Abstract

Standing wave effect of applied electrical field on optical modulation in multiple-cascaded integration (CI) electroabsorption modulator (EAM) and high-impedance transmission line (HITL) has been investigated in this paper. As modulation frequency is increased to the scale that electrical wavelength is in the order of optical modulator length, multiple electrical reflection and self-interference on impedance-mismatch boundaries becomes significant, leading to strong position-dependent field distribution and degrading modulation bandwidth. Sharp bandwidth roll of electrical-optical (EO) conversion by standing wave has been found experimentally in CI structure, consistent with simulation results. By comparing different segment number and length of CI- structure, larger section number of design can overcome such problem to get more flatten bandwidth response. Such simple CI for 300μm long EAM has been demonstrated with flat EO response of −3dB drop 45GHz and −10dB microwave reflection (up to 65GHz) in 6-segement device, suggesting this scheme design is quite useful for efficient broad band modulation.

© 2012 OSA

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2011 (2)

S. Kanazawa, T. Fujisawa, A. Ohki, H. Ishii, N. Nunoya, Y. Kawaguchi, N. Fujiwara, K. Takahata, R. Iga, F. Kano, and H. Oohashi, “A compact EADFB laser array module for a future 100-Gb/s Ethernet transceiver,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(5), 1191–1197 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Wu, H.-J. Yan, T.-H. Wu, and Y.-J. Chiu, “Velocity-matching enhancement in cascaded integration of EAMs and SOAs using bypass high impedance transmission lines,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(17), 1186–1188 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

2008 (1)

T.-H. Wu, Y.-J. Chiu, and F.-Z. Lin, “High-speed (60 GHz) and Low-voltage-driving electroabsorption modulator using two-consecutive-steps selective-undercut-wet-Etching Waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(14), 1261–1263 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

H. Fukano, Y. Akage, Y. Kawaguchi, Y. Suzaki, K. Kishi, T. Yamanaka, Y. Kondo, and H. Yasaka, “Low chirp operation of 40 Gbit/s electroabsorption modulator integrated DFB laser module with low driving voltage,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1129–1134 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

H.-F. Chou, Y.-J. Chiu, and J. E. Bowers, “Standing-wave enhanced electroabsorption modulator for 40-GHz optical pulse generation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(2), 215–217 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

2001 (2)

J. Lim, M. Shin, J. Kim, J. S. Kim, K. E. Pyun, and S. Hong, “Velocity-mismatching effect on extinction characteristics of traveling wave electroabsorption modulator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(Part 1, No. 4B), 2735–2737 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y.-J. Chiu, V. Kaman, S. Z. Zhang, and J. E. Bowers, “Distributed effects model for cascaded traveling-wave electroabsorption modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(8), 791–793 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

G. L. Li, C. K. Sun, S. A. Pappert, W. X. Chen, and P. K. L. Yu, “Ultrahigh-speed traveling-wave electroabsorption modulator-design and analysis,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(7), 1177–1183 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, N.

Akage, Y.

H. Fukano, Y. Akage, Y. Kawaguchi, Y. Suzaki, K. Kishi, T. Yamanaka, Y. Kondo, and H. Yasaka, “Low chirp operation of 40 Gbit/s electroabsorption modulator integrated DFB laser module with low driving voltage,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1129–1134 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Baun, W.

Ben-Michael, R.

Bowers, J. E.

H.-F. Chou, Y.-J. Chiu, and J. E. Bowers, “Standing-wave enhanced electroabsorption modulator for 40-GHz optical pulse generation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(2), 215–217 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y.-J. Chiu, V. Kaman, S. Z. Zhang, and J. E. Bowers, “Distributed effects model for cascaded traveling-wave electroabsorption modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(8), 791–793 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chacinski, M.

Chang, T. Y.

Chen, W. X.

G. L. Li, C. K. Sun, S. A. Pappert, W. X. Chen, and P. K. L. Yu, “Ultrahigh-speed traveling-wave electroabsorption modulator-design and analysis,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(7), 1177–1183 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chipman, R. A.

Chiu, Y.-J.

