Abstract

We report on nonlinear optical properties of a p-i-n junction quantum dot saturable absorber based on InGaAs/GaAs. Absorption recovery dynamics and nonlinear reflectivity are investigated for different reverse bias and pump power conditions. A decrease in absorption recovery time of nearly two orders of magnitude is demonstrated by applying a voltage between 0 and −20 V. The saturable absorber modulation depth and saturation fluence are found to be independent from the applied reverse bias.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  22. J.-H. Ser, Y.-H. Lee, J.-W. Kim, and J.-E. Oh, “Direct observation of strong quantum-confined stark effect in vertically-stacked quantum dots at room temperature,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 2, No. 6A), L518–L520 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  23. D. B. Malins, A. Gomes-Iglesias, P. Spencer, E. Clarke, R. Murray, and A. Miller, “Quantum-confined Stark effect and ultrafast absorption dynamics in bilayer InAs quantum dot waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 43(12), 686–687 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  24. T. Piwonski, J. Pulka, E. A. Viktorov, G. Huyet, R. J. Manning, J. Houlihan, P. Mandel, and T. Erneux, “Induced absorption dynamics in quantum dot based waveguide electroabsorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(12), 121103 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  25. F. Tauser, F. Adler, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Widely tunable sub-30-fs pulses from a compact erbium-doped fiber source,” Opt. Lett. 29(5), 516–518 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  27. F. Smith, A. R. Calawa, C.-L. Chen, M. J. Manfra, and L. J. Mahoney, “New MBE buffer used to eliminate backgating in GaAs MESFETs,” IEEE Electron. Dev. Lett. 9(2), 77–80 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  28. E. U. Rafailov, S. J. White, A. A. Lagatsky, A. Miller, W. Sibbett, D. A. Livshits, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, “Fast quantum-dot saturable absorber for passive mode-locking of solid-state lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2439–2441 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  29. F. Quochi, M. Dinu, N. H. Bonadeo, J. Shah, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, and P. M. Platzman, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics of resonantly exited 1.3 μm InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots,” Physica B 314(1-4), 263–267 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  30. T. W. Berg, S. Bischoff, I. Magnusdottir, and J. Mørk, “Ultrafast gain recovery and modulation limitations in self-assembled quantum-dot devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(6), 541–543 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  31. M. Pillard, X. Marie, E. Vanelle, T. Amand, V. K. Kalevich, A. R. Kovsh, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, “Time-resolved photoluminescence in self-assemled InAs/GaAs quantum dots under strictly resonant excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(1), 76–78 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  32. E. R. Thoen, E. M. Koontz, M. Joschko, P. Langlois, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Two-photon absorption in semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(26), 3927–3929 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  33. P. Borri, W. Langbein, J. M. Hvam, F. Heinrichsdorff, M.-H. Mao, and D. Bimberg, “Ultrafast gain dynamics in InAs-InGaAs quantum-dot amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(6), 594–596 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  34. J. R. Karin, R. J. Helkey, D. J. Derickson, R. Nagarajan, D. S. Allin, J. E. Bowers, and R. L. Thornton, “Ultrafast dynamics in field-enhanced saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(6), 676–678 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  35. P. Borri, F. Romstad, W. Langbein, A. E. Kelly, J. Mørk, and J. M. Hvam, “Separation of coherent and incoherent nonlinearities in a heterodyne pump-probe experiment,” Opt. Express 7(3), 107–112 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. L. R. Brovelli, U. Keller, and T. H. Chiu, “Design and operation of antiresonant Fabry-Perot saturable semiconductor absorbers for mode-locked solid state lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12(2), 311–322 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

2010

U. Keller, “Ultrafast solid-state laser oscillators: a success story for the last 20 years with no end in sight,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 15–28 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Lagatsky, C. G. Leburn, W. Sibbett, S. A. Zolotovskaya, and E. U. Rafailov, “Ultrashort-pulse lasers passively mode locked by quantum-dot-based saturable absorbers,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 34(1), 1–45 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, E. U. Rafailov, D. Livshits, and D. Turchinovich, “Quantum well saturable absorber mirror with electrical control of modulation depth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(5), 051103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Piwonski, J. Pulka, E. A. Viktorov, G. Huyet, R. J. Manning, J. Houlihan, P. Mandel, and T. Erneux, “Induced absorption dynamics in quantum dot based waveguide electroabsorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(12), 121103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

S. A. Zolotovskaya, K. G. Wilcox, A. Abdolvand, D. A. Livshits, and E. U. Rafailov, “Electronically controlled pulse duration passively mode-locked Cr:forsterite laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(16), 1124–1126 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

E. U. Rafailov, M. A. Cataluna, and W. Sibbett, “Mode-locked quantum-dot lasers,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 395–401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Malins, A. Gomes-Iglesias, E. U. Rafailov, W. Sibbett, and A. Miller, “Electro-absorption and electro-refraction in an InAs quantum dot waveguide modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(15), 1118–1120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Malins, A. Gomes-Iglesias, P. Spencer, E. Clarke, R. Murray, and A. Miller, “Quantum-confined Stark effect and ultrafast absorption dynamics in bilayer InAs quantum dot waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 43(12), 686–687 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

M. G. Thompson, A. Rae, R. L. Sellin, C. Marinelli, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, A. R. Kovsh, S. S. Mihkrin, D. A. Livshits, and I. L. Krestnikov, “Subpicosecond high-power mode locking using flared waveguide monolithic quantum-dot lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Malins, A. Gomes-Iglesias, S. J. White, W. Sibbett, A. Miller, and E. U. Rafailov, “Ultrafast electroabsorption dynamics in an InAs quantum dot saturable absorber at 1.3 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 171111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller and A. C. Tropper, “Passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rep. 429(2), 67–120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schön, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence,” Appl. Phys. B 81(1), 27–32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Lagatsky, E. U. Rafailov, W. Sibbett, D. A. Livshits, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, “Quantum-dot-based saturable absorber with p-n junction for mode-locking of solid-state lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(2), 294–296 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Isomäki, A. Vainionpä, S. Suomalainen, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Self-starting mode-locked fiber laser using biased semiconductor absorber mirror,” Proc. SPIE 5958, 5958R (2005).

