Abstract

We report the first Brillouin measurement of the human eye in vivo. We constructed a Brillouin optical scanner safe for human use by employing continuous-wave laser light at 780 nm at a low power of 0.7 mW. With a single scan along the optic axis of the eye, the axial profile of Brillouin frequency shift was obtained with a pixel acquisition time of 0.4 s and axial resolution of about 60 μm, showing the depth-dependent biomechanical properties in the cornea and lens.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. G. Scarcelli and S. H. Yun, “Confocal Brillouin microscopy for three-dimensional mechanical imaging,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 39–43 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. X. Bao, M. DeMerchant, A. Brown, and T. Bremner, “Tensile and compressive strain measurement in the lab and field with the distributed Brillouin scattering sensor,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19(11), 1698–1704 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. D. Hickman, J. M. Harding, M. Carnes, A. Pressman, G. W. Kattawar, and E. S. Fry, “Aircraft laser sensing of sound velocity in water: Brillouin scattering,” Remote Sens. Environ. 36(3), 165–178 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Randall and J. M. Vaughan, “The measurement and interpretation of Brillouin scattering in the lens of the eye,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 214(1197), 449–470 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. M. Vaughan and J. T. Randall, “Brillouin scattering, density and elastic properties of the lens and cornea of the eye,” Nature 284(5755), 489–491 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. G. Scarcelli and S. H. Yun, “Multistage VIPA etalons for high-extinction parallel Brillouin spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10913–10922 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. Reiß, G. Burau, O. Stachs, R. Guthoff, and H. Stolz, “Spatially resolved Brillouin spectroscopy to determine the rheological properties of the eye lens,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(8), 2144–2159 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. G. Scarcelli, P. Kim, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo measurement of age-related stiffening in the crystalline lens by Brillouin optical microscopy,” Biophys. J. 101(6), 1539–1545 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. T. Bailey, M. D. Twa, J. C. Gump, M. Venkiteshwar, M. A. Bullimore, and R. Sooryakumar, “Light-scattering study of the normal human eye lens: elastic properties and age dependence,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 57(12), 2910–2917 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. G. Scarcelli, R. Pineda, and S. H. Yun, “Brillouin optical microscopy for corneal biomechanics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(1), 185–190 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. C. R. Ethier, M. Johnson, and J. Ruberti, “Ocular biomechanics and biotransport,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 6(1), 249–273 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. G. Scarcelli, P. Kim, and S. H. Yun, “Cross-axis cascading of spectral dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 33(24), 2979–2981 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. D. Sliney, D. Aron-Rosa, F. DeLori, F. Fankhauser, R. Landry, M. Mainster, J. Marshall, B. Rassow, B. Stuck, S. Trokel, T. M. West, M. Wolffe, and International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, “Adjustment of guidelines for exposure of the eye to optical radiation from ocular instruments: statement from a task group of the international commission on non-ionizing radiation Protection (ICNIRP),” Appl. Opt. 44(11), 2162–2176 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. T. Okuno, M. Kojima, I. Hata, and D. H. Sliney, “Temperature rises in the crystalline lens from focal irradiation,” Health Phys. 88(3), 214–222 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. F. C. Delori, R. H. Webb, D. H. Sliney, and American National Standards Institute, “Maximum permissible exposures for ocular safety (ANSI 2000), with emphasis on ophthalmic devices,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(5), 1250–1265 (2007).
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  16. C. E. Jones, D. A. Atchison, R. Meder, and J. M. Pope, “Refractive index distribution and optical properties of the isolated human lens measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI),” Vision Res. 45(18), 2352–2366 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. areA. de Castro, D. Siedlecki, D. Borja, S. Uhlhorn, J.-M. Parel, F. Manns, and S. Marcos, “Age-dependent variation of the gradient index profile in human crystalline lenses,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(19-20), 1781–1787 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Kohlhaas, E. Spoerl, T. Schilde, G. Unger, C. Wittig, and L. E. Pillunat, “Biomechanical evidence of the distribution of cross-links in corneas treated with riboflavin and ultraviolet A light,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 32(2), 279–283 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. J. B. Randleman, D. G. Dawson, H. E. Grossniklaus, B. E. McCarey, and H. F. Edelhauser, “Depth-dependent cohesive tensile strength in human donor corneas: implications for refractive surgery,” J. Refract. Surg. 24(1), S85–S89 (2008).
    [PubMed]
  20. C. L. De Korte, A. F. W. Van Der Steen, J. M. Thijssen, J. J. Duindam, C. Otto, and G. J. Puppels, “Relation between local acoustic parameters and protein distribution in human and porcine eye lenses,” Exp. Eye Res. 59(5), 617–627 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. S. J. McGinty and R. J. W. Truscott, “Presbyopia: the first stage of nuclear cataract?” Ophthalmic Res. 38(3), 137–148 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. C. Roberts, “The cornea is not a piece of plastic,” J. Refract. Surg. 16(4), 407–413 (2000).
    [PubMed]
  23. D. A. Luce, “Determining in vivo biomechanical properties of the cornea with an ocular response analyzer,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 31(1), 156–162 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. B. M. Fontes, R. Ambrósio, G. C. Velarde, and W. Nosé, “Ocular response analyzer measurements in keratoconus with normal central corneal thickness compared with matched normal control eyes,” J. Refract. Surg. 27(3), 209–215 (2011).
    [PubMed]
  25. A. Glasser and M. C. W. Campbell, “Biometric, optical and physical changes in the isolated human crystalline lens with age in relation to presbyopia,” Vision Res. 39(11), 1991–2015 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

