Abstract

This paper presents a practical method for the development of spectral reflectance libraries under sub-optimal sky conditions. Although there are commercially available spectrometers which simultaneously measure both downwelling and upwelling radiance to mitigate the impact of sub-optimal sky conditions, these spectrometers only record in the visible and near infra-red. There are presently no commercially available spectrometers with this capability that can record the visible through short-wave infra-red. This paper presents a practical method of recording and processing data using coordinated measurements from two full-range spectrometers and discusses potential pitfalls and solutions required to achieve accurate reflectance spectra. Results demonstrate that high-quality spectral reflectance libraries can be developed with this approach.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

K. N. Youngentob, D. A. Roberts, A. A. Held, P. E. Dennison, X. Jia, and D. B. Lindenmayer, “Mapping two Eucalyptus subgenera using multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis and continuum-removed imaging spectrometry data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 115(5), 1115–1128 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

B. D. Bue, E. Merenyi, and B. Csatho, “Automated labeling of materials in hyperspectral imagery,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 48(11), 4059–4070 (2010).

C. M. Bachmann, M. J. Montes, R. A. Fusina, C. Parrish, J. Sellars, A. Weidemann, W. Goode, C. R. Nichols, P. Woodward, K. McIlhany, V. Hill, R. Zimmerman, D. Korwan, B. Truitt, and A. Schwarzschild, “Bathymetry retrieval from hyperspectral imagery in the very shallow water limit: a case study from the 2007 Virginia Coast Reserve (VCR ’07) multi-sensor campaign,” Mar. Geod. 33(1), 53–75 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Bachmann, C. R. Nichols, M. Montes, R. Li, P. Woodward, R. A. Fusina, W. Chen, V. Mishra, W. Kim, J. Monty, K. McIlhany, K. Kessler, D. Korwan, D. Miller, E. Bennert, G. Smith, D. Gillis, J. Sellers, C. Parrish, A. Schwarzschild, and B. Truitt, “Retrieval of substrate bearing strength from hyperspectral imagery during the Virginia Coast Reserve (VCR ’07) multi-sensor campaign,” Mar. Geod. 33(2–3), 101–116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Meroni, L. Busetto, L. Guanter, S. Cogliati, G. F. Crosta, M. Migliavacca, C. Panigada, M. Rossini, and R. Colombo, “Characterization of fine resolution field spectrometers using solar Fraunhofer lines and atmospheric absorption features,” Appl. Opt. 49(15), 2858–2871 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (6)

R. J. Zomer, A. Trabucco, and S. L. Ustin, “Building spectral libraries for wetlands land cover classification and hyperspectral remote sensing,” J. Environ. Manage. 90(7), 2170–2177 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Guerschman, M. J. Hill, L. J. Renzullo, D. J. Barrett, A. S. Marks, and E. J. Botha, “Estimating fractional cover of photosynthetic vegetation, non-photosynthetic vegetation and bare soil in the Australian tropical savanna region upscaling the EO-1 Hyperion and MODIS sensors,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113(5), 928–945 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Serbin, C. S. T. Daughtry, E. R. Hunt, J. B. Reeves, and D. J. Brown, “Effects of soil composition and mineralogy on remote sensing of crop residue cover,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113(1), 224–238 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. A. V. Rossel, S. R. Cattle, A. Ortega, and Y. Fouad, “In situ measurements of soil colour, mineral composition and clay content by vis-NIR spectroscopy,” Geoderma 150(3-4), 253–266 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Milton, M. E. Schaepman, K. Anderson, M. Kneubuhler, and N. Fox, “Progress in field spectroscopy,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, S92–S109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Stuckens, B. Somers, W. W. Verstraeten, R. Swennen, and P. Coppin, “Evaluation and normalization of cloud obscuration related brdf effects in field spectroscopy,” Remote Sens. 1(3), 496–518 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

G. Schaepman-Strub, M. E. Schaepman, T. H. Painter, S. Dangel, and J. V. Martonchik, “Reflectance quantities in optical remote sensing-definitions and case studies,” Remote Sens. Environ. 103(1), 27–42 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Anderson, E. J. Milton, and E. M. Rollin, “Calibration of dual-beam spectroradiometric data,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 27(5), 975–986 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

E. Karpouzli, T. J. Malthus, and C. J. Place, “Hyperspectral discrimination of coral reef benthic communities in the western Carribean,” Coral Reefs 23(1), 141–151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. Lewis, V. Jooste, and A. A. de Gasparis, “Discrimination of arid vegetation with airborne multispectral scanner hyperspectral imagery,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 39(7), 1471–1479 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

M. A. Gilabert and J. Melia, “Solar angle and sky light effects on ground reflectance measurements in a citrus canopy,” Remote Sens. Environ. 45(3), 281–293 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

M. J. Duggin, “The field measurement of reflectance factors,” Photgrammetry Eng. Rem. Sens. 46, 643–647 (1980).

1979 (1)

K. T. Kriebel, “Albedo of vegetated surfaces: its variability with differing irradiances,” Remote Sens. Environ. 8(4), 283–290 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

K. T. Kriebel, “Average variability of the radiation reflected by vegetated surfaces due to differing irradiations,” Remote Sens. Environ. 7(1), 81–83 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

K. T. Kriebel, “On the variability of the reflected radiation field due to differing distributions of the irradiation,” Remote Sens. Environ. 4, 257–264 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, K.

E. J. Milton, M. E. Schaepman, K. Anderson, M. Kneubuhler, and N. Fox, “Progress in field spectroscopy,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, S92–S109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Anderson, E. J. Milton, and E. M. Rollin, “Calibration of dual-beam spectroradiometric data,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 27(5), 975–986 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bachmann, C. M.

C. M. Bachmann, M. J. Montes, R. A. Fusina, C. Parrish, J. Sellars, A. Weidemann, W. Goode, C. R. Nichols, P. Woodward, K. McIlhany, V. Hill, R. Zimmerman, D. Korwan, B. Truitt, and A. Schwarzschild, “Bathymetry retrieval from hyperspectral imagery in the very shallow water limit: a case study from the 2007 Virginia Coast Reserve (VCR ’07) multi-sensor campaign,” Mar. Geod. 33(1), 53–75 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Bachmann, C. R. Nichols, M. Montes, R. Li, P. Woodward, R. A. Fusina, W. Chen, V. Mishra, W. Kim, J. Monty, K. McIlhany, K. Kessler, D. Korwan, D. Miller, E. Bennert, G. Smith, D. Gillis, J. Sellers, C. Parrish, A. Schwarzschild, and B. Truitt, “Retrieval of substrate bearing strength from hyperspectral imagery during the Virginia Coast Reserve (VCR ’07) multi-sensor campaign,” Mar. Geod. 33(2–3), 101–116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Barrett, D. J.