2004

B. Stormont, E. U. Rafailov, I. G. Cormack, A. Mooradian, and W. Sibbett, “Extended-cavity surface-emitting diode laser as active mirror controlling modelocked Ti:sapphire laser,” Electron. Lett. 40(12), 732–734 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Williams, M. G. Thompson, and I. H. White, “Long-wavelength monolithic mode-locked diode lasers,” New J. Phys. 6, 179 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Tauser, F. Adler, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Widely tunable sub-30-fs pulses from a compact erbium-doped fiber source,” Opt. Lett. 29(5), 516–518 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Agate, C. Brown, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, “Femtosecond optical tweezers for in-situ control of two-photon fluorescence,” Opt. Express 12(13), 3011–3017 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. U. Rafailov, S. J. White, A. A. Lagatsky, A. Miller, W. Sibbett, D. A. Livshits, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, “Fast quantum-dot saturable absorber for passive mode-locking of solid-state lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2439–2441 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424(6950), 831–838 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

F. Quochi, M. Dinu, N. H. Bonadeo, J. Shah, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, and P. M. Platzman, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics of resonantly exited 1.3 μm InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots,” Physica B 314(1-4), 263–267 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

T. W. Berg, S. Bischoff, I. Magnusdottir, and J. Mørk, “Ultrafast gain recovery and modulation limitations in self-assembled quantum-dot devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(6), 541–543 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

M. Pillard, X. Marie, E. Vanelle, T. Amand, V. K. Kalevich, A. R. Kovsh, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, “Time-resolved photoluminescence in self-assemled InAs/GaAs quantum dots under strictly resonant excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(1), 76–78 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Ser, Y.-H. Lee, J.-W. Kim, and J.-E. Oh, “Direct observation of strong quantum-confined stark effect in vertically-stacked quantum dots at room temperature,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 2, No. 6A), L518–L520 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Borri, F. Romstad, W. Langbein, A. E. Kelly, J. Mørk, and J. M. Hvam, “Separation of coherent and incoherent nonlinearities in a heterodyne pump-probe experiment,” Opt. Express 7(3), 107–112 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Borri, W. Langbein, J. M. Hvam, F. Heinrichsdorff, M.-H. Mao, and D. Bimberg, “Ultrafast gain dynamics in InAs-InGaAs quantum-dot amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(6), 594–596 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

E. R. Thoen, E. M. Koontz, M. Joschko, P. Langlois, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Two-photon absorption in semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(26), 3927–3929 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. König, I. Riemann, P. Fischer, and K. J. Halbhuber, “Intracellular nanosurgery with near infrared femtosecond laser pulses,” Cell. Mol. Biol. (Noisy-le-grand) 45(2), 195–201 (1999).
[PubMed]

1996

S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, S. T. Cundiff, W. Y. Jan, and J. E. Cunningham, “Mode-locking ultrafast solid-state lasers with saturable Bragg reflectors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 454–464 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

1994

J. R. Karin, R. J. Helkey, D. J. Derickson, R. Nagarajan, D. S. Allin, J. E. Bowers, and R. L. Thornton, “Ultrafast dynamics in field-enhanced saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(6), 676–678 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992

1988

F. Smith, A. R. Calawa, C.-L. Chen, M. J. Manfra, and L. J. Mahoney, “New MBE buffer used to eliminate backgating in GaAs MESFETs,” IEEE Electron. Dev. Lett. 9(2), 77–80 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, and T. Yamane, “Optical trapping and manipulation of single cells using infrared laser beams,” Nature 330(6150), 769–771 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abdolvand, A.

S. A. Zolotovskaya, K. G. Wilcox, A. Abdolvand, D. A. Livshits, and E. U. Rafailov, “Electronically controlled pulse duration passively mode-locked Cr:forsterite laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(16), 1124–1126 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Adler, F.

Agate, B.

Allin, D. S.

J. R. Karin, R. J. Helkey, D. J. Derickson, R. Nagarajan, D. S. Allin, J. E. Bowers, and R. L. Thornton, “Ultrafast dynamics in field-enhanced saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(6), 676–678 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Amand, T.

M. Pillard, X. Marie, E. Vanelle, T. Amand, V. K. Kalevich, A. R. Kovsh, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, “Time-resolved photoluminescence in self-assemled InAs/GaAs quantum dots under strictly resonant excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(1), 76–78 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ashkin, A.

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, and T. Yamane, “Optical trapping and manipulation of single cells using infrared laser beams,” Nature 330(6150), 769–771 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asom, M. T.

Berg, T. W.

T. W. Berg, S. Bischoff, I. Magnusdottir, and J. Mørk, “Ultrafast gain recovery and modulation limitations in self-assembled quantum-dot devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(6), 541–543 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bimberg, D.

P. Borri, W. Langbein, J. M. Hvam, F. Heinrichsdorff, M.-H. Mao, and D. Bimberg, “Ultrafast gain dynamics in InAs-InGaAs quantum-dot amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(6), 594–596 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bischoff, S.

T. W. Berg, S. Bischoff, I. Magnusdottir, and J. Mørk, “Ultrafast gain recovery and modulation limitations in self-assembled quantum-dot devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(6), 541–543 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bonadeo, N. H.

F. Quochi, M. Dinu, N. H. Bonadeo, J. Shah, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, and P. M. Platzman, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics of resonantly exited 1.3 μm InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots,” Physica B 314(1-4), 263–267 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Borri, P.

P. Borri, W. Langbein, J. M. Hvam, F. Heinrichsdorff, M.-H. Mao, and D. Bimberg, “Ultrafast gain dynamics in InAs-InGaAs quantum-dot amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(6), 594–596 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Borri, F. Romstad, W. Langbein, A. E. Kelly, J. Mørk, and J. M. Hvam, “Separation of coherent and incoherent nonlinearities in a heterodyne pump-probe experiment,” Opt. Express 7(3), 107–112 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bowers, J. E.

J. R. Karin, R. J. Helkey, D. J. Derickson, R. Nagarajan, D. S. Allin, J. E. Bowers, and R. L. Thornton, “Ultrafast dynamics in field-enhanced saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(6), 676–678 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Brovelli, L. R.

Brown, C.

Calawa, A. R.

F. Smith, A. R. Calawa, C.-L. Chen, M. J. Manfra, and L. J. Mahoney, “New MBE buffer used to eliminate backgating in GaAs MESFETs,” IEEE Electron. Dev. Lett. 9(2), 77–80 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Cataluna, M. A.

E. U. Rafailov, M. A. Cataluna, and W. Sibbett, “Mode-locked quantum-dot lasers,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 395–401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-L.

F. Smith, A. R. Calawa, C.-L. Chen, M. J. Manfra, and L. J. Mahoney, “New MBE buffer used to eliminate backgating in GaAs MESFETs,” IEEE Electron. Dev. Lett. 9(2), 77–80 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, T. H.

Clarke, E.