G. Scarcelli, R. Pineda, and S. H. Yun, “Brillouin optical microscopy for corneal biomechanics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(1), 185–190 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (5)

areA. de Castro, D. Siedlecki, D. Borja, S. Uhlhorn, J.-M. Parel, F. Manns, and S. Marcos, “Age-dependent variation of the gradient index profile in human crystalline lenses,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(19-20), 1781–1787 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Scarcelli and S. H. Yun, “Multistage VIPA etalons for high-extinction parallel Brillouin spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10913–10922 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Reiß, G. Burau, O. Stachs, R. Guthoff, and H. Stolz, “Spatially resolved Brillouin spectroscopy to determine the rheological properties of the eye lens,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(8), 2144–2159 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Scarcelli, P. Kim, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo measurement of age-related stiffening in the crystalline lens by Brillouin optical microscopy,” Biophys. J. 101(6), 1539–1545 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. M. Fontes, R. Ambrósio, G. C. Velarde, and W. Nosé, “Ocular response analyzer measurements in keratoconus with normal central corneal thickness compared with matched normal control eyes,” J. Refract. Surg. 27(3), 209–215 (2011).
[PubMed]

2010 (1)

S. T. Bailey, M. D. Twa, J. C. Gump, M. Venkiteshwar, M. A. Bullimore, and R. Sooryakumar, “Light-scattering study of the normal human eye lens: elastic properties and age dependence,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 57(12), 2910–2917 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

G. Scarcelli and S. H. Yun, “Confocal Brillouin microscopy for three-dimensional mechanical imaging,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 39–43 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Scarcelli, P. Kim, and S. H. Yun, “Cross-axis cascading of spectral dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 33(24), 2979–2981 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Randleman, D. G. Dawson, H. E. Grossniklaus, B. E. McCarey, and H. F. Edelhauser, “Depth-dependent cohesive tensile strength in human donor corneas: implications for refractive surgery,” J. Refract. Surg. 24(1), S85–S89 (2008).
[PubMed]

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

M. Kohlhaas, E. Spoerl, T. Schilde, G. Unger, C. Wittig, and L. E. Pillunat, “Biomechanical evidence of the distribution of cross-links in corneas treated with riboflavin and ultraviolet A light,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 32(2), 279–283 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. McGinty and R. J. W. Truscott, “Presbyopia: the first stage of nuclear cataract?” Ophthalmic Res. 38(3), 137–148 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