J. P. Guerschman, M. J. Hill, L. J. Renzullo, D. J. Barrett, A. S. Marks, and E. J. Botha, “Estimating fractional cover of photosynthetic vegetation, non-photosynthetic vegetation and bare soil in the Australian tropical savanna region upscaling the EO-1 Hyperion and MODIS sensors,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113(5), 928–945 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bennert, E.

C. M. Bachmann, C. R. Nichols, M. Montes, R. Li, P. Woodward, R. A. Fusina, W. Chen, V. Mishra, W. Kim, J. Monty, K. McIlhany, K. Kessler, D. Korwan, D. Miller, E. Bennert, G. Smith, D. Gillis, J. Sellers, C. Parrish, A. Schwarzschild, and B. Truitt, “Retrieval of substrate bearing strength from hyperspectral imagery during the Virginia Coast Reserve (VCR ’07) multi-sensor campaign,” Mar. Geod. 33(2–3), 101–116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bissett, W. P.

Botha, E. J.

J. P. Guerschman, M. J. Hill, L. J. Renzullo, D. J. Barrett, A. S. Marks, and E. J. Botha, “Estimating fractional cover of photosynthetic vegetation, non-photosynthetic vegetation and bare soil in the Australian tropical savanna region upscaling the EO-1 Hyperion and MODIS sensors,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113(5), 928–945 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bowles, J. H.

Brown, D. J.

G. Serbin, C. S. T. Daughtry, E. R. Hunt, J. B. Reeves, and D. J. Brown, “Effects of soil composition and mineralogy on remote sensing of crop residue cover,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113(1), 224–238 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bue, B. D.

B. D. Bue, E. Merenyi, and B. Csatho, “Automated labeling of materials in hyperspectral imagery,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 48(11), 4059–4070 (2010).

Busetto, L.

Cattle, S. R.

R. A. V. Rossel, S. R. Cattle, A. Ortega, and Y. Fouad, “In situ measurements of soil colour, mineral composition and clay content by vis-NIR spectroscopy,” Geoderma 150(3-4), 253–266 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

C. M. Bachmann, C. R. Nichols, M. Montes, R. Li, P. Woodward, R. A. Fusina, W. Chen, V. Mishra, W. Kim, J. Monty, K. McIlhany, K. Kessler, D. Korwan, D. Miller, E. Bennert, G. Smith, D. Gillis, J. Sellers, C. Parrish, A. Schwarzschild, and B. Truitt, “Retrieval of substrate bearing strength from hyperspectral imagery during the Virginia Coast Reserve (VCR ’07) multi-sensor campaign,” Mar. Geod. 33(2–3), 101–116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cogliati, S.

Colombo, R.

Coppin, P.

J. Stuckens, B. Somers, W. W. Verstraeten, R. Swennen, and P. Coppin, “Evaluation and normalization of cloud obscuration related brdf effects in field spectroscopy,” Remote Sens. 1(3), 496–518 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Crosta, G. F.

Csatho, B.

B. D. Bue, E. Merenyi, and B. Csatho, “Automated labeling of materials in hyperspectral imagery,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 48(11), 4059–4070 (2010).

Dangel, S.

G. Schaepman-Strub, M. E. Schaepman, T. H. Painter, S. Dangel, and J. V. Martonchik, “Reflectance quantities in optical remote sensing-definitions and case studies,” Remote Sens. Environ. 103(1), 27–42 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Daughtry, C. S. T.

G. Serbin, C. S. T. Daughtry, E. R. Hunt, J. B. Reeves, and D. J. Brown, “Effects of soil composition and mineralogy on remote sensing of crop residue cover,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113(1), 224–238 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Davis, C. O.

de Gasparis, A. A.

M. Lewis, V. Jooste, and A. A. de Gasparis, “Discrimination of arid vegetation with airborne multispectral scanner hyperspectral imagery,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 39(7), 1471–1479 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dennison, P. E.

K. N. Youngentob, D. A. Roberts, A. A. Held, P. E. Dennison, X. Jia, and D. B. Lindenmayer, “Mapping two Eucalyptus subgenera using multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis and continuum-removed imaging spectrometry data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 115(5), 1115–1128 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Downes, T. V.

Duggin, M. J.

M. J. Duggin, “The field measurement of reflectance factors,” Photgrammetry Eng. Rem. Sens. 46, 643–647 (1980).

Fouad, Y.

R. A. V. Rossel, S. R. Cattle, A. Ortega, and Y. Fouad, “In situ measurements of soil colour, mineral composition and clay content by vis-NIR spectroscopy,” Geoderma 150(3-4), 253–266 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fox, N.

E. J. Milton, M. E. Schaepman, K. Anderson, M. Kneubuhler, and N. Fox, “Progress in field spectroscopy,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, S92–S109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fusina, R. A.

C. M. Bachmann, C. R. Nichols, M. Montes, R. Li, P. Woodward, R. A. Fusina, W. Chen, V. Mishra, W. Kim, J. Monty, K. McIlhany, K. Kessler, D. Korwan, D. Miller, E. Bennert, G. Smith, D. Gillis, J. Sellers, C. Parrish, A. Schwarzschild, and B. Truitt, “Retrieval of substrate bearing strength from hyperspectral imagery during the Virginia Coast Reserve (VCR ’07) multi-sensor campaign,” Mar. Geod. 33(2–3), 101–116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Bachmann, M. J. Montes, R. A. Fusina, C. Parrish, J. Sellars, A. Weidemann, W. Goode, C. R. Nichols, P. Woodward, K. McIlhany, V. Hill, R. Zimmerman, D. Korwan, B. Truitt, and A. Schwarzschild, “Bathymetry retrieval from hyperspectral imagery in the very shallow water limit: a case study from the 2007 Virginia Coast Reserve (VCR ’07) multi-sensor campaign,” Mar. Geod. 33(1), 53–75 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gilabert, M. A.