D. B. Malins, A. Gomes-Iglesias, P. Spencer, E. Clarke, R. Murray, and A. Miller, “Quantum-confined Stark effect and ultrafast absorption dynamics in bilayer InAs quantum dot waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 43(12), 686–687 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cormack, I. G.

B. Stormont, E. U. Rafailov, I. G. Cormack, A. Mooradian, and W. Sibbett, “Extended-cavity surface-emitting diode laser as active mirror controlling modelocked Ti:sapphire laser,” Electron. Lett. 40(12), 732–734 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cundiff, S. T.

S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, S. T. Cundiff, W. Y. Jan, and J. E. Cunningham, “Mode-locking ultrafast solid-state lasers with saturable Bragg reflectors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 454–464 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, J. E.

S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, S. T. Cundiff, W. Y. Jan, and J. E. Cunningham, “Mode-locking ultrafast solid-state lasers with saturable Bragg reflectors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 454–464 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Derickson, D. J.

J. R. Karin, R. J. Helkey, D. J. Derickson, R. Nagarajan, D. S. Allin, J. E. Bowers, and R. L. Thornton, “Ultrafast dynamics in field-enhanced saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(6), 676–678 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dholakia, K.

Dinu, M.

F. Quochi, M. Dinu, N. H. Bonadeo, J. Shah, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, and P. M. Platzman, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics of resonantly exited 1.3 μm InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots,” Physica B 314(1-4), 263–267 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dziedzic, J. M.

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, and T. Yamane, “Optical trapping and manipulation of single cells using infrared laser beams,” Nature 330(6150), 769–771 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Erneux, T.

T. Piwonski, J. Pulka, E. A. Viktorov, G. Huyet, R. J. Manning, J. Houlihan, P. Mandel, and T. Erneux, “Induced absorption dynamics in quantum dot based waveguide electroabsorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(12), 121103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, P.

K. König, I. Riemann, P. Fischer, and K. J. Halbhuber, “Intracellular nanosurgery with near infrared femtosecond laser pulses,” Cell. Mol. Biol. (Noisy-le-grand) 45(2), 195–201 (1999).
[PubMed]

Golling, M.

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schön, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence,” Appl. Phys. B 81(1), 27–32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gomes-Iglesias, A.

D. B. Malins, A. Gomes-Iglesias, P. Spencer, E. Clarke, R. Murray, and A. Miller, “Quantum-confined Stark effect and ultrafast absorption dynamics in bilayer InAs quantum dot waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 43(12), 686–687 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Malins, A. Gomes-Iglesias, E. U. Rafailov, W. Sibbett, and A. Miller, “Electro-absorption and electro-refraction in an InAs quantum dot waveguide modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(15), 1118–1120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Malins, A. Gomes-Iglesias, S. J. White, W. Sibbett, A. Miller, and E. U. Rafailov, “Ultrafast electroabsorption dynamics in an InAs quantum dot saturable absorber at 1.3 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 171111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grange, R.

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schön, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence,” Appl. Phys. B 81(1), 27–32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Haiml, M.

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schön, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence,” Appl. Phys. B 81(1), 27–32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Halbhuber, K. J.

K. König, I. Riemann, P. Fischer, and K. J. Halbhuber, “Intracellular nanosurgery with near infrared femtosecond laser pulses,” Cell. Mol. Biol. (Noisy-le-grand) 45(2), 195–201 (1999).
[PubMed]

Heinrichsdorff, F.

P. Borri, W. Langbein, J. M. Hvam, F. Heinrichsdorff, M.-H. Mao, and D. Bimberg, “Ultrafast gain dynamics in InAs-InGaAs quantum-dot amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(6), 594–596 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Helkey, R. J.

J. R. Karin, R. J. Helkey, D. J. Derickson, R. Nagarajan, D. S. Allin, J. E. Bowers, and R. L. Thornton, “Ultrafast dynamics in field-enhanced saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(6), 676–678 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Houlihan, J.

T. Piwonski, J. Pulka, E. A. Viktorov, G. Huyet, R. J. Manning, J. Houlihan, P. Mandel, and T. Erneux, “Induced absorption dynamics in quantum dot based waveguide electroabsorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(12), 121103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huyet, G.

T. Piwonski, J. Pulka, E. A. Viktorov, G. Huyet, R. J. Manning, J. Houlihan, P. Mandel, and T. Erneux, “Induced absorption dynamics in quantum dot based waveguide electroabsorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(12), 121103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hvam, J. M.

P. Borri, F. Romstad, W. Langbein, A. E. Kelly, J. Mørk, and J. M. Hvam, “Separation of coherent and incoherent nonlinearities in a heterodyne pump-probe experiment,” Opt. Express 7(3), 107–112 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Borri, W. Langbein, J. M. Hvam, F. Heinrichsdorff, M.-H. Mao, and D. Bimberg, “Ultrafast gain dynamics in InAs-InGaAs quantum-dot amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(6), 594–596 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

E. R. Thoen, E. M. Koontz, M. Joschko, P. Langlois, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Two-photon absorption in semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(26), 3927–3929 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Isomäki, A.

A. Isomäki, A. Vainionpä, S. Suomalainen, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Self-starting mode-locked fiber laser using biased semiconductor absorber mirror,” Proc. SPIE 5958, 5958R (2005).

Jacobvitz-Veselka, G. R.

Jan, W. Y.

S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, S. T. Cundiff, W. Y. Jan, and J. E. Cunningham, “Mode-locking ultrafast solid-state lasers with saturable Bragg reflectors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 454–464 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Joschko, M.

E. R. Thoen, E. M. Koontz, M. Joschko, P. Langlois, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Two-photon absorption in semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(26), 3927–3929 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kalevich, V. K.

M. Pillard, X. Marie, E. Vanelle, T. Amand, V. K. Kalevich, A. R. Kovsh, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, “Time-resolved photoluminescence in self-assemled InAs/GaAs quantum dots under strictly resonant excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(1), 76–78 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Karin, J. R.

J. R. Karin, R. J. Helkey, D. J. Derickson, R. Nagarajan, D. S. Allin, J. E. Bowers, and R. L. Thornton, “Ultrafast dynamics in field-enhanced saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(6), 676–678 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kärtner, F. X.

E. R. Thoen, E. M. Koontz, M. Joschko, P. Langlois, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Two-photon absorption in semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(26), 3927–3929 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Keller, U.