D. A. Luce, “Determining in vivo biomechanical properties of the cornea with an ocular response analyzer,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 31(1), 156–162 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Jones, D. A. Atchison, R. Meder, and J. M. Pope, “Refractive index distribution and optical properties of the isolated human lens measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI),” Vision Res. 45(18), 2352–2366 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Sliney, D. Aron-Rosa, F. DeLori, F. Fankhauser, R. Landry, M. Mainster, J. Marshall, B. Rassow, B. Stuck, S. Trokel, T. M. West, M. Wolffe, and International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, “Adjustment of guidelines for exposure of the eye to optical radiation from ocular instruments: statement from a task group of the international commission on non-ionizing radiation Protection (ICNIRP),” Appl. Opt. 44(11), 2162–2176 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Okuno, M. Kojima, I. Hata, and D. H. Sliney, “Temperature rises in the crystalline lens from focal irradiation,” Health Phys. 88(3), 214–222 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

C. R. Ethier, M. Johnson, and J. Ruberti, “Ocular biomechanics and biotransport,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 6(1), 249–273 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

C. Roberts, “The cornea is not a piece of plastic,” J. Refract. Surg. 16(4), 407–413 (2000).
[PubMed]

1999 (1)

A. Glasser and M. C. W. Campbell, “Biometric, optical and physical changes in the isolated human crystalline lens with age in relation to presbyopia,” Vision Res. 39(11), 1991–2015 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

C. L. De Korte, A. F. W. Van Der Steen, J. M. Thijssen, J. J. Duindam, C. Otto, and G. J. Puppels, “Relation between local acoustic parameters and protein distribution in human and porcine eye lenses,” Exp. Eye Res. 59(5), 617–627 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

G. D. Hickman, J. M. Harding, M. Carnes, A. Pressman, G. W. Kattawar, and E. S. Fry, “Aircraft laser sensing of sound velocity in water: Brillouin scattering,” Remote Sens. Environ. 36(3), 165–178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

J. Randall and J. M. Vaughan, “The measurement and interpretation of Brillouin scattering in the lens of the eye,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 214(1197), 449–470 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (1)

J. M. Vaughan and J. T. Randall, “Brillouin scattering, density and elastic properties of the lens and cornea of the eye,” Nature 284(5755), 489–491 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ambrósio, R.

B. M. Fontes, R. Ambrósio, G. C. Velarde, and W. Nosé, “Ocular response analyzer measurements in keratoconus with normal central corneal thickness compared with matched normal control eyes,” J. Refract. Surg. 27(3), 209–215 (2011).
[PubMed]

Aron-Rosa, D.

Atchison, D. A.

C. E. Jones, D. A. Atchison, R. Meder, and J. M. Pope, “Refractive index distribution and optical properties of the isolated human lens measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI),” Vision Res. 45(18), 2352–2366 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bailey, S. T.

S. T. Bailey, M. D. Twa, J. C. Gump, M. Venkiteshwar, M. A. Bullimore, and R. Sooryakumar, “Light-scattering study of the normal human eye lens: elastic properties and age dependence,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 57(12), 2910–2917 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bao, X.

Borja, D.

areA. de Castro, D. Siedlecki, D. Borja, S. Uhlhorn, J.-M. Parel, F. Manns, and S. Marcos, “Age-dependent variation of the gradient index profile in human crystalline lenses,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(19-20), 1781–1787 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bremner, T.

Brown, A.

Bullimore, M. A.

S. T. Bailey, M. D. Twa, J. C. Gump, M. Venkiteshwar, M. A. Bullimore, and R. Sooryakumar, “Light-scattering study of the normal human eye lens: elastic properties and age dependence,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 57(12), 2910–2917 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burau, G.

Campbell, M. C. W.

A. Glasser and M. C. W. Campbell, “Biometric, optical and physical changes in the isolated human crystalline lens with age in relation to presbyopia,” Vision Res. 39(11), 1991–2015 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carnes, M.

G. D. Hickman, J. M. Harding, M. Carnes, A. Pressman, G. W. Kattawar, and E. S. Fry, “Aircraft laser sensing of sound velocity in water: Brillouin scattering,” Remote Sens. Environ. 36(3), 165–178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dawson, D. G.