M. A. Gilabert and J. Melia, “Solar angle and sky light effects on ground reflectance measurements in a citrus canopy,” Remote Sens. Environ. 45(3), 281–293 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gillis, D.

C. M. Bachmann, C. R. Nichols, M. Montes, R. Li, P. Woodward, R. A. Fusina, W. Chen, V. Mishra, W. Kim, J. Monty, K. McIlhany, K. Kessler, D. Korwan, D. Miller, E. Bennert, G. Smith, D. Gillis, J. Sellers, C. Parrish, A. Schwarzschild, and B. Truitt, “Retrieval of substrate bearing strength from hyperspectral imagery during the Virginia Coast Reserve (VCR ’07) multi-sensor campaign,” Mar. Geod. 33(2–3), 101–116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gleason, A.

Goode, W.

C. M. Bachmann, M. J. Montes, R. A. Fusina, C. Parrish, J. Sellars, A. Weidemann, W. Goode, C. R. Nichols, P. Woodward, K. McIlhany, V. Hill, R. Zimmerman, D. Korwan, B. Truitt, and A. Schwarzschild, “Bathymetry retrieval from hyperspectral imagery in the very shallow water limit: a case study from the 2007 Virginia Coast Reserve (VCR ’07) multi-sensor campaign,” Mar. Geod. 33(1), 53–75 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Guanter, L.

Guerschman, J. P.

J. P. Guerschman, M. J. Hill, L. J. Renzullo, D. J. Barrett, A. S. Marks, and E. J. Botha, “Estimating fractional cover of photosynthetic vegetation, non-photosynthetic vegetation and bare soil in the Australian tropical savanna region upscaling the EO-1 Hyperion and MODIS sensors,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113(5), 928–945 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Held, A. A.

K. N. Youngentob, D. A. Roberts, A. A. Held, P. E. Dennison, X. Jia, and D. B. Lindenmayer, “Mapping two Eucalyptus subgenera using multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis and continuum-removed imaging spectrometry data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 115(5), 1115–1128 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hill, M. J.

J. P. Guerschman, M. J. Hill, L. J. Renzullo, D. J. Barrett, A. S. Marks, and E. J. Botha, “Estimating fractional cover of photosynthetic vegetation, non-photosynthetic vegetation and bare soil in the Australian tropical savanna region upscaling the EO-1 Hyperion and MODIS sensors,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113(5), 928–945 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hill, V.

C. M. Bachmann, M. J. Montes, R. A. Fusina, C. Parrish, J. Sellars, A. Weidemann, W. Goode, C. R. Nichols, P. Woodward, K. McIlhany, V. Hill, R. Zimmerman, D. Korwan, B. Truitt, and A. Schwarzschild, “Bathymetry retrieval from hyperspectral imagery in the very shallow water limit: a case study from the 2007 Virginia Coast Reserve (VCR ’07) multi-sensor campaign,” Mar. Geod. 33(1), 53–75 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hunt, E. R.

G. Serbin, C. S. T. Daughtry, E. R. Hunt, J. B. Reeves, and D. J. Brown, “Effects of soil composition and mineralogy on remote sensing of crop residue cover,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113(1), 224–238 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jia, X.

K. N. Youngentob, D. A. Roberts, A. A. Held, P. E. Dennison, X. Jia, and D. B. Lindenmayer, “Mapping two Eucalyptus subgenera using multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis and continuum-removed imaging spectrometry data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 115(5), 1115–1128 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jooste, V.

M. Lewis, V. Jooste, and A. A. de Gasparis, “Discrimination of arid vegetation with airborne multispectral scanner hyperspectral imagery,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 39(7), 1471–1479 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Karpouzli, E.

E. Karpouzli, T. J. Malthus, and C. J. Place, “Hyperspectral discrimination of coral reef benthic communities in the western Carribean,” Coral Reefs 23(1), 141–151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kessler, K.

C. M. Bachmann, C. R. Nichols, M. Montes, R. Li, P. Woodward, R. A. Fusina, W. Chen, V. Mishra, W. Kim, J. Monty, K. McIlhany, K. Kessler, D. Korwan, D. Miller, E. Bennert, G. Smith, D. Gillis, J. Sellers, C. Parrish, A. Schwarzschild, and B. Truitt, “Retrieval of substrate bearing strength from hyperspectral imagery during the Virginia Coast Reserve (VCR ’07) multi-sensor campaign,” Mar. Geod. 33(2–3), 101–116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, W.

C. M. Bachmann, C. R. Nichols, M. Montes, R. Li, P. Woodward, R. A. Fusina, W. Chen, V. Mishra, W. Kim, J. Monty, K. McIlhany, K. Kessler, D. Korwan, D. Miller, E. Bennert, G. Smith, D. Gillis, J. Sellers, C. Parrish, A. Schwarzschild, and B. Truitt, “Retrieval of substrate bearing strength from hyperspectral imagery during the Virginia Coast Reserve (VCR ’07) multi-sensor campaign,” Mar. Geod. 33(2–3), 101–116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kneubuhler, M.

E. J. Milton, M. E. Schaepman, K. Anderson, M. Kneubuhler, and N. Fox, “Progress in field spectroscopy,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, S92–S109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kohler, D. D.

Korwan, D.

C. M. Bachmann, C. R. Nichols, M. Montes, R. Li, P. Woodward, R. A. Fusina, W. Chen, V. Mishra, W. Kim, J. Monty, K. McIlhany, K. Kessler, D. Korwan, D. Miller, E. Bennert, G. Smith, D. Gillis, J. Sellers, C. Parrish, A. Schwarzschild, and B. Truitt, “Retrieval of substrate bearing strength from hyperspectral imagery during the Virginia Coast Reserve (VCR ’07) multi-sensor campaign,” Mar. Geod. 33(2–3), 101–116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Bachmann, M. J. Montes, R. A. Fusina, C. Parrish, J. Sellars, A. Weidemann, W. Goode, C. R. Nichols, P. Woodward, K. McIlhany, V. Hill, R. Zimmerman, D. Korwan, B. Truitt, and A. Schwarzschild, “Bathymetry retrieval from hyperspectral imagery in the very shallow water limit: a case study from the 2007 Virginia Coast Reserve (VCR ’07) multi-sensor campaign,” Mar. Geod. 33(1), 53–75 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kriebel, K. T.