U. Keller, “Ultrafast solid-state laser oscillators: a success story for the last 20 years with no end in sight,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 15–28 (2010).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller and A. C. Tropper, “Passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rep. 429(2), 67–120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schön, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence,” Appl. Phys. B 81(1), 27–32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424(6950), 831–838 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. R. Brovelli, U. Keller, and T. H. Chiu, “Design and operation of antiresonant Fabry-Perot saturable semiconductor absorbers for mode-locked solid state lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12(2), 311–322 (1995).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, G. R. Jacobvitz-Veselka, and M. T. Asom, “Broadband fast semiconductor saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1791–1793 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kelly, A. E.

Kim, J.-W.

J.-H. Ser, Y.-H. Lee, J.-W. Kim, and J.-E. Oh, “Direct observation of strong quantum-confined stark effect in vertically-stacked quantum dots at room temperature,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 2, No. 6A), L518–L520 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Knox, W. H.

S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, S. T. Cundiff, W. Y. Jan, and J. E. Cunningham, “Mode-locking ultrafast solid-state lasers with saturable Bragg reflectors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 454–464 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kolodziejski, L. A.

E. R. Thoen, E. M. Koontz, M. Joschko, P. Langlois, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Two-photon absorption in semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(26), 3927–3929 (1999).
[CrossRef]

König, K.

K. König, I. Riemann, P. Fischer, and K. J. Halbhuber, “Intracellular nanosurgery with near infrared femtosecond laser pulses,” Cell. Mol. Biol. (Noisy-le-grand) 45(2), 195–201 (1999).
[PubMed]

Koontz, E. M.

E. R. Thoen, E. M. Koontz, M. Joschko, P. Langlois, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Two-photon absorption in semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(26), 3927–3929 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kovsh, A. R.

M. G. Thompson, A. Rae, R. L. Sellin, C. Marinelli, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, A. R. Kovsh, S. S. Mihkrin, D. A. Livshits, and I. L. Krestnikov, “Subpicosecond high-power mode locking using flared waveguide monolithic quantum-dot lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Pillard, X. Marie, E. Vanelle, T. Amand, V. K. Kalevich, A. R. Kovsh, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, “Time-resolved photoluminescence in self-assemled InAs/GaAs quantum dots under strictly resonant excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(1), 76–78 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Krainer, L.

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schön, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence,” Appl. Phys. B 81(1), 27–32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Krestnikov, I. L.

M. G. Thompson, A. Rae, R. L. Sellin, C. Marinelli, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, A. R. Kovsh, S. S. Mihkrin, D. A. Livshits, and I. L. Krestnikov, “Subpicosecond high-power mode locking using flared waveguide monolithic quantum-dot lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lagatsky, A. A.

A. A. Lagatsky, C. G. Leburn, W. Sibbett, S. A. Zolotovskaya, and E. U. Rafailov, “Ultrashort-pulse lasers passively mode locked by quantum-dot-based saturable absorbers,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 34(1), 1–45 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Lagatsky, E. U. Rafailov, W. Sibbett, D. A. Livshits, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, “Quantum-dot-based saturable absorber with p-n junction for mode-locking of solid-state lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(2), 294–296 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. U. Rafailov, S. J. White, A. A. Lagatsky, A. Miller, W. Sibbett, D. A. Livshits, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, “Fast quantum-dot saturable absorber for passive mode-locking of solid-state lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2439–2441 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Langbein, W.

P. Borri, F. Romstad, W. Langbein, A. E. Kelly, J. Mørk, and J. M. Hvam, “Separation of coherent and incoherent nonlinearities in a heterodyne pump-probe experiment,” Opt. Express 7(3), 107–112 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Borri, W. Langbein, J. M. Hvam, F. Heinrichsdorff, M.-H. Mao, and D. Bimberg, “Ultrafast gain dynamics in InAs-InGaAs quantum-dot amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(6), 594–596 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Langlois, P.

E. R. Thoen, E. M. Koontz, M. Joschko, P. Langlois, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Two-photon absorption in semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(26), 3927–3929 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Leburn, C. G.

A. A. Lagatsky, C. G. Leburn, W. Sibbett, S. A. Zolotovskaya, and E. U. Rafailov, “Ultrashort-pulse lasers passively mode locked by quantum-dot-based saturable absorbers,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 34(1), 1–45 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-H.

J.-H. Ser, Y.-H. Lee, J.-W. Kim, and J.-E. Oh, “Direct observation of strong quantum-confined stark effect in vertically-stacked quantum dots at room temperature,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 2, No. 6A), L518–L520 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Leitenstorfer, A.

Liu, X.

X. Liu, E. U. Rafailov, D. Livshits, and D. Turchinovich, “Quantum well saturable absorber mirror with electrical control of modulation depth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(5), 051103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liverini, V.

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schön, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence,” Appl. Phys. B 81(1), 27–32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Livshits, D.

X. Liu, E. U. Rafailov, D. Livshits, and D. Turchinovich, “Quantum well saturable absorber mirror with electrical control of modulation depth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(5), 051103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Livshits, D. A.

S. A. Zolotovskaya, K. G. Wilcox, A. Abdolvand, D. A. Livshits, and E. U. Rafailov, “Electronically controlled pulse duration passively mode-locked Cr:forsterite laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(16), 1124–1126 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Thompson, A. Rae, R. L. Sellin, C. Marinelli, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, A. R. Kovsh, S. S. Mihkrin, D. A. Livshits, and I. L. Krestnikov, “Subpicosecond high-power mode locking using flared waveguide monolithic quantum-dot lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Lagatsky, E. U. Rafailov, W. Sibbett, D. A. Livshits, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, “Quantum-dot-based saturable absorber with p-n junction for mode-locking of solid-state lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(2), 294–296 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. U. Rafailov, S. J. White, A. A. Lagatsky, A. Miller, W. Sibbett, D. A. Livshits, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, “Fast quantum-dot saturable absorber for passive mode-locking of solid-state lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2439–2441 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Magnusdottir, I.

T. W. Berg, S. Bischoff, I. Magnusdottir, and J. Mørk, “Ultrafast gain recovery and modulation limitations in self-assembled quantum-dot devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(6), 541–543 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mahoney, L. J.

F. Smith, A. R. Calawa, C.-L. Chen, M. J. Manfra, and L. J. Mahoney, “New MBE buffer used to eliminate backgating in GaAs MESFETs,” IEEE Electron. Dev. Lett. 9(2), 77–80 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Malins, D. B.

D. B. Malins, A. Gomes-Iglesias, E. U. Rafailov, W. Sibbett, and A. Miller, “Electro-absorption and electro-refraction in an InAs quantum dot waveguide modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(15), 1118–1120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Malins, A. Gomes-Iglesias, P. Spencer, E. Clarke, R. Murray, and A. Miller, “Quantum-confined Stark effect and ultrafast absorption dynamics in bilayer InAs quantum dot waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 43(12), 686–687 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Malins, A. Gomes-Iglesias, S. J. White, W. Sibbett, A. Miller, and E. U. Rafailov, “Ultrafast electroabsorption dynamics in an InAs quantum dot saturable absorber at 1.3 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 171111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mandel, P.

