiorentino, P. Kumar, and R. S. Windeler, “Optical parametric oscillator based on four-wave mixing in microstructure fiber,” Opt. Lett. 27(19), 1675–1677 (2002).
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  10. T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Kerr-nonlinearity optical parametric oscillation in an ultrahigh-Q toroid microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(8), 083904 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Strekalov, M. Mohageg, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Low threshold optical oscillations in a whispering gallery mode CaF(2) resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(24), 243905 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [PubMed]
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2011

R. Ahmad and M. Rochette, “Photosensitivity at 1550 nm and Bragg grating inscription in As2Se3 chalcogenide microwires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(6), 061109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 37–40 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, M. Ferrera, R. Morandotti, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, “CMOS-compatible integrated optical hyper-parametric oscillator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 41–45 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Baker and M. Rochette, “Highly nonlinear hybrid AsSe-PMMA microtapers,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12391–12398 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

G. K. Samanta, G. R. Fayaz, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “1.59 W, single-frequency, continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator based on MgO:sPPLT,” Opt. Lett. 32(17), 2623–2625 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. H. Agha, Y. Okawachi, M. A. Foster, J. E. Sharping, and A. L. Gaeta, “Four-wave mixing parametric oscillations in dispersion-compensated high-Q optical microspheres,” Phys. Rev. A 76(4), 043837 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Canalias and V. Pasiskevicius, “Mirrorless optical parametric oscillator,” Nat. Photonics 1(8), 459–462 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

2005

2004

G. W. Rieger, K. S. Virk, and J. F. Young, “Nonlinear propagation of ultrafast 1.5 μm pulses in high-index-contrast silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 900–902 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Kerr-nonlinearity optical parametric oscillation in an ultrahigh-Q toroid microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(8), 083904 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Strekalov, M. Mohageg, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Low threshold optical oscillations in a whispering gallery mode CaF(2) resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(24), 243905 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

1999

1997

L. E. Myers and W. R. Bosenberg, “Periodically poled lithium niobate and quasi-phase-matched optical parametric oscillators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(10), 1663–1672 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

1980

K. O. Hill, B. S. Kawasaki, Y. Fujii, and D. C. Johnson, “Efficient sequence‐frequency generation in a parametric fiber‐optic oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36(11), 888 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Aggarwal, I. D.

Agha, I. H.

I. H. Agha, Y. Okawachi, M. A. Foster, J. E. Sharping, and A. L. Gaeta, “Four-wave mixing parametric oscillations in dispersion-compensated high-Q optical microspheres,” Phys. Rev. A 76(4), 043837 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

Ahmad, R.

R. Ahmad and M. Rochette, “Photosensitivity at 1550 nm and Bragg grating inscription in As2Se3 chalcogenide microwires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(6), 061109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Ahmad and M. Rochette, “High efficiency and ultra broadband optical parametric four-wave mixing in chalcogenide-PMMA hybrid microwires,” Opt. Express.  20, 9572–9580 (2012).
[PubMed]

Arcizet, O.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baker, C.

Bosenberg, W. R.

L. E. Myers and W. R. Bosenberg, “Periodically poled lithium niobate and quasi-phase-matched optical parametric oscillators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(10), 1663–1672 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Myers, R. C. Eckardt, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, W. R. Bosenberg, and J. W. Pierce, “Quasi-phase-matched optical parametric oscillators in bulk periodically poled LiNbO3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12(11), 2102–2116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

Canalias, C.

C. Canalias and V. Pasiskevicius, “Mirrorless optical parametric oscillator,” Nat. Photonics 1(8), 459–462 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S.

L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, M. Ferrera, R. Morandotti, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, “CMOS-compatible integrated optical hyper-parametric oscillator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 41–45 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Del’Haye, P.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deng, Y.

Duchesne, D.

L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, M. Ferrera, R. Morandotti, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, “CMOS-compatible integrated optical hyper-parametric oscillator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 41–45 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ebrahim-Zadeh, M.

Eckardt, R. C.

Esteban-Martin, A.

Fayaz, G. R.

Fejer, M. M.

Ferrera, M.

L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, M. Ferrera, R. Morandotti, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, “CMOS-compatible integrated optical hyper-parametric oscillator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 41–45 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fiorentino, M.