J. B. Randleman, D. G. Dawson, H. E. Grossniklaus, B. E. McCarey, and H. F. Edelhauser, “Depth-dependent cohesive tensile strength in human donor corneas: implications for refractive surgery,” J. Refract. Surg. 24(1), S85–S89 (2008).
[PubMed]

de Castro, A.

areA. de Castro, D. Siedlecki, D. Borja, S. Uhlhorn, J.-M. Parel, F. Manns, and S. Marcos, “Age-dependent variation of the gradient index profile in human crystalline lenses,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(19-20), 1781–1787 (2011).
[CrossRef]

De Korte, C. L.

C. L. De Korte, A. F. W. Van Der Steen, J. M. Thijssen, J. J. Duindam, C. Otto, and G. J. Puppels, “Relation between local acoustic parameters and protein distribution in human and porcine eye lenses,” Exp. Eye Res. 59(5), 617–627 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DeLori, F.

Delori, F. C.

DeMerchant, M.

Duindam, J. J.

C. L. De Korte, A. F. W. Van Der Steen, J. M. Thijssen, J. J. Duindam, C. Otto, and G. J. Puppels, “Relation between local acoustic parameters and protein distribution in human and porcine eye lenses,” Exp. Eye Res. 59(5), 617–627 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Edelhauser, H. F.

J. B. Randleman, D. G. Dawson, H. E. Grossniklaus, B. E. McCarey, and H. F. Edelhauser, “Depth-dependent cohesive tensile strength in human donor corneas: implications for refractive surgery,” J. Refract. Surg. 24(1), S85–S89 (2008).
[PubMed]

Ethier, C. R.

C. R. Ethier, M. Johnson, and J. Ruberti, “Ocular biomechanics and biotransport,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 6(1), 249–273 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fankhauser, F.

Fontes, B. M.

B. M. Fontes, R. Ambrósio, G. C. Velarde, and W. Nosé, “Ocular response analyzer measurements in keratoconus with normal central corneal thickness compared with matched normal control eyes,” J. Refract. Surg. 27(3), 209–215 (2011).
[PubMed]

Fry, E. S.

G. D. Hickman, J. M. Harding, M. Carnes, A. Pressman, G. W. Kattawar, and E. S. Fry, “Aircraft laser sensing of sound velocity in water: Brillouin scattering,” Remote Sens. Environ. 36(3), 165–178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Glasser, A.

A. Glasser and M. C. W. Campbell, “Biometric, optical and physical changes in the isolated human crystalline lens with age in relation to presbyopia,” Vision Res. 39(11), 1991–2015 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grossniklaus, H. E.

J. B. Randleman, D. G. Dawson, H. E. Grossniklaus, B. E. McCarey, and H. F. Edelhauser, “Depth-dependent cohesive tensile strength in human donor corneas: implications for refractive surgery,” J. Refract. Surg. 24(1), S85–S89 (2008).
[PubMed]

Gump, J. C.

S. T. Bailey, M. D. Twa, J. C. Gump, M. Venkiteshwar, M. A. Bullimore, and R. Sooryakumar, “Light-scattering study of the normal human eye lens: elastic properties and age dependence,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 57(12), 2910–2917 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guthoff, R.

Harding, J. M.

G. D. Hickman, J. M. Harding, M. Carnes, A. Pressman, G. W. Kattawar, and E. S. Fry, “Aircraft laser sensing of sound velocity in water: Brillouin scattering,” Remote Sens. Environ. 36(3), 165–178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hata, I.

T. Okuno, M. Kojima, I. Hata, and D. H. Sliney, “Temperature rises in the crystalline lens from focal irradiation,” Health Phys. 88(3), 214–222 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hickman, G. D.

G. D. Hickman, J. M. Harding, M. Carnes, A. Pressman, G. W. Kattawar, and E. S. Fry, “Aircraft laser sensing of sound velocity in water: Brillouin scattering,” Remote Sens. Environ. 36(3), 165–178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, M.

C. R. Ethier, M. Johnson, and J. Ruberti, “Ocular biomechanics and biotransport,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 6(1), 249–273 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, C. E.