T. Piwonski, J. Pulka, E. A. Viktorov, G. Huyet, R. J. Manning, J. Houlihan, P. Mandel, and T. Erneux, “Induced absorption dynamics in quantum dot based waveguide electroabsorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(12), 121103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Manfra, M. J.

F. Smith, A. R. Calawa, C.-L. Chen, M. J. Manfra, and L. J. Mahoney, “New MBE buffer used to eliminate backgating in GaAs MESFETs,” IEEE Electron. Dev. Lett. 9(2), 77–80 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Manning, R. J.

T. Piwonski, J. Pulka, E. A. Viktorov, G. Huyet, R. J. Manning, J. Houlihan, P. Mandel, and T. Erneux, “Induced absorption dynamics in quantum dot based waveguide electroabsorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(12), 121103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mao, M.-H.

P. Borri, W. Langbein, J. M. Hvam, F. Heinrichsdorff, M.-H. Mao, and D. Bimberg, “Ultrafast gain dynamics in InAs-InGaAs quantum-dot amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(6), 594–596 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Marie, X.

M. Pillard, X. Marie, E. Vanelle, T. Amand, V. K. Kalevich, A. R. Kovsh, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, “Time-resolved photoluminescence in self-assemled InAs/GaAs quantum dots under strictly resonant excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(1), 76–78 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Marinelli, C.

M. G. Thompson, A. Rae, R. L. Sellin, C. Marinelli, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, A. R. Kovsh, S. S. Mihkrin, D. A. Livshits, and I. L. Krestnikov, “Subpicosecond high-power mode locking using flared waveguide monolithic quantum-dot lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mihkrin, S. S.

M. G. Thompson, A. Rae, R. L. Sellin, C. Marinelli, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, A. R. Kovsh, S. S. Mihkrin, D. A. Livshits, and I. L. Krestnikov, “Subpicosecond high-power mode locking using flared waveguide monolithic quantum-dot lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Miller, A.

D. B. Malins, A. Gomes-Iglesias, P. Spencer, E. Clarke, R. Murray, and A. Miller, “Quantum-confined Stark effect and ultrafast absorption dynamics in bilayer InAs quantum dot waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 43(12), 686–687 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Malins, A. Gomes-Iglesias, E. U. Rafailov, W. Sibbett, and A. Miller, “Electro-absorption and electro-refraction in an InAs quantum dot waveguide modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(15), 1118–1120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Malins, A. Gomes-Iglesias, S. J. White, W. Sibbett, A. Miller, and E. U. Rafailov, “Ultrafast electroabsorption dynamics in an InAs quantum dot saturable absorber at 1.3 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 171111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. U. Rafailov, S. J. White, A. A. Lagatsky, A. Miller, W. Sibbett, D. A. Livshits, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, “Fast quantum-dot saturable absorber for passive mode-locking of solid-state lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2439–2441 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mooradian, A.

B. Stormont, E. U. Rafailov, I. G. Cormack, A. Mooradian, and W. Sibbett, “Extended-cavity surface-emitting diode laser as active mirror controlling modelocked Ti:sapphire laser,” Electron. Lett. 40(12), 732–734 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mørk, J.

T. W. Berg, S. Bischoff, I. Magnusdottir, and J. Mørk, “Ultrafast gain recovery and modulation limitations in self-assembled quantum-dot devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(6), 541–543 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Borri, F. Romstad, W. Langbein, A. E. Kelly, J. Mørk, and J. M. Hvam, “Separation of coherent and incoherent nonlinearities in a heterodyne pump-probe experiment,” Opt. Express 7(3), 107–112 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murray, R.

D. B. Malins, A. Gomes-Iglesias, P. Spencer, E. Clarke, R. Murray, and A. Miller, “Quantum-confined Stark effect and ultrafast absorption dynamics in bilayer InAs quantum dot waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 43(12), 686–687 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nagarajan, R.

J. R. Karin, R. J. Helkey, D. J. Derickson, R. Nagarajan, D. S. Allin, J. E. Bowers, and R. L. Thornton, “Ultrafast dynamics in field-enhanced saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(6), 676–678 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Oh, J.-E.

J.-H. Ser, Y.-H. Lee, J.-W. Kim, and J.-E. Oh, “Direct observation of strong quantum-confined stark effect in vertically-stacked quantum dots at room temperature,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 2, No. 6A), L518–L520 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Okhotnikov, O. G.

A. Isomäki, A. Vainionpä, S. Suomalainen, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Self-starting mode-locked fiber laser using biased semiconductor absorber mirror,” Proc. SPIE 5958, 5958R (2005).

Penty, R. V.

M. G. Thompson, A. Rae, R. L. Sellin, C. Marinelli, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, A. R. Kovsh, S. S. Mihkrin, D. A. Livshits, and I. L. Krestnikov, “Subpicosecond high-power mode locking using flared waveguide monolithic quantum-dot lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pfeiffer, L. N.

F. Quochi, M. Dinu, N. H. Bonadeo, J. Shah, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, and P. M. Platzman, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics of resonantly exited 1.3 μm InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots,” Physica B 314(1-4), 263–267 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pillard, M.

M. Pillard, X. Marie, E. Vanelle, T. Amand, V. K. Kalevich, A. R. Kovsh, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, “Time-resolved photoluminescence in self-assemled InAs/GaAs quantum dots under strictly resonant excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(1), 76–78 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Piwonski, T.

T. Piwonski, J. Pulka, E. A. Viktorov, G. Huyet, R. J. Manning, J. Houlihan, P. Mandel, and T. Erneux, “Induced absorption dynamics in quantum dot based waveguide electroabsorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(12), 121103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Platzman, P. M.

F. Quochi, M. Dinu, N. H. Bonadeo, J. Shah, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, and P. M. Platzman, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics of resonantly exited 1.3 μm InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots,” Physica B 314(1-4), 263–267 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pulka, J.

T. Piwonski, J. Pulka, E. A. Viktorov, G. Huyet, R. J. Manning, J. Houlihan, P. Mandel, and T. Erneux, “Induced absorption dynamics in quantum dot based waveguide electroabsorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(12), 121103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Quochi, F.

F. Quochi, M. Dinu, N. H. Bonadeo, J. Shah, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, and P. M. Platzman, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics of resonantly exited 1.3 μm InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots,” Physica B 314(1-4), 263–267 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rae, A.