Foster, M. A.

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 37–40 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. H. Agha, Y. Okawachi, M. A. Foster, J. E. Sharping, and A. L. Gaeta, “Four-wave mixing parametric oscillations in dispersion-compensated high-Q optical microspheres,” Phys. Rev. A 76(4), 043837 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, Y.

K. O. Hill, B. S. Kawasaki, Y. Fujii, and D. C. Johnson, “Efficient sequence‐frequency generation in a parametric fiber‐optic oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36(11), 888 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, S.

Gaeta, A. L.

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 37–40 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. H. Agha, Y. Okawachi, M. A. Foster, J. E. Sharping, and A. L. Gaeta, “Four-wave mixing parametric oscillations in dispersion-compensated high-Q optical microspheres,” Phys. Rev. A 76(4), 043837 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ghotbi, M.

Gondarenko, A.

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 37–40 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Harbold, J. M.

Hill, K. O.

K. O. Hill, B. S. Kawasaki, Y. Fujii, and D. C. Johnson, “Efficient sequence‐frequency generation in a parametric fiber‐optic oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36(11), 888 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

Holzwarth, R.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ilchenko, V. S.

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Strekalov, M. Mohageg, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Low threshold optical oscillations in a whispering gallery mode CaF(2) resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(24), 243905 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ilday, F. Ö.

Johnson, D. C.

K. O. Hill, B. S. Kawasaki, Y. Fujii, and D. C. Johnson, “Efficient sequence‐frequency generation in a parametric fiber‐optic oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36(11), 888 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Kanbara, H.

Kawasaki, B. S.

K. O. Hill, B. S. Kawasaki, Y. Fujii, and D. C. Johnson, “Efficient sequence‐frequency generation in a parametric fiber‐optic oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36(11), 888 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Kippenberg, T. J.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Kerr-nonlinearity optical parametric oscillation in an ultrahigh-Q toroid microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(8), 083904 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knox, W. H.

Kumar, P.

Levy, J. S.

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 37–40 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Q.

Lipson, M.

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 37–40 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Little, B. E.

L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, M. Ferrera, R. Morandotti, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, “CMOS-compatible integrated optical hyper-parametric oscillator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 41–45 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lu, F.

Maleki, L.

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Strekalov, M. Mohageg, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Low threshold optical oscillations in a whispering gallery mode CaF(2) resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(24), 243905 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsko, A. B.

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Strekalov, M. Mohageg, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Low threshold optical oscillations in a whispering gallery mode CaF(2) resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(24), 243905 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mohageg, M.

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Strekalov, M. Mohageg, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Low threshold optical oscillations in a whispering gallery mode CaF(2) resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(24), 243905 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morandotti, R.

L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, M. Ferrera, R. Morandotti, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, “CMOS-compatible integrated optical hyper-parametric oscillator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 41–45 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Moss, D. J.

L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, M. Ferrera, R. Morandotti, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, “CMOS-compatible integrated optical hyper-parametric oscillator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 41–45 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Myers, L. E.

L. E. Myers and W. R. Bosenberg, “Periodically poled lithium niobate and quasi-phase-matched optical parametric oscillators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(10), 1663–1672 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Myers, R. C. Eckardt, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, W. R. Bosenberg, and J. W. Pierce, “Quasi-phase-matched optical parametric oscillators in bulk periodically poled LiNbO3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12(11), 2102–2116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, V. Q.

Okawachi, Y.

I. H. Agha, Y. Okawachi, M. A. Foster, J. E. Sharping, and A. L. Gaeta, “Four-wave mixing parametric oscillations in dispersion-compensated high-Q optical microspheres,” Phys. Rev. A 76(4), 043837 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pasiskevicius, V.

C. Canalias and V. Pasiskevicius, “Mirrorless optical parametric oscillator,” Nat. Photonics 1(8), 459–462 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pierce, J. W.

Razzari, L.

L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, M. Ferrera, R. Morandotti, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, “CMOS-compatible integrated optical hyper-parametric oscillator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 41–45 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rieger, G. W.

G. W. Rieger, K. S. Virk, and J. F. Young, “Nonlinear propagation of ultrafast 1.5 μm pulses in high-index-contrast silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 900–902 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rochette, M.

Samanta, G. K.