C. E. Jones, D. A. Atchison, R. Meder, and J. M. Pope, “Refractive index distribution and optical properties of the isolated human lens measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI),” Vision Res. 45(18), 2352–2366 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kattawar, G. W.

G. D. Hickman, J. M. Harding, M. Carnes, A. Pressman, G. W. Kattawar, and E. S. Fry, “Aircraft laser sensing of sound velocity in water: Brillouin scattering,” Remote Sens. Environ. 36(3), 165–178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kim, P.

G. Scarcelli, P. Kim, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo measurement of age-related stiffening in the crystalline lens by Brillouin optical microscopy,” Biophys. J. 101(6), 1539–1545 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Scarcelli, P. Kim, and S. H. Yun, “Cross-axis cascading of spectral dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 33(24), 2979–2981 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kohlhaas, M.

M. Kohlhaas, E. Spoerl, T. Schilde, G. Unger, C. Wittig, and L. E. Pillunat, “Biomechanical evidence of the distribution of cross-links in corneas treated with riboflavin and ultraviolet A light,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 32(2), 279–283 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kojima, M.

T. Okuno, M. Kojima, I. Hata, and D. H. Sliney, “Temperature rises in the crystalline lens from focal irradiation,” Health Phys. 88(3), 214–222 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Landry, R.

Luce, D. A.

D. A. Luce, “Determining in vivo biomechanical properties of the cornea with an ocular response analyzer,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 31(1), 156–162 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mainster, M.

Manns, F.

areA. de Castro, D. Siedlecki, D. Borja, S. Uhlhorn, J.-M. Parel, F. Manns, and S. Marcos, “Age-dependent variation of the gradient index profile in human crystalline lenses,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(19-20), 1781–1787 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Marcos, S.

areA. de Castro, D. Siedlecki, D. Borja, S. Uhlhorn, J.-M. Parel, F. Manns, and S. Marcos, “Age-dependent variation of the gradient index profile in human crystalline lenses,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(19-20), 1781–1787 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Marshall, J.

McCarey, B. E.

J. B. Randleman, D. G. Dawson, H. E. Grossniklaus, B. E. McCarey, and H. F. Edelhauser, “Depth-dependent cohesive tensile strength in human donor corneas: implications for refractive surgery,” J. Refract. Surg. 24(1), S85–S89 (2008).
[PubMed]

McGinty, S. J.

S. J. McGinty and R. J. W. Truscott, “Presbyopia: the first stage of nuclear cataract?” Ophthalmic Res. 38(3), 137–148 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meder, R.

C. E. Jones, D. A. Atchison, R. Meder, and J. M. Pope, “Refractive index distribution and optical properties of the isolated human lens measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI),” Vision Res. 45(18), 2352–2366 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nosé, W.

B. M. Fontes, R. Ambrósio, G. C. Velarde, and W. Nosé, “Ocular response analyzer measurements in keratoconus with normal central corneal thickness compared with matched normal control eyes,” J. Refract. Surg. 27(3), 209–215 (2011).
[PubMed]

Okuno, T.

T. Okuno, M. Kojima, I. Hata, and D. H. Sliney, “Temperature rises in the crystalline lens from focal irradiation,” Health Phys. 88(3), 214–222 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Otto, C.

C. L. De Korte, A. F. W. Van Der Steen, J. M. Thijssen, J. J. Duindam, C. Otto, and G. J. Puppels, “Relation between local acoustic parameters and protein distribution in human and porcine eye lenses,” Exp. Eye Res. 59(5), 617–627 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parel, J.-M.

areA. de Castro, D. Siedlecki, D. Borja, S. Uhlhorn, J.-M. Parel, F. Manns, and S. Marcos, “Age-dependent variation of the gradient index profile in human crystalline lenses,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(19-20), 1781–1787 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pillunat, L. E.

M. Kohlhaas, E. Spoerl, T. Schilde, G. Unger, C. Wittig, and L. E. Pillunat, “Biomechanical evidence of the distribution of cross-links in corneas treated with riboflavin and ultraviolet A light,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 32(2), 279–283 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pineda, R.