J.-P. Wu, H.-J. Yan, T.-H. Wu, and Y.-J. Chiu, “Velocity-matching enhancement in cascaded integration of EAMs and SOAs using bypass high impedance transmission lines,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(17), 1186–1188 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F.-Z. Lin, T.-H. Wu, and Y.-J. Chiu, “Novel monolithic integration scheme for high-speed electroabsorption modulators and semiconductor optical amplifiers using cascaded structure,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10378–10384 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.-H. Wu, Y.-J. Chiu, and F.-Z. Lin, “High-speed (60 GHz) and Low-voltage-driving electroabsorption modulator using two-consecutive-steps selective-undercut-wet-Etching Waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(14), 1261–1263 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-F. Chou, Y.-J. Chiu, and J. E. Bowers, “Standing-wave enhanced electroabsorption modulator for 40-GHz optical pulse generation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(2), 215–217 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y.-J. Chiu, V. Kaman, S. Z. Zhang, and J. E. Bowers, “Distributed effects model for cascaded traveling-wave electroabsorption modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(8), 791–793 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chou, H.-F.

H.-F. Chou, Y.-J. Chiu, and J. E. Bowers, “Standing-wave enhanced electroabsorption modulator for 40-GHz optical pulse generation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(2), 215–217 (2003).
[CrossRef]

DeSalvo, R.

Eriksson, U.

Fejzuli, A.

Fujisawa, T.

S. Kanazawa, T. Fujisawa, A. Ohki, H. Ishii, N. Nunoya, Y. Kawaguchi, N. Fujiwara, K. Takahata, R. Iga, F. Kano, and H. Oohashi, “A compact EADFB laser array module for a future 100-Gb/s Ethernet transceiver,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(5), 1191–1197 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, N.

S. Kanazawa, T. Fujisawa, A. Ohki, H. Ishii, N. Nunoya, Y. Kawaguchi, N. Fujiwara, K. Takahata, R. Iga, F. Kano, and H. Oohashi, “A compact EADFB laser array module for a future 100-Gb/s Ethernet transceiver,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(5), 1191–1197 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fukano, H.

H. Fukano, Y. Akage, Y. Kawaguchi, Y. Suzaki, K. Kishi, T. Yamanaka, Y. Kondo, and H. Yasaka, “Low chirp operation of 40 Gbit/s electroabsorption modulator integrated DFB laser module with low driving voltage,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1129–1134 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hammerfeldt, S.

Hong, S.

J. Lim, M. Shin, J. Kim, J. S. Kim, K. E. Pyun, and S. Hong, “Velocity-mismatching effect on extinction characteristics of traveling wave electroabsorption modulator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(Part 1, No. 4B), 2735–2737 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Iga, R.

S. Kanazawa, T. Fujisawa, A. Ohki, H. Ishii, N. Nunoya, Y. Kawaguchi, N. Fujiwara, K. Takahata, R. Iga, F. Kano, and H. Oohashi, “A compact EADFB laser array module for a future 100-Gb/s Ethernet transceiver,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(5), 1191–1197 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Irmscher, S.

Ishii, H.

S. Kanazawa, T. Fujisawa, A. Ohki, H. Ishii, N. Nunoya, Y. Kawaguchi, N. Fujiwara, K. Takahata, R. Iga, F. Kano, and H. Oohashi, “A compact EADFB laser array module for a future 100-Gb/s Ethernet transceiver,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(5), 1191–1197 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, G.

Itzler, M. A.

Kaman, V.

Y.-J. Chiu, V. Kaman, S. Z. Zhang, and J. E. Bowers, “Distributed effects model for cascaded traveling-wave electroabsorption modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(8), 791–793 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kanazawa, S.

S. Kanazawa, T. Fujisawa, A. Ohki, H. Ishii, N. Nunoya, Y. Kawaguchi, N. Fujiwara, K. Takahata, R. Iga, F. Kano, and H. Oohashi, “A compact EADFB laser array module for a future 100-Gb/s Ethernet transceiver,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(5), 1191–1197 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kano, F.

S. Kanazawa, T. Fujisawa, A. Ohki, H. Ishii, N. Nunoya, Y. Kawaguchi, N. Fujiwara, K. Takahata, R. Iga, F. Kano, and H. Oohashi, “A compact EADFB laser array module for a future 100-Gb/s Ethernet transceiver,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(5), 1191–1197 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kawaguchi, Y.