K. T. Kriebel, “Albedo of vegetated surfaces: its variability with differing irradiances,” Remote Sens. Environ. 8(4), 283–290 (1979).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Kriebel, “Average variability of the radiation reflected by vegetated surfaces due to differing irradiations,” Remote Sens. Environ. 7(1), 81–83 (1978).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Kriebel, “On the variability of the reflected radiation field due to differing distributions of the irradiation,” Remote Sens. Environ. 4, 257–264 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Leathers, R. A.

Lewis, M.

M. Lewis, V. Jooste, and A. A. de Gasparis, “Discrimination of arid vegetation with airborne multispectral scanner hyperspectral imagery,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 39(7), 1471–1479 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Li, R.

C. M. Bachmann, C. R. Nichols, M. Montes, R. Li, P. Woodward, R. A. Fusina, W. Chen, V. Mishra, W. Kim, J. Monty, K. McIlhany, K. Kessler, D. Korwan, D. Miller, E. Bennert, G. Smith, D. Gillis, J. Sellers, C. Parrish, A. Schwarzschild, and B. Truitt, “Retrieval of substrate bearing strength from hyperspectral imagery during the Virginia Coast Reserve (VCR ’07) multi-sensor campaign,” Mar. Geod. 33(2–3), 101–116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lindenmayer, D. B.

K. N. Youngentob, D. A. Roberts, A. A. Held, P. E. Dennison, X. Jia, and D. B. Lindenmayer, “Mapping two Eucalyptus subgenera using multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis and continuum-removed imaging spectrometry data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 115(5), 1115–1128 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Louchard, E. M.

Malthus, T. J.

E. Karpouzli, T. J. Malthus, and C. J. Place, “Hyperspectral discrimination of coral reef benthic communities in the western Carribean,” Coral Reefs 23(1), 141–151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Marks, A. S.

J. P. Guerschman, M. J. Hill, L. J. Renzullo, D. J. Barrett, A. S. Marks, and E. J. Botha, “Estimating fractional cover of photosynthetic vegetation, non-photosynthetic vegetation and bare soil in the Australian tropical savanna region upscaling the EO-1 Hyperion and MODIS sensors,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113(5), 928–945 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Martonchik, J. V.

G. Schaepman-Strub, M. E. Schaepman, T. H. Painter, S. Dangel, and J. V. Martonchik, “Reflectance quantities in optical remote sensing-definitions and case studies,” Remote Sens. Environ. 103(1), 27–42 (2006).
[CrossRef]

McIlhany, K.

C. M. Bachmann, C. R. Nichols, M. Montes, R. Li, P. Woodward, R. A. Fusina, W. Chen, V. Mishra, W. Kim, J. Monty, K. McIlhany, K. Kessler, D. Korwan, D. Miller, E. Bennert, G. Smith, D. Gillis, J. Sellers, C. Parrish, A. Schwarzschild, and B. Truitt, “Retrieval of substrate bearing strength from hyperspectral imagery during the Virginia Coast Reserve (VCR ’07) multi-sensor campaign,” Mar. Geod. 33(2–3), 101–116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Bachmann, M. J. Montes, R. A. Fusina, C. Parrish, J. Sellars, A. Weidemann, W. Goode, C. R. Nichols, P. Woodward, K. McIlhany, V. Hill, R. Zimmerman, D. Korwan, B. Truitt, and A. Schwarzschild, “Bathymetry retrieval from hyperspectral imagery in the very shallow water limit: a case study from the 2007 Virginia Coast Reserve (VCR ’07) multi-sensor campaign,” Mar. Geod. 33(1), 53–75 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Melia, J.

M. A. Gilabert and J. Melia, “Solar angle and sky light effects on ground reflectance measurements in a citrus canopy,” Remote Sens. Environ. 45(3), 281–293 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Merenyi, E.

B. D. Bue, E. Merenyi, and B. Csatho, “Automated labeling of materials in hyperspectral imagery,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 48(11), 4059–4070 (2010).

Meroni, M.

Migliavacca, M.

Miller, D.

C. M. Bachmann, C. R. Nichols, M. Montes, R. Li, P. Woodward, R. A. Fusina, W. Chen, V. Mishra, W. Kim, J. Monty, K. McIlhany, K. Kessler, D. Korwan, D. Miller, E. Bennert, G. Smith, D. Gillis, J. Sellers, C. Parrish, A. Schwarzschild, and B. Truitt, “Retrieval of substrate bearing strength from hyperspectral imagery during the Virginia Coast Reserve (VCR ’07) multi-sensor campaign,” Mar. Geod. 33(2–3), 101–116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Milton, E. J.

E. J. Milton, M. E. Schaepman, K. Anderson, M. Kneubuhler, and N. Fox, “Progress in field spectroscopy,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, S92–S109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Anderson, E. J. Milton, and E. M. Rollin, “Calibration of dual-beam spectroradiometric data,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 27(5), 975–986 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mishra, V.

C. M. Bachmann, C. R. Nichols, M. Montes, R. Li, P. Woodward, R. A. Fusina, W. Chen, V. Mishra, W. Kim, J. Monty, K. McIlhany, K. Kessler, D. Korwan, D. Miller, E. Bennert, G. Smith, D. Gillis, J. Sellers, C. Parrish, A. Schwarzschild, and B. Truitt, “Retrieval of substrate bearing strength from hyperspectral imagery during the Virginia Coast Reserve (VCR ’07) multi-sensor campaign,” Mar. Geod. 33(2–3), 101–116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mobley, C. D.

Montes, M.

C. M. Bachmann, C. R. Nichols, M. Montes, R. Li, P. Woodward, R. A. Fusina, W. Chen, V. Mishra, W. Kim, J. Monty, K. McIlhany, K. Kessler, D. Korwan, D. Miller, E. Bennert, G. Smith, D. Gillis, J. Sellers, C. Parrish, A. Schwarzschild, and B. Truitt, “Retrieval of substrate bearing strength from hyperspectral imagery during the Virginia Coast Reserve (VCR ’07) multi-sensor campaign,” Mar. Geod. 33(2–3), 101–116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Montes, M. J.