G. Scarcelli, R. Pineda, and S. H. Yun, “Brillouin optical microscopy for corneal biomechanics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(1), 185–190 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pope, J. M.

C. E. Jones, D. A. Atchison, R. Meder, and J. M. Pope, “Refractive index distribution and optical properties of the isolated human lens measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI),” Vision Res. 45(18), 2352–2366 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pressman, A.

G. D. Hickman, J. M. Harding, M. Carnes, A. Pressman, G. W. Kattawar, and E. S. Fry, “Aircraft laser sensing of sound velocity in water: Brillouin scattering,” Remote Sens. Environ. 36(3), 165–178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Puppels, G. J.

C. L. De Korte, A. F. W. Van Der Steen, J. M. Thijssen, J. J. Duindam, C. Otto, and G. J. Puppels, “Relation between local acoustic parameters and protein distribution in human and porcine eye lenses,” Exp. Eye Res. 59(5), 617–627 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Randall, J.

J. Randall and J. M. Vaughan, “The measurement and interpretation of Brillouin scattering in the lens of the eye,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 214(1197), 449–470 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Randall, J. T.

J. M. Vaughan and J. T. Randall, “Brillouin scattering, density and elastic properties of the lens and cornea of the eye,” Nature 284(5755), 489–491 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Randleman, J. B.

J. B. Randleman, D. G. Dawson, H. E. Grossniklaus, B. E. McCarey, and H. F. Edelhauser, “Depth-dependent cohesive tensile strength in human donor corneas: implications for refractive surgery,” J. Refract. Surg. 24(1), S85–S89 (2008).
[PubMed]

Rassow, B.

Reiß, S.

Roberts, C.

C. Roberts, “The cornea is not a piece of plastic,” J. Refract. Surg. 16(4), 407–413 (2000).
[PubMed]

Ruberti, J.

C. R. Ethier, M. Johnson, and J. Ruberti, “Ocular biomechanics and biotransport,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 6(1), 249–273 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scarcelli, G.

G. Scarcelli, R. Pineda, and S. H. Yun, “Brillouin optical microscopy for corneal biomechanics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(1), 185–190 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Scarcelli, P. Kim, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo measurement of age-related stiffening in the crystalline lens by Brillouin optical microscopy,” Biophys. J. 101(6), 1539–1545 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Scarcelli and S. H. Yun, “Multistage VIPA etalons for high-extinction parallel Brillouin spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10913–10922 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Scarcelli and S. H. Yun, “Confocal Brillouin microscopy for three-dimensional mechanical imaging,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 39–43 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Scarcelli, P. Kim, and S. H. Yun, “Cross-axis cascading of spectral dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 33(24), 2979–2981 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schilde, T.

M. Kohlhaas, E. Spoerl, T. Schilde, G. Unger, C. Wittig, and L. E. Pillunat, “Biomechanical evidence of the distribution of cross-links in corneas treated with riboflavin and ultraviolet A light,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 32(2), 279–283 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siedlecki, D.

areA. de Castro, D. Siedlecki, D. Borja, S. Uhlhorn, J.-M. Parel, F. Manns, and S. Marcos, “Age-dependent variation of the gradient index profile in human crystalline lenses,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(19-20), 1781–1787 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sliney, D.

Sliney, D. H.

Sooryakumar, R.

S. T. Bailey, M. D. Twa, J. C. Gump, M. Venkiteshwar, M. A. Bullimore, and R. Sooryakumar, “Light-scattering study of the normal human eye lens: elastic properties and age dependence,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 57(12), 2910–2917 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spoerl, E.

M. Kohlhaas, E. Spoerl, T. Schilde, G. Unger, C. Wittig, and L. E. Pillunat, “Biomechanical evidence of the distribution of cross-links in corneas treated with riboflavin and ultraviolet A light,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 32(2), 279–283 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stachs, O.

Stolz, H.

Stuck, B.

Thijssen, J. M.

C. L. De Korte, A. F. W. Van Der Steen, J. M. Thijssen, J. J. Duindam, C. Otto, and G. J. Puppels, “Relation between local acoustic parameters and protein distribution in human and porcine eye lenses,” Exp. Eye Res. 59(5), 617–627 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trokel, S.