M. G. Thompson, A. Rae, R. L. Sellin, C. Marinelli, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, A. R. Kovsh, S. S. Mihkrin, D. A. Livshits, and I. L. Krestnikov, “Subpicosecond high-power mode locking using flared waveguide monolithic quantum-dot lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rafailov, E. U.

A. A. Lagatsky, C. G. Leburn, W. Sibbett, S. A. Zolotovskaya, and E. U. Rafailov, “Ultrashort-pulse lasers passively mode locked by quantum-dot-based saturable absorbers,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 34(1), 1–45 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, E. U. Rafailov, D. Livshits, and D. Turchinovich, “Quantum well saturable absorber mirror with electrical control of modulation depth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(5), 051103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Zolotovskaya, K. G. Wilcox, A. Abdolvand, D. A. Livshits, and E. U. Rafailov, “Electronically controlled pulse duration passively mode-locked Cr:forsterite laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(16), 1124–1126 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. U. Rafailov, M. A. Cataluna, and W. Sibbett, “Mode-locked quantum-dot lasers,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 395–401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Malins, A. Gomes-Iglesias, E. U. Rafailov, W. Sibbett, and A. Miller, “Electro-absorption and electro-refraction in an InAs quantum dot waveguide modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(15), 1118–1120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Malins, A. Gomes-Iglesias, S. J. White, W. Sibbett, A. Miller, and E. U. Rafailov, “Ultrafast electroabsorption dynamics in an InAs quantum dot saturable absorber at 1.3 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 171111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Lagatsky, E. U. Rafailov, W. Sibbett, D. A. Livshits, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, “Quantum-dot-based saturable absorber with p-n junction for mode-locking of solid-state lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(2), 294–296 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. U. Rafailov, S. J. White, A. A. Lagatsky, A. Miller, W. Sibbett, D. A. Livshits, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, “Fast quantum-dot saturable absorber for passive mode-locking of solid-state lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2439–2441 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Stormont, E. U. Rafailov, I. G. Cormack, A. Mooradian, and W. Sibbett, “Extended-cavity surface-emitting diode laser as active mirror controlling modelocked Ti:sapphire laser,” Electron. Lett. 40(12), 732–734 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Riemann, I.

K. König, I. Riemann, P. Fischer, and K. J. Halbhuber, “Intracellular nanosurgery with near infrared femtosecond laser pulses,” Cell. Mol. Biol. (Noisy-le-grand) 45(2), 195–201 (1999).
[PubMed]

Romstad, F.

Schibli, T. R.

E. R. Thoen, E. M. Koontz, M. Joschko, P. Langlois, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Two-photon absorption in semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(26), 3927–3929 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schön, S.

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schön, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence,” Appl. Phys. B 81(1), 27–32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sellin, R. L.

M. G. Thompson, A. Rae, R. L. Sellin, C. Marinelli, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, A. R. Kovsh, S. S. Mihkrin, D. A. Livshits, and I. L. Krestnikov, “Subpicosecond high-power mode locking using flared waveguide monolithic quantum-dot lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ser, J.-H.

J.-H. Ser, Y.-H. Lee, J.-W. Kim, and J.-E. Oh, “Direct observation of strong quantum-confined stark effect in vertically-stacked quantum dots at room temperature,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 2, No. 6A), L518–L520 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shah, J.

F. Quochi, M. Dinu, N. H. Bonadeo, J. Shah, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, and P. M. Platzman, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics of resonantly exited 1.3 μm InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots,” Physica B 314(1-4), 263–267 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sibbett, W.

A. A. Lagatsky, C. G. Leburn, W. Sibbett, S. A. Zolotovskaya, and E. U. Rafailov, “Ultrashort-pulse lasers passively mode locked by quantum-dot-based saturable absorbers,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 34(1), 1–45 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Malins, A. Gomes-Iglesias, E. U. Rafailov, W. Sibbett, and A. Miller, “Electro-absorption and electro-refraction in an InAs quantum dot waveguide modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(15), 1118–1120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. U. Rafailov, M. A. Cataluna, and W. Sibbett, “Mode-locked quantum-dot lasers,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 395–401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Malins, A. Gomes-Iglesias, S. J. White, W. Sibbett, A. Miller, and E. U. Rafailov, “Ultrafast electroabsorption dynamics in an InAs quantum dot saturable absorber at 1.3 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 171111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Lagatsky, E. U. Rafailov, W. Sibbett, D. A. Livshits, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, “Quantum-dot-based saturable absorber with p-n junction for mode-locking of solid-state lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(2), 294–296 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Agate, C. Brown, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, “Femtosecond optical tweezers for in-situ control of two-photon fluorescence,” Opt. Express 12(13), 3011–3017 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. U. Rafailov, S. J. White, A. A. Lagatsky, A. Miller, W. Sibbett, D. A. Livshits, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, “Fast quantum-dot saturable absorber for passive mode-locking of solid-state lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2439–2441 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Stormont, E. U. Rafailov, I. G. Cormack, A. Mooradian, and W. Sibbett, “Extended-cavity surface-emitting diode laser as active mirror controlling modelocked Ti:sapphire laser,” Electron. Lett. 40(12), 732–734 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Smith, F.

F. Smith, A. R. Calawa, C.-L. Chen, M. J. Manfra, and L. J. Mahoney, “New MBE buffer used to eliminate backgating in GaAs MESFETs,” IEEE Electron. Dev. Lett. 9(2), 77–80 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Spencer, P.

D. B. Malins, A. Gomes-Iglesias, P. Spencer, E. Clarke, R. Murray, and A. Miller, “Quantum-confined Stark effect and ultrafast absorption dynamics in bilayer InAs quantum dot waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 43(12), 686–687 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Spühler, G. J.

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schön, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence,” Appl. Phys. B 81(1), 27–32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stormont, B.

B. Stormont, E. U. Rafailov, I. G. Cormack, A. Mooradian, and W. Sibbett, “Extended-cavity surface-emitting diode laser as active mirror controlling modelocked Ti:sapphire laser,” Electron. Lett. 40(12), 732–734 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Suomalainen, S.

A. Isomäki, A. Vainionpä, S. Suomalainen, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Self-starting mode-locked fiber laser using biased semiconductor absorber mirror,” Proc. SPIE 5958, 5958R (2005).

Tauser, F.

Thoen, E. R.

E. R. Thoen, E. M. Koontz, M. Joschko, P. Langlois, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Two-photon absorption in semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(26), 3927–3929 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, M. G.