C. M. Bachmann, M. J. Montes, R. A. Fusina, C. Parrish, J. Sellars, A. Weidemann, W. Goode, C. R. Nichols, P. Woodward, K. McIlhany, V. Hill, R. Zimmerman, D. Korwan, B. Truitt, and A. Schwarzschild, “Bathymetry retrieval from hyperspectral imagery in the very shallow water limit: a case study from the 2007 Virginia Coast Reserve (VCR ’07) multi-sensor campaign,” Mar. Geod. 33(1), 53–75 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, C. O. Davis, J. H. Bowles, T. V. Downes, R. A. Leathers, M. J. Montes, W. P. Bissett, D. D. Kohler, R. P. Reid, E. M. Louchard, and A. Gleason, “Interpretation of hyperspectral remote-sensing imagery by spectrum matching and look-up tables,” Appl. Opt. 44(17), 3576–3592 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monty, J.

C. M. Bachmann, C. R. Nichols, M. Montes, R. Li, P. Woodward, R. A. Fusina, W. Chen, V. Mishra, W. Kim, J. Monty, K. McIlhany, K. Kessler, D. Korwan, D. Miller, E. Bennert, G. Smith, D. Gillis, J. Sellers, C. Parrish, A. Schwarzschild, and B. Truitt, “Retrieval of substrate bearing strength from hyperspectral imagery during the Virginia Coast Reserve (VCR ’07) multi-sensor campaign,” Mar. Geod. 33(2–3), 101–116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nichols, C. R.

C. M. Bachmann, M. J. Montes, R. A. Fusina, C. Parrish, J. Sellars, A. Weidemann, W. Goode, C. R. Nichols, P. Woodward, K. McIlhany, V. Hill, R. Zimmerman, D. Korwan, B. Truitt, and A. Schwarzschild, “Bathymetry retrieval from hyperspectral imagery in the very shallow water limit: a case study from the 2007 Virginia Coast Reserve (VCR ’07) multi-sensor campaign,” Mar. Geod. 33(1), 53–75 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Bachmann, C. R. Nichols, M. Montes, R. Li, P. Woodward, R. A. Fusina, W. Chen, V. Mishra, W. Kim, J. Monty, K. McIlhany, K. Kessler, D. Korwan, D. Miller, E. Bennert, G. Smith, D. Gillis, J. Sellers, C. Parrish, A. Schwarzschild, and B. Truitt, “Retrieval of substrate bearing strength from hyperspectral imagery during the Virginia Coast Reserve (VCR ’07) multi-sensor campaign,” Mar. Geod. 33(2–3), 101–116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ortega, A.

R. A. V. Rossel, S. R. Cattle, A. Ortega, and Y. Fouad, “In situ measurements of soil colour, mineral composition and clay content by vis-NIR spectroscopy,” Geoderma 150(3-4), 253–266 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Painter, T. H.

G. Schaepman-Strub, M. E. Schaepman, T. H. Painter, S. Dangel, and J. V. Martonchik, “Reflectance quantities in optical remote sensing-definitions and case studies,” Remote Sens. Environ. 103(1), 27–42 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Panigada, C.

Parrish, C.

C. M. Bachmann, M. J. Montes, R. A. Fusina, C. Parrish, J. Sellars, A. Weidemann, W. Goode, C. R. Nichols, P. Woodward, K. McIlhany, V. Hill, R. Zimmerman, D. Korwan, B. Truitt, and A. Schwarzschild, “Bathymetry retrieval from hyperspectral imagery in the very shallow water limit: a case study from the 2007 Virginia Coast Reserve (VCR ’07) multi-sensor campaign,” Mar. Geod. 33(1), 53–75 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Bachmann, C. R. Nichols, M. Montes, R. Li, P. Woodward, R. A. Fusina, W. Chen, V. Mishra, W. Kim, J. Monty, K. McIlhany, K. Kessler, D. Korwan, D. Miller, E. Bennert, G. Smith, D. Gillis, J. Sellers, C. Parrish, A. Schwarzschild, and B. Truitt, “Retrieval of substrate bearing strength from hyperspectral imagery during the Virginia Coast Reserve (VCR ’07) multi-sensor campaign,” Mar. Geod. 33(2–3), 101–116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Place, C. J.

E. Karpouzli, T. J. Malthus, and C. J. Place, “Hyperspectral discrimination of coral reef benthic communities in the western Carribean,” Coral Reefs 23(1), 141–151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Reeves, J. B.

G. Serbin, C. S. T. Daughtry, E. R. Hunt, J. B. Reeves, and D. J. Brown, “Effects of soil composition and mineralogy on remote sensing of crop residue cover,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113(1), 224–238 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Reid, R. P.

Renzullo, L. J.

J. P. Guerschman, M. J. Hill, L. J. Renzullo, D. J. Barrett, A. S. Marks, and E. J. Botha, “Estimating fractional cover of photosynthetic vegetation, non-photosynthetic vegetation and bare soil in the Australian tropical savanna region upscaling the EO-1 Hyperion and MODIS sensors,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113(5), 928–945 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, D. A.

K. N. Youngentob, D. A. Roberts, A. A. Held, P. E. Dennison, X. Jia, and D. B. Lindenmayer, “Mapping two Eucalyptus subgenera using multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis and continuum-removed imaging spectrometry data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 115(5), 1115–1128 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rollin, E. M.

K. Anderson, E. J. Milton, and E. M. Rollin, “Calibration of dual-beam spectroradiometric data,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 27(5), 975–986 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rossel, R. A. V.

R. A. V. Rossel, S. R. Cattle, A. Ortega, and Y. Fouad, “In situ measurements of soil colour, mineral composition and clay content by vis-NIR spectroscopy,” Geoderma 150(3-4), 253–266 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rossini, M.

Schaepman, M. E.

E. J. Milton, M. E. Schaepman, K. Anderson, M. Kneubuhler, and N. Fox, “Progress in field spectroscopy,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, S92–S109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Schaepman-Strub, M. E. Schaepman, T. H. Painter, S. Dangel, and J. V. Martonchik, “Reflectance quantities in optical remote sensing-definitions and case studies,” Remote Sens. Environ. 103(1), 27–42 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schaepman-Strub, G.