Truscott, R. J. W.

S. J. McGinty and R. J. W. Truscott, “Presbyopia: the first stage of nuclear cataract?” Ophthalmic Res. 38(3), 137–148 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Twa, M. D.

S. T. Bailey, M. D. Twa, J. C. Gump, M. Venkiteshwar, M. A. Bullimore, and R. Sooryakumar, “Light-scattering study of the normal human eye lens: elastic properties and age dependence,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 57(12), 2910–2917 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uhlhorn, S.

areA. de Castro, D. Siedlecki, D. Borja, S. Uhlhorn, J.-M. Parel, F. Manns, and S. Marcos, “Age-dependent variation of the gradient index profile in human crystalline lenses,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(19-20), 1781–1787 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Unger, G.

M. Kohlhaas, E. Spoerl, T. Schilde, G. Unger, C. Wittig, and L. E. Pillunat, “Biomechanical evidence of the distribution of cross-links in corneas treated with riboflavin and ultraviolet A light,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 32(2), 279–283 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Der Steen, A. F. W.

C. L. De Korte, A. F. W. Van Der Steen, J. M. Thijssen, J. J. Duindam, C. Otto, and G. J. Puppels, “Relation between local acoustic parameters and protein distribution in human and porcine eye lenses,” Exp. Eye Res. 59(5), 617–627 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vaughan, J. M.

J. Randall and J. M. Vaughan, “The measurement and interpretation of Brillouin scattering in the lens of the eye,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 214(1197), 449–470 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Vaughan and J. T. Randall, “Brillouin scattering, density and elastic properties of the lens and cornea of the eye,” Nature 284(5755), 489–491 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Velarde, G. C.

B. M. Fontes, R. Ambrósio, G. C. Velarde, and W. Nosé, “Ocular response analyzer measurements in keratoconus with normal central corneal thickness compared with matched normal control eyes,” J. Refract. Surg. 27(3), 209–215 (2011).
[PubMed]

Venkiteshwar, M.

S. T. Bailey, M. D. Twa, J. C. Gump, M. Venkiteshwar, M. A. Bullimore, and R. Sooryakumar, “Light-scattering study of the normal human eye lens: elastic properties and age dependence,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 57(12), 2910–2917 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, R. H.

West, T. M.

Wittig, C.

M. Kohlhaas, E. Spoerl, T. Schilde, G. Unger, C. Wittig, and L. E. Pillunat, “Biomechanical evidence of the distribution of cross-links in corneas treated with riboflavin and ultraviolet A light,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 32(2), 279–283 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolffe, M.

Yun, S. H.

G. Scarcelli, R. Pineda, and S. H. Yun, “Brillouin optical microscopy for corneal biomechanics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(1), 185–190 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Scarcelli, P. Kim, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo measurement of age-related stiffening in the crystalline lens by Brillouin optical microscopy,” Biophys. J. 101(6), 1539–1545 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Scarcelli and S. H. Yun, “Multistage VIPA etalons for high-extinction parallel Brillouin spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10913–10922 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Scarcelli and S. H. Yun, “Confocal Brillouin microscopy for three-dimensional mechanical imaging,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 39–43 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Scarcelli, P. Kim, and S. H. Yun, “Cross-axis cascading of spectral dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 33(24), 2979–2981 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (1)

C. R. Ethier, M. Johnson, and J. Ruberti, “Ocular biomechanics and biotransport,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 6(1), 249–273 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Biophys. J. (1)

G. Scarcelli, P. Kim, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo measurement of age-related stiffening in the crystalline lens by Brillouin optical microscopy,” Biophys. J. 101(6), 1539–1545 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Exp. Eye Res. (1)

C. L. De Korte, A. F. W. Van Der Steen, J. M. Thijssen, J. J. Duindam, C. Otto, and G. J. Puppels, “Relation between local acoustic parameters and protein distribution in human and porcine eye lenses,” Exp. Eye Res. 59(5), 617–627 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Health Phys. (1)