S. Kanazawa, T. Fujisawa, A. Ohki, H. Ishii, N. Nunoya, Y. Kawaguchi, N. Fujiwara, K. Takahata, R. Iga, F. Kano, and H. Oohashi, “A compact EADFB laser array module for a future 100-Gb/s Ethernet transceiver,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(5), 1191–1197 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Fukano, Y. Akage, Y. Kawaguchi, Y. Suzaki, K. Kishi, T. Yamanaka, Y. Kondo, and H. Yasaka, “Low chirp operation of 40 Gbit/s electroabsorption modulator integrated DFB laser module with low driving voltage,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1129–1134 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kiehne, G. T.

Kim, J.

J. Lim, M. Shin, J. Kim, J. S. Kim, K. E. Pyun, and S. Hong, “Velocity-mismatching effect on extinction characteristics of traveling wave electroabsorption modulator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(Part 1, No. 4B), 2735–2737 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. S.

J. Lim, M. Shin, J. Kim, J. S. Kim, K. E. Pyun, and S. Hong, “Velocity-mismatching effect on extinction characteristics of traveling wave electroabsorption modulator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(Part 1, No. 4B), 2735–2737 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kishi, K.

H. Fukano, Y. Akage, Y. Kawaguchi, Y. Suzaki, K. Kishi, T. Yamanaka, Y. Kondo, and H. Yasaka, “Low chirp operation of 40 Gbit/s electroabsorption modulator integrated DFB laser module with low driving voltage,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1129–1134 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kissa, K. M.

Kondo, Y.

H. Fukano, Y. Akage, Y. Kawaguchi, Y. Suzaki, K. Kishi, T. Yamanaka, Y. Kondo, and H. Yasaka, “Low chirp operation of 40 Gbit/s electroabsorption modulator integrated DFB laser module with low driving voltage,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1129–1134 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kubota, M.

H. Takahashi, T. Shimamura, T. Sugiyama, M. Kubota, and K. Nakamura, “High-power 25-Gb/s electroabsorption modulator integrated with a laser diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(10), 633–635 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lewen, R.

Li, G. L.

G. L. Li, C. K. Sun, S. A. Pappert, W. X. Chen, and P. K. L. Yu, “Ultrahigh-speed traveling-wave electroabsorption modulator-design and analysis,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(7), 1177–1183 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lim, J.

J. Lim, M. Shin, J. Kim, J. S. Kim, K. E. Pyun, and S. Hong, “Velocity-mismatching effect on extinction characteristics of traveling wave electroabsorption modulator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(Part 1, No. 4B), 2735–2737 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lin, F.-Z.

F.-Z. Lin, T.-H. Wu, and Y.-J. Chiu, “Novel monolithic integration scheme for high-speed electroabsorption modulators and semiconductor optical amplifiers using cascaded structure,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10378–10384 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.-H. Wu, Y.-J. Chiu, and F.-Z. Lin, “High-speed (60 GHz) and Low-voltage-driving electroabsorption modulator using two-consecutive-steps selective-undercut-wet-Etching Waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(14), 1261–1263 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lumish, S.

Lunardi, L. M.

Mochida, Y.

Nakamura, K.

H. Takahashi, T. Shimamura, T. Sugiyama, M. Kubota, and K. Nakamura, “High-power 25-Gb/s electroabsorption modulator integrated with a laser diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(10), 633–635 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nunoya, N.

S. Kanazawa, T. Fujisawa, A. Ohki, H. Ishii, N. Nunoya, Y. Kawaguchi, N. Fujiwara, K. Takahata, R. Iga, F. Kano, and H. Oohashi, “A compact EADFB laser array module for a future 100-Gb/s Ethernet transceiver,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(5), 1191–1197 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ohki, A.

S. Kanazawa, T. Fujisawa, A. Ohki, H. Ishii, N. Nunoya, Y. Kawaguchi, N. Fujiwara, K. Takahata, R. Iga, F. Kano, and H. Oohashi, “A compact EADFB laser array module for a future 100-Gb/s Ethernet transceiver,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(5), 1191–1197 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Oohashi, H.