G. Schaepman-Strub, M. E. Schaepman, T. H. Painter, S. Dangel, and J. V. Martonchik, “Reflectance quantities in optical remote sensing-definitions and case studies,” Remote Sens. Environ. 103(1), 27–42 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schwarzschild, A.

C. M. Bachmann, C. R. Nichols, M. Montes, R. Li, P. Woodward, R. A. Fusina, W. Chen, V. Mishra, W. Kim, J. Monty, K. McIlhany, K. Kessler, D. Korwan, D. Miller, E. Bennert, G. Smith, D. Gillis, J. Sellers, C. Parrish, A. Schwarzschild, and B. Truitt, “Retrieval of substrate bearing strength from hyperspectral imagery during the Virginia Coast Reserve (VCR ’07) multi-sensor campaign,” Mar. Geod. 33(2–3), 101–116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Bachmann, M. J. Montes, R. A. Fusina, C. Parrish, J. Sellars, A. Weidemann, W. Goode, C. R. Nichols, P. Woodward, K. McIlhany, V. Hill, R. Zimmerman, D. Korwan, B. Truitt, and A. Schwarzschild, “Bathymetry retrieval from hyperspectral imagery in the very shallow water limit: a case study from the 2007 Virginia Coast Reserve (VCR ’07) multi-sensor campaign,” Mar. Geod. 33(1), 53–75 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sellars, J.

C. M. Bachmann, M. J. Montes, R. A. Fusina, C. Parrish, J. Sellars, A. Weidemann, W. Goode, C. R. Nichols, P. Woodward, K. McIlhany, V. Hill, R. Zimmerman, D. Korwan, B. Truitt, and A. Schwarzschild, “Bathymetry retrieval from hyperspectral imagery in the very shallow water limit: a case study from the 2007 Virginia Coast Reserve (VCR ’07) multi-sensor campaign,” Mar. Geod. 33(1), 53–75 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sellers, J.

C. M. Bachmann, C. R. Nichols, M. Montes, R. Li, P. Woodward, R. A. Fusina, W. Chen, V. Mishra, W. Kim, J. Monty, K. McIlhany, K. Kessler, D. Korwan, D. Miller, E. Bennert, G. Smith, D. Gillis, J. Sellers, C. Parrish, A. Schwarzschild, and B. Truitt, “Retrieval of substrate bearing strength from hyperspectral imagery during the Virginia Coast Reserve (VCR ’07) multi-sensor campaign,” Mar. Geod. 33(2–3), 101–116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Serbin, G.

G. Serbin, C. S. T. Daughtry, E. R. Hunt, J. B. Reeves, and D. J. Brown, “Effects of soil composition and mineralogy on remote sensing of crop residue cover,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113(1), 224–238 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Smith, G.

C. M. Bachmann, C. R. Nichols, M. Montes, R. Li, P. Woodward, R. A. Fusina, W. Chen, V. Mishra, W. Kim, J. Monty, K. McIlhany, K. Kessler, D. Korwan, D. Miller, E. Bennert, G. Smith, D. Gillis, J. Sellers, C. Parrish, A. Schwarzschild, and B. Truitt, “Retrieval of substrate bearing strength from hyperspectral imagery during the Virginia Coast Reserve (VCR ’07) multi-sensor campaign,” Mar. Geod. 33(2–3), 101–116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Somers, B.

J. Stuckens, B. Somers, W. W. Verstraeten, R. Swennen, and P. Coppin, “Evaluation and normalization of cloud obscuration related brdf effects in field spectroscopy,” Remote Sens. 1(3), 496–518 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stuckens, J.

J. Stuckens, B. Somers, W. W. Verstraeten, R. Swennen, and P. Coppin, “Evaluation and normalization of cloud obscuration related brdf effects in field spectroscopy,” Remote Sens. 1(3), 496–518 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sundman, L. K.

Swennen, R.

J. Stuckens, B. Somers, W. W. Verstraeten, R. Swennen, and P. Coppin, “Evaluation and normalization of cloud obscuration related brdf effects in field spectroscopy,” Remote Sens. 1(3), 496–518 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Trabucco, A.

R. J. Zomer, A. Trabucco, and S. L. Ustin, “Building spectral libraries for wetlands land cover classification and hyperspectral remote sensing,” J. Environ. Manage. 90(7), 2170–2177 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Truitt, B.

C. M. Bachmann, C. R. Nichols, M. Montes, R. Li, P. Woodward, R. A. Fusina, W. Chen, V. Mishra, W. Kim, J. Monty, K. McIlhany, K. Kessler, D. Korwan, D. Miller, E. Bennert, G. Smith, D. Gillis, J. Sellers, C. Parrish, A. Schwarzschild, and B. Truitt, “Retrieval of substrate bearing strength from hyperspectral imagery during the Virginia Coast Reserve (VCR ’07) multi-sensor campaign,” Mar. Geod. 33(2–3), 101–116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Bachmann, M. J. Montes, R. A. Fusina, C. Parrish, J. Sellars, A. Weidemann, W. Goode, C. R. Nichols, P. Woodward, K. McIlhany, V. Hill, R. Zimmerman, D. Korwan, B. Truitt, and A. Schwarzschild, “Bathymetry retrieval from hyperspectral imagery in the very shallow water limit: a case study from the 2007 Virginia Coast Reserve (VCR ’07) multi-sensor campaign,” Mar. Geod. 33(1), 53–75 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ustin, S. L.

R. J. Zomer, A. Trabucco, and S. L. Ustin, “Building spectral libraries for wetlands land cover classification and hyperspectral remote sensing,” J. Environ. Manage. 90(7), 2170–2177 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verstraeten, W. W.

J. Stuckens, B. Somers, W. W. Verstraeten, R. Swennen, and P. Coppin, “Evaluation and normalization of cloud obscuration related brdf effects in field spectroscopy,” Remote Sens. 1(3), 496–518 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Weidemann, A.

C. M. Bachmann, M. J. Montes, R. A. Fusina, C. Parrish, J. Sellars, A. Weidemann, W. Goode, C. R. Nichols, P. Woodward, K. McIlhany, V. Hill, R. Zimmerman, D. Korwan, B. Truitt, and A. Schwarzschild, “Bathymetry retrieval from hyperspectral imagery in the very shallow water limit: a case study from the 2007 Virginia Coast Reserve (VCR ’07) multi-sensor campaign,” Mar. Geod. 33(1), 53–75 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Woodward, P.