Sanghera, J. S.

Savchenkov, A. A.

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Strekalov, M. Mohageg, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Low threshold optical oscillations in a whispering gallery mode CaF(2) resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(24), 243905 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schliesser, A.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharping, J. E.

I. H. Agha, Y. Okawachi, M. A. Foster, J. E. Sharping, and A. L. Gaeta, “Four-wave mixing parametric oscillations in dispersion-compensated high-Q optical microspheres,” Phys. Rev. A 76(4), 043837 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Sharping, M. Fiorentino, P. Kumar, and R. S. Windeler, “Optical parametric oscillator based on four-wave mixing in microstructure fiber,” Opt. Lett. 27(19), 1675–1677 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shaw, L. B.

Shimizugawa, Y.

Spillane, S. M.

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Kerr-nonlinearity optical parametric oscillation in an ultrahigh-Q toroid microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(8), 083904 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strekalov, D.

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Strekalov, M. Mohageg, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Low threshold optical oscillations in a whispering gallery mode CaF(2) resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(24), 243905 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sugimoto, N.

Tanaka, K.

Turner-Foster, A. C.

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 37–40 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K. J.

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Kerr-nonlinearity optical parametric oscillation in an ultrahigh-Q toroid microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(8), 083904 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Virk, K. S.

G. W. Rieger, K. S. Virk, and J. F. Young, “Nonlinear propagation of ultrafast 1.5 μm pulses in high-index-contrast silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 900–902 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wilken, T.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Windeler, R. S.

Wise, F. W.

Young, J. F.

G. W. Rieger, K. S. Virk, and J. F. Young, “Nonlinear propagation of ultrafast 1.5 μm pulses in high-index-contrast silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 900–902 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

K. O. Hill, B. S. Kawasaki, Y. Fujii, and D. C. Johnson, “Efficient sequence‐frequency generation in a parametric fiber‐optic oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36(11), 888 (1980).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Rieger, K. S. Virk, and J. F. Young, “Nonlinear propagation of ultrafast 1.5 μm pulses in high-index-contrast silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 900–902 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Ahmad and M. Rochette, “Photosensitivity at 1550 nm and Bragg grating inscription in As2Se3 chalcogenide microwires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(6), 061109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

L. E. Myers and W. R. Bosenberg, “Periodically poled lithium niobate and quasi-phase-matched optical parametric oscillators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(10), 1663–1672 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Nat. Photonics

C. Canalias and V. Pasiskevicius, “Mirrorless optical parametric oscillator,” Nat. Photonics 1(8), 459–462 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 37–40 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, M. Ferrera, R. Morandotti, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, “CMOS-compatible integrated optical hyper-parametric oscillator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 41–45 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

I. H. Agha, Y. Okawachi, M. A. Foster, J. E. Sharping, and A. L. Gaeta, “Four-wave mixing parametric oscillations in dispersion-compensated high-Q optical microspheres,” Phys. Rev. A 76(4), 043837 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Kerr-nonlinearity optical parametric oscillation in an ultrahigh-Q toroid microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(8), 083904 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Strekalov, M. Mohageg, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Low threshold optical oscillations in a whispering gallery mode CaF(2) resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(24), 243905 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

B. Kuyken, X. Liu, R. M. Osgood, R. Baets, G. Roelkens, and W. M. J. Green, “Widely tunable silicon mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator,” in Proc. IEEE Group IV Photonics, 8th Int. Conf., London, U.K., 338–340 (2011).

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 4th ed. (Academic Press, New York, 2007).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for the OPO operation. BPF: band-pass filter; Att: optical attenuator; PC: fiber polarization controller; FC: fiber coupler; OSA: optical spectrum analyzer; DUT: device-under test; CIR: optical circulator; FBG: silica fiber bragg grating; ODL: optical (tunable) delay line.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Output spectra of the (a) Stokes and (b) anti-Stokes OPO signals for the increasing values of input peak pump power. (Inset) The pulse energy in the Stokes and the anti-Stokes output signals are plotted against the input pump pulse energies and are included as inset in (a) and (b) respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Output of the OPO as observed on an OSA for various delay values on the oscillating Stokes and anti-Stokes signals. The calculated parametric gain spectrum under the experimental conditions is also included.

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