S. Kanazawa, T. Fujisawa, A. Ohki, H. Ishii, N. Nunoya, Y. Kawaguchi, N. Fujiwara, K. Takahata, R. Iga, F. Kano, and H. Oohashi, “A compact EADFB laser array module for a future 100-Gb/s Ethernet transceiver,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(5), 1191–1197 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pappert, S. A.

G. L. Li, C. K. Sun, S. A. Pappert, W. X. Chen, and P. K. L. Yu, “Ultrahigh-speed traveling-wave electroabsorption modulator-design and analysis,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(7), 1177–1183 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pyun, K. E.

J. Lim, M. Shin, J. Kim, J. S. Kim, K. E. Pyun, and S. Hong, “Velocity-mismatching effect on extinction characteristics of traveling wave electroabsorption modulator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(Part 1, No. 4B), 2735–2737 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rollman, J.

Schatz, R.

Schneider, D. F.

Shimamura, T.

H. Takahashi, T. Shimamura, T. Sugiyama, M. Kubota, and K. Nakamura, “High-power 25-Gb/s electroabsorption modulator integrated with a laser diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(10), 633–635 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shin, M.

J. Lim, M. Shin, J. Kim, J. S. Kim, K. E. Pyun, and S. Hong, “Velocity-mismatching effect on extinction characteristics of traveling wave electroabsorption modulator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(Part 1, No. 4B), 2735–2737 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Steinbach, A. H.

Stoltz, B.

Sugiyama, T.

H. Takahashi, T. Shimamura, T. Sugiyama, M. Kubota, and K. Nakamura, “High-power 25-Gb/s electroabsorption modulator integrated with a laser diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(10), 633–635 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C. K.

G. L. Li, C. K. Sun, S. A. Pappert, W. X. Chen, and P. K. L. Yu, “Ultrahigh-speed traveling-wave electroabsorption modulator-design and analysis,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(7), 1177–1183 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Suzaki, Y.

H. Fukano, Y. Akage, Y. Kawaguchi, Y. Suzaki, K. Kishi, T. Yamanaka, Y. Kondo, and H. Yasaka, “Low chirp operation of 40 Gbit/s electroabsorption modulator integrated DFB laser module with low driving voltage,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1129–1134 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, H.

H. Takahashi, T. Shimamura, T. Sugiyama, M. Kubota, and K. Nakamura, “High-power 25-Gb/s electroabsorption modulator integrated with a laser diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(10), 633–635 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Takahata, K.

S. Kanazawa, T. Fujisawa, A. Ohki, H. Ishii, N. Nunoya, Y. Kawaguchi, N. Fujiwara, K. Takahata, R. Iga, F. Kano, and H. Oohashi, “A compact EADFB laser array module for a future 100-Gb/s Ethernet transceiver,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(5), 1191–1197 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Thylen, L.

Wall, T.

Westergren, U.

Wilson, A. G.

Wu, J.-P.

J.-P. Wu, H.-J. Yan, T.-H. Wu, and Y.-J. Chiu, “Velocity-matching enhancement in cascaded integration of EAMs and SOAs using bypass high impedance transmission lines,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(17), 1186–1188 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, T.-H.

J.-P. Wu, H.-J. Yan, T.-H. Wu, and Y.-J. Chiu, “Velocity-matching enhancement in cascaded integration of EAMs and SOAs using bypass high impedance transmission lines,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(17), 1186–1188 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F.-Z. Lin, T.-H. Wu, and Y.-J. Chiu, “Novel monolithic integration scheme for high-speed electroabsorption modulators and semiconductor optical amplifiers using cascaded structure,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10378–10384 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.-H. Wu, Y.-J. Chiu, and F.-Z. Lin, “High-speed (60 GHz) and Low-voltage-driving electroabsorption modulator using two-consecutive-steps selective-undercut-wet-Etching Waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(14), 1261–1263 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, N.

Yamanaka, T.

H. Fukano, Y. Akage, Y. Kawaguchi, Y. Suzaki, K. Kishi, T. Yamanaka, Y. Kondo, and H. Yasaka, “Low chirp operation of 40 Gbit/s electroabsorption modulator integrated DFB laser module with low driving voltage,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1129–1134 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yan, H.-J.