C. M. Bachmann, M. J. Montes, R. A. Fusina, C. Parrish, J. Sellars, A. Weidemann, W. Goode, C. R. Nichols, P. Woodward, K. McIlhany, V. Hill, R. Zimmerman, D. Korwan, B. Truitt, and A. Schwarzschild, “Bathymetry retrieval from hyperspectral imagery in the very shallow water limit: a case study from the 2007 Virginia Coast Reserve (VCR ’07) multi-sensor campaign,” Mar. Geod. 33(1), 53–75 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Bachmann, C. R. Nichols, M. Montes, R. Li, P. Woodward, R. A. Fusina, W. Chen, V. Mishra, W. Kim, J. Monty, K. McIlhany, K. Kessler, D. Korwan, D. Miller, E. Bennert, G. Smith, D. Gillis, J. Sellers, C. Parrish, A. Schwarzschild, and B. Truitt, “Retrieval of substrate bearing strength from hyperspectral imagery during the Virginia Coast Reserve (VCR ’07) multi-sensor campaign,” Mar. Geod. 33(2–3), 101–116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Youngentob, K. N.

K. N. Youngentob, D. A. Roberts, A. A. Held, P. E. Dennison, X. Jia, and D. B. Lindenmayer, “Mapping two Eucalyptus subgenera using multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis and continuum-removed imaging spectrometry data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 115(5), 1115–1128 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zimmerman, R.

C. M. Bachmann, M. J. Montes, R. A. Fusina, C. Parrish, J. Sellars, A. Weidemann, W. Goode, C. R. Nichols, P. Woodward, K. McIlhany, V. Hill, R. Zimmerman, D. Korwan, B. Truitt, and A. Schwarzschild, “Bathymetry retrieval from hyperspectral imagery in the very shallow water limit: a case study from the 2007 Virginia Coast Reserve (VCR ’07) multi-sensor campaign,” Mar. Geod. 33(1), 53–75 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zomer, R. J.

R. J. Zomer, A. Trabucco, and S. L. Ustin, “Building spectral libraries for wetlands land cover classification and hyperspectral remote sensing,” J. Environ. Manage. 90(7), 2170–2177 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Coral Reefs (1)

E. Karpouzli, T. J. Malthus, and C. J. Place, “Hyperspectral discrimination of coral reef benthic communities in the western Carribean,” Coral Reefs 23(1), 141–151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Geoderma (1)

R. A. V. Rossel, S. R. Cattle, A. Ortega, and Y. Fouad, “In situ measurements of soil colour, mineral composition and clay content by vis-NIR spectroscopy,” Geoderma 150(3-4), 253–266 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (2)

B. D. Bue, E. Merenyi, and B. Csatho, “Automated labeling of materials in hyperspectral imagery,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 48(11), 4059–4070 (2010).

M. Lewis, V. Jooste, and A. A. de Gasparis, “Discrimination of arid vegetation with airborne multispectral scanner hyperspectral imagery,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 39(7), 1471–1479 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Remote Sens. (1)

K. Anderson, E. J. Milton, and E. M. Rollin, “Calibration of dual-beam spectroradiometric data,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 27(5), 975–986 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Environ. Manage. (1)

R. J. Zomer, A. Trabucco, and S. L. Ustin, “Building spectral libraries for wetlands land cover classification and hyperspectral remote sensing,” J. Environ. Manage. 90(7), 2170–2177 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mar. Geod. (2)

C. M. Bachmann, M. J. Montes, R. A. Fusina, C. Parrish, J. Sellars, A. Weidemann, W. Goode, C. R. Nichols, P. Woodward, K. McIlhany, V. Hill, R. Zimmerman, D. Korwan, B. Truitt, and A. Schwarzschild, “Bathymetry retrieval from hyperspectral imagery in the very shallow water limit: a case study from the 2007 Virginia Coast Reserve (VCR ’07) multi-sensor campaign,” Mar. Geod. 33(1), 53–75 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Bachmann, C. R. Nichols, M. Montes, R. Li, P. Woodward, R. A. Fusina, W. Chen, V. Mishra, W. Kim, J. Monty, K. McIlhany, K. Kessler, D. Korwan, D. Miller, E. Bennert, G. Smith, D. Gillis, J. Sellers, C. Parrish, A. Schwarzschild, and B. Truitt, “Retrieval of substrate bearing strength from hyperspectral imagery during the Virginia Coast Reserve (VCR ’07) multi-sensor campaign,” Mar. Geod. 33(2–3), 101–116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Photgrammetry Eng. Rem. Sens. (1)

M. J. Duggin, “The field measurement of reflectance factors,” Photgrammetry Eng. Rem. Sens. 46, 643–647 (1980).

Remote Sens. (1)

J. Stuckens, B. Somers, W. W. Verstraeten, R. Swennen, and P. Coppin, “Evaluation and normalization of cloud obscuration related brdf effects in field spectroscopy,” Remote Sens. 1(3), 496–518 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sens. Environ. (9)

E. J. Milton, M. E. Schaepman, K. Anderson, M. Kneubuhler, and N. Fox, “Progress in field spectroscopy,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, S92–S109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Schaepman-Strub, M. E. Schaepman, T. H. Painter, S. Dangel, and J. V. Martonchik, “Reflectance quantities in optical remote sensing-definitions and case studies,” Remote Sens. Environ. 103(1), 27–42 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Kriebel, “On the variability of the reflected radiation field due to differing distributions of the irradiation,” Remote Sens. Environ. 4, 257–264 (1975).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Kriebel, “Average variability of the radiation reflected by vegetated surfaces due to differing irradiations,” Remote Sens. Environ. 7(1), 81–83 (1978).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Kriebel, “Albedo of vegetated surfaces: its variability with differing irradiances,” Remote Sens. Environ. 8(4), 283–290 (1979).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Gilabert and J. Melia, “Solar angle and sky light effects on ground reflectance measurements in a citrus canopy,” Remote Sens. Environ. 45(3), 281–293 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Guerschman, M. J. Hill, L. J. Renzullo, D. J. Barrett, A. S. Marks, and E. J. Botha, “Estimating fractional cover of photosynthetic vegetation, non-photosynthetic vegetation and bare soil in the Australian tropical savanna region upscaling the EO-1 Hyperion and MODIS sensors,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113(5), 928–945 (2009).
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K. N. Youngentob, D. A. Roberts, A. A. Held, P. E. Dennison, X. Jia, and D. B. Lindenmayer, “Mapping two Eucalyptus subgenera using multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis and continuum-removed imaging spectrometry data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 115(5), 1115–1128 (2011).
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Other (6)

C. D. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic Press, 1994).

C. M. Bachmann, C. R. Nichols, M. J. Montes, R. A. Fusina, R.-R. Li, C. Gross, J. Fry, C. Parrish, J. Sellars, S. A. White, C. A. Jones, and K. Lee, “Coastal characterization from hyperspectral imagery: an intercomparison of retrieval properties from three coast types,” in Proc. IGARSS 2010, Honolulu, HI, pp. 138–141.