M. G. Thompson, A. Rae, R. L. Sellin, C. Marinelli, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, A. R. Kovsh, S. S. Mihkrin, D. A. Livshits, and I. L. Krestnikov, “Subpicosecond high-power mode locking using flared waveguide monolithic quantum-dot lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Williams, M. G. Thompson, and I. H. White, “Long-wavelength monolithic mode-locked diode lasers,” New J. Phys. 6, 179 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thornton, R. L.

J. R. Karin, R. J. Helkey, D. J. Derickson, R. Nagarajan, D. S. Allin, J. E. Bowers, and R. L. Thornton, “Ultrafast dynamics in field-enhanced saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(6), 676–678 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tropper, A. C.

U. Keller and A. C. Tropper, “Passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rep. 429(2), 67–120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tsuda, S.

S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, S. T. Cundiff, W. Y. Jan, and J. E. Cunningham, “Mode-locking ultrafast solid-state lasers with saturable Bragg reflectors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 454–464 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Turchinovich, D.

X. Liu, E. U. Rafailov, D. Livshits, and D. Turchinovich, “Quantum well saturable absorber mirror with electrical control of modulation depth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(5), 051103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ustinov, V. M.

A. A. Lagatsky, E. U. Rafailov, W. Sibbett, D. A. Livshits, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, “Quantum-dot-based saturable absorber with p-n junction for mode-locking of solid-state lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(2), 294–296 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. U. Rafailov, S. J. White, A. A. Lagatsky, A. Miller, W. Sibbett, D. A. Livshits, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, “Fast quantum-dot saturable absorber for passive mode-locking of solid-state lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2439–2441 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Pillard, X. Marie, E. Vanelle, T. Amand, V. K. Kalevich, A. R. Kovsh, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, “Time-resolved photoluminescence in self-assemled InAs/GaAs quantum dots under strictly resonant excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(1), 76–78 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vainionpä, A.

A. Isomäki, A. Vainionpä, S. Suomalainen, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Self-starting mode-locked fiber laser using biased semiconductor absorber mirror,” Proc. SPIE 5958, 5958R (2005).

Vanelle, E.

M. Pillard, X. Marie, E. Vanelle, T. Amand, V. K. Kalevich, A. R. Kovsh, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, “Time-resolved photoluminescence in self-assemled InAs/GaAs quantum dots under strictly resonant excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(1), 76–78 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Viktorov, E. A.

T. Piwonski, J. Pulka, E. A. Viktorov, G. Huyet, R. J. Manning, J. Houlihan, P. Mandel, and T. Erneux, “Induced absorption dynamics in quantum dot based waveguide electroabsorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(12), 121103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Weingarten, K. J.

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schön, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence,” Appl. Phys. B 81(1), 27–32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

West, K. W.

F. Quochi, M. Dinu, N. H. Bonadeo, J. Shah, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, and P. M. Platzman, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics of resonantly exited 1.3 μm InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots,” Physica B 314(1-4), 263–267 (2002).
[CrossRef]

White, I. H.

M. G. Thompson, A. Rae, R. L. Sellin, C. Marinelli, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, A. R. Kovsh, S. S. Mihkrin, D. A. Livshits, and I. L. Krestnikov, “Subpicosecond high-power mode locking using flared waveguide monolithic quantum-dot lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Williams, M. G. Thompson, and I. H. White, “Long-wavelength monolithic mode-locked diode lasers,” New J. Phys. 6, 179 (2004).
[CrossRef]

White, S. J.

D. B. Malins, A. Gomes-Iglesias, S. J. White, W. Sibbett, A. Miller, and E. U. Rafailov, “Ultrafast electroabsorption dynamics in an InAs quantum dot saturable absorber at 1.3 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 171111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. U. Rafailov, S. J. White, A. A. Lagatsky, A. Miller, W. Sibbett, D. A. Livshits, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, “Fast quantum-dot saturable absorber for passive mode-locking of solid-state lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2439–2441 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wilcox, K. G.

S. A. Zolotovskaya, K. G. Wilcox, A. Abdolvand, D. A. Livshits, and E. U. Rafailov, “Electronically controlled pulse duration passively mode-locked Cr:forsterite laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(16), 1124–1126 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Williams, K. A.

K. A. Williams, M. G. Thompson, and I. H. White, “Long-wavelength monolithic mode-locked diode lasers,” New J. Phys. 6, 179 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yamane, T.

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, and T. Yamane, “Optical trapping and manipulation of single cells using infrared laser beams,” Nature 330(6150), 769–771 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhukov, A. E.

A. A. Lagatsky, E. U. Rafailov, W. Sibbett, D. A. Livshits, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, “Quantum-dot-based saturable absorber with p-n junction for mode-locking of solid-state lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(2), 294–296 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. U. Rafailov, S. J. White, A. A. Lagatsky, A. Miller, W. Sibbett, D. A. Livshits, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, “Fast quantum-dot saturable absorber for passive mode-locking of solid-state lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2439–2441 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Pillard, X. Marie, E. Vanelle, T. Amand, V. K. Kalevich, A. R. Kovsh, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, “Time-resolved photoluminescence in self-assemled InAs/GaAs quantum dots under strictly resonant excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(1), 76–78 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zolotovskaya, S. A.

A. A. Lagatsky, C. G. Leburn, W. Sibbett, S. A. Zolotovskaya, and E. U. Rafailov, “Ultrashort-pulse lasers passively mode locked by quantum-dot-based saturable absorbers,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 34(1), 1–45 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Zolotovskaya, K. G. Wilcox, A. Abdolvand, D. A. Livshits, and E. U. Rafailov, “Electronically controlled pulse duration passively mode-locked Cr:forsterite laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(16), 1124–1126 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

U. Keller, “Ultrafast solid-state laser oscillators: a success story for the last 20 years with no end in sight,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 15–28 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schön, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence,” Appl. Phys. B 81(1), 27–32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. G. Thompson, A. Rae, R. L. Sellin, C. Marinelli, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, A. R. Kovsh, S. S. Mihkrin, D. A. Livshits, and I. L. Krestnikov, “Subpicosecond high-power mode locking using flared waveguide monolithic quantum-dot lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, E. U. Rafailov, D. Livshits, and D. Turchinovich, “Quantum well saturable absorber mirror with electrical control of modulation depth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(5), 051103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Malins, A. Gomes-Iglesias, S. J. White, W. Sibbett, A. Miller, and E. U. Rafailov, “Ultrafast electroabsorption dynamics in an InAs quantum dot saturable absorber at 1.3 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 171111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Piwonski, J. Pulka, E. A. Viktorov, G. Huyet, R. J. Manning, J. Houlihan, P. Mandel, and T. Erneux, “Induced absorption dynamics in quantum dot based waveguide electroabsorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(12), 121103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Pillard, X. Marie, E. Vanelle, T. Amand, V. K. Kalevich, A. R. Kovsh, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, “Time-resolved photoluminescence in self-assemled InAs/GaAs quantum dots under strictly resonant excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(1), 76–78 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Thoen, E. M. Koontz, M. Joschko, P. Langlois, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Two-photon absorption in semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(26), 3927–3929 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Karin, R. J. Helkey, D. J. Derickson, R. Nagarajan, D. S. Allin, J. E. Bowers, and R. L. Thornton, “Ultrafast dynamics in field-enhanced saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(6), 676–678 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cell. Mol. Biol. (Noisy-le-grand)