T. Okuno, M. Kojima, I. Hata, and D. H. Sliney, “Temperature rises in the crystalline lens from focal irradiation,” Health Phys. 88(3), 214–222 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

S. T. Bailey, M. D. Twa, J. C. Gump, M. Venkiteshwar, M. A. Bullimore, and R. Sooryakumar, “Light-scattering study of the normal human eye lens: elastic properties and age dependence,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 57(12), 2910–2917 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1)

G. Scarcelli, R. Pineda, and S. H. Yun, “Brillouin optical microscopy for corneal biomechanics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(1), 185–190 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Cataract Refract. Surg. (2)

M. Kohlhaas, E. Spoerl, T. Schilde, G. Unger, C. Wittig, and L. E. Pillunat, “Biomechanical evidence of the distribution of cross-links in corneas treated with riboflavin and ultraviolet A light,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 32(2), 279–283 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Luce, “Determining in vivo biomechanical properties of the cornea with an ocular response analyzer,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 31(1), 156–162 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

areA. de Castro, D. Siedlecki, D. Borja, S. Uhlhorn, J.-M. Parel, F. Manns, and S. Marcos, “Age-dependent variation of the gradient index profile in human crystalline lenses,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(19-20), 1781–1787 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Refract. Surg. (3)

C. Roberts, “The cornea is not a piece of plastic,” J. Refract. Surg. 16(4), 407–413 (2000).
[PubMed]

B. M. Fontes, R. Ambrósio, G. C. Velarde, and W. Nosé, “Ocular response analyzer measurements in keratoconus with normal central corneal thickness compared with matched normal control eyes,” J. Refract. Surg. 27(3), 209–215 (2011).
[PubMed]

J. B. Randleman, D. G. Dawson, H. E. Grossniklaus, B. E. McCarey, and H. F. Edelhauser, “Depth-dependent cohesive tensile strength in human donor corneas: implications for refractive surgery,” J. Refract. Surg. 24(1), S85–S89 (2008).
[PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

G. Scarcelli and S. H. Yun, “Confocal Brillouin microscopy for three-dimensional mechanical imaging,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 39–43 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

J. M. Vaughan and J. T. Randall, “Brillouin scattering, density and elastic properties of the lens and cornea of the eye,” Nature 284(5755), 489–491 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ophthalmic Res. (1)

S. J. McGinty and R. J. W. Truscott, “Presbyopia: the first stage of nuclear cataract?” Ophthalmic Res. 38(3), 137–148 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. (1)

J. Randall and J. M. Vaughan, “The measurement and interpretation of Brillouin scattering in the lens of the eye,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 214(1197), 449–470 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Remote Sens. Environ. (1)

G. D. Hickman, J. M. Harding, M. Carnes, A. Pressman, G. W. Kattawar, and E. S. Fry, “Aircraft laser sensing of sound velocity in water: Brillouin scattering,” Remote Sens. Environ. 36(3), 165–178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Vision Res. (2)

C. E. Jones, D. A. Atchison, R. Meder, and J. M. Pope, “Refractive index distribution and optical properties of the isolated human lens measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI),” Vision Res. 45(18), 2352–2366 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Glasser and M. C. W. Campbell, “Biometric, optical and physical changes in the isolated human crystalline lens with age in relation to presbyopia,” Vision Res. 39(11), 1991–2015 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the Brillouin confocal microscope. OI: Optical isolator. ND: Neutral density filter wheel; BS: beam sampler; SMF: single mode fiber.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Laser illumination in the Brillouin scanner. By focusing the beam in the transparent tissue of the anterior chamber (cornea, aqueous humor and lens), the beam is diverging and covers a large area when it hits the retina.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Representative Brillouin spectra (anti-Stokes peaks) from a human eye. (a) Corneal stroma. (b) Aqueous humor. (c) Lens nucleus. (d) Vitreous humor. Top panels: raw CCD spectra (average of four frames). Bottom panels: corresponding spectra.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

In vivo Brillouin measurement of a human eye. (a) Depth profile of the crystalline lens. (b) Depth profile of the anterior chamber. The data are an average of four such scans taken ten minutes apart.

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