F. D. van der Meer and S. M. de Jong, Imaging Spectrometry Basic Principles and Prospective Applications (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001).

http://lwa.gov.au/files/products/national-land-and-water-resources-audit/pn21570/pn21570.pdf

http://speclab.cr.usgs.gov/spectral-lib.html

http://support.asdi.com/Document/Documents.aspx

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Two paradigms for measuring reflectance under a clear sky with a portable spectrometer. (Left) mobile measurements with the spectrometer at Waimanalo Bay, HI; (right) fixed position measurements, Hog Island, VA, from tripods in which the white plaque is rotated into the field of view. In each case, white plaque and reference measurements are recorded in alternating sets with target specimen spectral measurements.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dual spectrometer measurement paradigm. (Left) Base station spectrometer continuously records from a white SpectralonTM white reference plaque. (Right) The rover spectrometer records in alternating cycles between a SpectralonTM plaque and the land or water specimen of interest.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measurement of the transfer function at Freshwater Beach, Queensland, Australia. Two ASD full range spectrometers record from two SpectralonTM white reference plaques simultaneously. In the second stage, one spectrometer continues to record from a white reference, while the second spectrometer records from the specimen of interest. Ideally, both plaques should be leveled on fixed tripods where possible to avoid introducing uncertainties in overall reference radiance levels appearing in the reflectance calculations.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

A typical radiance measured from white SpectralonTM plaque by an ASD spectrometer. A large number of narrow band atmospheric absorption features are visible. When two spectrometers are used to measure reflectance under adverse skies, these features are the source of spurious spikes and false specimen absorption features because of relative wavelength shift. Use of a transfer function eliminates these artifacts.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spurious reflectance minima and maxima resulting from shifts in the wavelength grid of the two spectrometers used in the dual mode method in the vicinity of a hypothetical atmospheric absorption feature centered at 500 nm. (Left column) σ = 0.5; (middle column) σ = 1.0 nm; (right column) σ = 4.0 nm. Rows, top to bottom, are shifts of the two spectrometers from the true wavelength grid in opposite directions in amounts: 0.0 nm, 0.1 nm, 0.25 nm, 0.5 nm, 0.75 nm, and 1.0 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Sand spectral reflectance measured by the dual spectrometer method under sub-optimal sky conditions: with (black) and without (red) the use of the plaque-to-plaque transfer function. Small wavelength shifts between the two spectrometers require the use of the transfer function to avoid the appearance of unphysical spikes (seen in the red curve but not in the black). (Inset) Photo showing the site where the spectral data was collected (photo shows a geotechnical measurement being taken at the same location).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Shallow water reflectance spectrum measured using the dual spectrometer method under sub-optimal sky conditions (shown in photograph): with (black) and without (red) the use of the plaque-to-plaque transfer function. Small wavelength shifts between the two spectrometers require the use of the transfer function to avoid the appearance of unphysical spikes (seen in the red curve but not in the black). (Inset photos) The two spectrometers: (above) the rover spectrometer which alternated between white plaque and water measurements; and (below) the base spectrometer which continually monitored a white SpectralonTM plaque.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Top) Time history of radiance measurements taken by the base station spectrometer, continuously monitoring a white plaque (shown only the periods when the two spectrometers overlapped). Brackets show time periods of relative radiometric stability at levels consistent between two base spectrometer cycles that corresponded to distinct sets of rover spectrometer plaque and specimen measurements. These periods for the rover spectrometer were used to compare against the dual spectrometer approach for consistency.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Comparison of dual and single spectrometer reflectance calculations for sand under sub-optimal sky conditions, corresponding to the same example used in Fig. 8. Relatively stable and radiometrically consistent small subsets were chosen by inspecting the base station spectrometer time history of plaque radiance values seen in Fig. 8. These were used to calculate the reflectance by the single spectrometer method, which as expected, produces a result similar to the dual spectrometer approach (differing by 5-6%) using the whole data set. Using the full data with the single spectrometer approach, however, underestimates the true reflectance by as much as 20% because of variation and trends in the plaque and specimen radiances over the whole measurement cycle.

Equations (6)

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R(λ)= C plaque (λ) m( t=0 n1 L (t,λ) specimen ) n( t'=0 m1 L ( t ,λ) plaque )
R(λ)= C plaque (λ) L r,s (λ) L b,x (λ)
Δr(λ)= C plaque (λ) L b,x (λ) L r,s (λ)Δ λ r L r,s (λ) L b,x (λ)Δ λ b L 2 b,x (λ) + C plaque (λ) L r,s (λ) L b,x (λ) Δ λ b =r(λ)( L r,s (λ) L r,s (λ) Δ λ r L b,X (λ) L b,X (λ) Δ λ b )+ C plaque (λ) C plaque (λ) r(λ)Δ λ b
R(λ)= C rover,plaqueY (λ) t =0 n L b,X ( t ,λ) L r,Y ( t ,λ) t=0 s L r,s (t,λ) L b,X (t,λ)
R(λ)= C base,plaqueX (λ) t =0 n L r,Y ( t ,λ) L b,X ( t ,λ) t =0 n L b,X ( t ,λ) L r,Y ( t ,λ) t =0 k L r,s (t,λ) L b,X (t,λ)
C rover,plaqueY (λ)= C base,plaqueX (λ) t =0 n L r,Y ( t ,λ) L b,X ( t ,λ)

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