K. König, I. Riemann, P. Fischer, and K. J. Halbhuber, “Intracellular nanosurgery with near infrared femtosecond laser pulses,” Cell. Mol. Biol. (Noisy-le-grand) 45(2), 195–201 (1999).
[PubMed]

Electron. Lett.

B. Stormont, E. U. Rafailov, I. G. Cormack, A. Mooradian, and W. Sibbett, “Extended-cavity surface-emitting diode laser as active mirror controlling modelocked Ti:sapphire laser,” Electron. Lett. 40(12), 732–734 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Malins, A. Gomes-Iglesias, P. Spencer, E. Clarke, R. Murray, and A. Miller, “Quantum-confined Stark effect and ultrafast absorption dynamics in bilayer InAs quantum dot waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 43(12), 686–687 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron. Dev. Lett.

F. Smith, A. R. Calawa, C.-L. Chen, M. J. Manfra, and L. J. Mahoney, “New MBE buffer used to eliminate backgating in GaAs MESFETs,” IEEE Electron. Dev. Lett. 9(2), 77–80 (1988).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, S. T. Cundiff, W. Y. Jan, and J. E. Cunningham, “Mode-locking ultrafast solid-state lasers with saturable Bragg reflectors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 454–464 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

A. A. Lagatsky, E. U. Rafailov, W. Sibbett, D. A. Livshits, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, “Quantum-dot-based saturable absorber with p-n junction for mode-locking of solid-state lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(2), 294–296 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Malins, A. Gomes-Iglesias, E. U. Rafailov, W. Sibbett, and A. Miller, “Electro-absorption and electro-refraction in an InAs quantum dot waveguide modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(15), 1118–1120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. U. Rafailov, S. J. White, A. A. Lagatsky, A. Miller, W. Sibbett, D. A. Livshits, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, “Fast quantum-dot saturable absorber for passive mode-locking of solid-state lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2439–2441 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Zolotovskaya, K. G. Wilcox, A. Abdolvand, D. A. Livshits, and E. U. Rafailov, “Electronically controlled pulse duration passively mode-locked Cr:forsterite laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(16), 1124–1126 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Borri, W. Langbein, J. M. Hvam, F. Heinrichsdorff, M.-H. Mao, and D. Bimberg, “Ultrafast gain dynamics in InAs-InGaAs quantum-dot amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(6), 594–596 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Berg, S. Bischoff, I. Magnusdottir, and J. Mørk, “Ultrafast gain recovery and modulation limitations in self-assembled quantum-dot devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(6), 541–543 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

J.-H. Ser, Y.-H. Lee, J.-W. Kim, and J.-E. Oh, “Direct observation of strong quantum-confined stark effect in vertically-stacked quantum dots at room temperature,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 2, No. 6A), L518–L520 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

E. U. Rafailov, M. A. Cataluna, and W. Sibbett, “Mode-locked quantum-dot lasers,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 395–401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, and T. Yamane, “Optical trapping and manipulation of single cells using infrared laser beams,” Nature 330(6150), 769–771 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424(6950), 831–838 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

New J. Phys.

K. A. Williams, M. G. Thompson, and I. H. White, “Long-wavelength monolithic mode-locked diode lasers,” New J. Phys. 6, 179 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rep.

U. Keller and A. C. Tropper, “Passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rep. 429(2), 67–120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Physica B

F. Quochi, M. Dinu, N. H. Bonadeo, J. Shah, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, and P. M. Platzman, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics of resonantly exited 1.3 μm InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots,” Physica B 314(1-4), 263–267 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

A. Isomäki, A. Vainionpä, S. Suomalainen, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Self-starting mode-locked fiber laser using biased semiconductor absorber mirror,” Proc. SPIE 5958, 5958R (2005).

Prog. Quantum Electron.

A. A. Lagatsky, C. G. Leburn, W. Sibbett, S. A. Zolotovskaya, and E. U. Rafailov, “Ultrashort-pulse lasers passively mode locked by quantum-dot-based saturable absorbers,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 34(1), 1–45 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other

U. Keller, “Semiconductor nonlinearities for solid-state laser modelocking and Q-switching,” in Semiconductors and Semimetals59, A. Kost and E. Garmire, eds. (Academic Press, 1999), pp. 211–286.

J. F. Zeigler, J. P. Biersack, and U. Littmark, The Stopping and Range of Ions in Solids (Pergamon, 1989).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Small-signal reflectivity and photoluminescence spectra of the unbiased p-i-n junction QD-SESAM structure. Representative curves of the test laser performance at 1020 nm: (b) output spectrum of the light source; (c) intensity autocorrelation trace.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Absorption recovery dynamics of p-i-n QD- and QW- SESAM structures measured with voltage 0 V applied on the p-i-n junction (pump-probe pulse duration and pump fluence were 44 fs and 140 µJ cm−2 respectively); (b) pump-fluence-dependent absorption recovery dynamics of unbiased QD-SESAM device.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Absorption recovery dynamics of the p-i-n junction QD-SESAM: (a) bias-dependent for applied reverse bias voltages ranging from 0 V to 20 V and a constant pump fluence of 100 µJ cm−2, (b) dependence of slow recovery time component τS on applied reverse bias: solid line is an exponential fit to the experimental data, inset is the exponential fit at high applied fields.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Nonlinear reflectivity of the p-i-n junction (a) QD- and (b) QW-based SESAM structures at 0 V reverse bias. Solid lines are fits to the data.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Nonlinear reflectivity of the p-i-n junction QD-SESAM structure: (a) representative fluence dependent reflectivity of the structure at 15 V reverse bias, solid line is the best fit; (b) dependence of the modulation depth at applied reverse bias voltage ranging from 0 V to 10 V.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of the p-i-n Junction QD-SESAM Absorption Recovery Responses at Reverse Bias Voltage Ranging from 0 V to 20V

Metrics