J.-P. Wu, H.-J. Yan, T.-H. Wu, and Y.-J. Chiu, “Velocity-matching enhancement in cascaded integration of EAMs and SOAs using bypass high impedance transmission lines,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(17), 1186–1188 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yasaka, H.

H. Fukano, Y. Akage, Y. Kawaguchi, Y. Suzaki, K. Kishi, T. Yamanaka, Y. Kondo, and H. Yasaka, “Low chirp operation of 40 Gbit/s electroabsorption modulator integrated DFB laser module with low driving voltage,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1129–1134 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yu, P. K. L.

G. L. Li, C. K. Sun, S. A. Pappert, W. X. Chen, and P. K. L. Yu, “Ultrahigh-speed traveling-wave electroabsorption modulator-design and analysis,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(7), 1177–1183 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S. Z.

Y.-J. Chiu, V. Kaman, S. Z. Zhang, and J. E. Bowers, “Distributed effects model for cascaded traveling-wave electroabsorption modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(8), 791–793 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

S. Kanazawa, T. Fujisawa, A. Ohki, H. Ishii, N. Nunoya, Y. Kawaguchi, N. Fujiwara, K. Takahata, R. Iga, F. Kano, and H. Oohashi, “A compact EADFB laser array module for a future 100-Gb/s Ethernet transceiver,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(5), 1191–1197 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Fukano, Y. Akage, Y. Kawaguchi, Y. Suzaki, K. Kishi, T. Yamanaka, Y. Kondo, and H. Yasaka, “Low chirp operation of 40 Gbit/s electroabsorption modulator integrated DFB laser module with low driving voltage,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1129–1134 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (5)

H. Takahashi, T. Shimamura, T. Sugiyama, M. Kubota, and K. Nakamura, “High-power 25-Gb/s electroabsorption modulator integrated with a laser diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(10), 633–635 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Wu, H.-J. Yan, T.-H. Wu, and Y.-J. Chiu, “Velocity-matching enhancement in cascaded integration of EAMs and SOAs using bypass high impedance transmission lines,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(17), 1186–1188 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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Opt. Express (1)

Other (3)

T. Uesugi, T. Hamaguchi, S. Nanjou, K. Shibuya, K. Yamagishi, G. Sakaino, T. Takiguchi, S. Shirai, K. Mochizuki, H. Aruga, and A. Sugitatsu, “25 Gbps direct modulation of a III-V semiconductor laser integrated on a silicon waveguide platform,” OECC, 462–463 (2011).

O. Ishida and M. Teshima, “40 Gb/s and 100 Gb/s Ethernet transport technologies and applications,” OECC, 397–398 (2011).

J.-P. Wu, H.-J. Yan, T.-H. Wu, J.-J. Chen, and Y.-J. Chiu, “Suppressing standing-wave property in cascaded integration of EAMs and high impedance transmission lines,” IEEE PHO, 129–130 (2011).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) The schematic view of Cascaded-Integration of EAM and SOA with HITL. (b) The top-view photographs of 3 segments and 6 segment CI EAM-SOA with by-pass HITL.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Field distribution (voltage) following with the microwave propagation trace. (a) single segment EAM. (b) 3 segments EAM with 600µm HITL. (c) 3 segments EAM with 800µm HITL. (d) 3 segments EAM with 1200µm HITL. (e) 4 segments EAM with 1200µm HITL. (f) 6 segments EAM with 1200µm HITL.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The experiment result of normalized optical transmission with different lengths of EAM.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The experiment results and fitting curves for the 3segments EAM with 800μm, 1000μm, and 1200μm HITL. (a) microwave reflection. (b) microwave transmission. (c) EO response.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The experiment results and fitting curves for the 1200μm HITL with 3, 4, and 6 segments EAM. (a) microwave reflection. (b) microwave transmission. (c) EO response.

Equations (1)

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P opt,out = P opt,in C 2 exp( α 0 l 0 Γ α b l 0 )exp[ Γ d α b d V b EAM V ac (z,t)dz ]...,

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