Abstract

We propose and theoretically demonstrate a novel type of optical Yagi-Uda nanoantennas tunable via variation of the free-carrier density of a semiconductor disk placed in a gap of a metallic dipole feeding element. Unlike its narrowband all-metal counterparts, this nanoantenna exhibits a broadband unidirectional emission and demonstrates a bistable response in a preferential direction of the far-field zone, which opens up unique possibilities for ultrafast control of subwavelength light not attainable with dipole or bowtie architectures.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
  3. D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics 4, 83–91 (2010).
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  4. M. I. Stockman, “Nanofocusing of optical energy in tapered plasmonic waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 137404 (2004).
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  5. H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9, 205–213 (2010).
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  6. N. Liu, M. L. Tang, M. Hentschel, H. Giessen, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Nanoantenna-enhanced gas sensing in a single tailored nanofocus,” Nat. Mater. 10, 631–636 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. F. de Angelis, G. Das, P. Candeloro, M. Patrini, M. Galli, A. Bek, M. Lazzarino, I. Maksymov, C. Liberale, L. C. Andreani, and E. di Fabrizio, “Nanoscale chemical mapping using three-dimensional adiabatic compression of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Nanotech. 5, 67–72 (2010).
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  8. I. S. Maksymov, M. Besbes, J. P. Hugonin, J. Yang, A. Beveratos, I. Sagnes, I. Robert-Philip, and P. Lalanne, “Metal-coated nanocylinder cavity for broadband nonclassical light emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 180502 (2010).
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  9. A. Alú and N. Engheta, “Wireless at the nanoscale: optical interconnects using matched nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 213902 (2010).
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  10. A. F. Koenderink, “Plasmon nanoparticle array waveguides for single photon and single plasmon sources,” Nano Lett. 9, 4228–4233 (2009).
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  19. A. Alú and N. Engheta, “Input impedance, nanocircuit loading, and radiation tuning of optical nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 043901 (2008).
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  20. N. Large, M. Abb, J. Aizpurua, and O. L. Muskens, “Photoconductively loaded plasmonic nanoantenna as building block for ultracompact optical switches,” Nano Lett. 10, 1741–1746 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. M. Abb, P. Albella, J. Aizpurua, and O. L. Muskens, “All-optical control of a single plasmonic nanoantenna –ITO hybrid,” Nano Lett. 11, 2457–2463 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. T. Shegai, S. Chen, V. Milković, G. Zengin, P. Johansson, and M. Käll, “A bimetallic nanoantenna for directional colour routing,” Nat. Commun. 2, 481 (2011).
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  23. I. S. Maksymov and A. E. Miroshnichenko, “Active control over nanofocusing with nanorod plasmonic antennas,” Opt. Express 19, 5888–5894 (2011).
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  24. Y. Alaverdyan, N. Vamivakas, J. Barnes, C. Lebouteiller, J. Hare, and M. Atatüre, “Spectral tunability of a plasmonic antenna with a dielectric nanocrystal,” Opt. Express 19, 18175–18181 (2011).
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  28. N. Engheta, “Circuits with light at nanoscales: optical nanocircuits inspired by metamaterials,” Science 317, 1698–1702 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H.-S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H.-T. Kim, N. Park, Q.-H. Park, K. Ahn, and D.-S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10, 2064–2068 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  32. P. A. Kossyrev, A. Yin, S. G. Cloutier, D. A. Cardimona, D. Huang, P. M. Asling, and J. M. Xu, “Electric field tuning of plasmonic response of nanodot array in liquid crystal matrix,” Nano Lett. 5, 1978–1981 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. J. Berthelot, A. Bouhelier, C. Huang, J. Margueritat, G. Colas-des-Francs, E. Finot, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, S. Kostcheev, H. Ibn El Ahrach, A.-L. Baudrion, J. Plain, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Tuning of an optical dimer nanoantenna by electrically controlling its load impedance,” Nano Lett. 9, 3914–3921 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. C. de Angelis, A. Locatelli, D. Modotto, S. Boscolo, M. Midrio, and A.-D. Capobianco, “Frequency addressing of nano-objects by electrical tuning of optical antennas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 997–1001 (2011).
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    [CrossRef]
  38. J. Li, A. Salandrino, and N. Engheta, “Optical spectrometer at the nanoscale using optical Yagi-Uda nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 195104 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  39. M. Belotti, J. F. Galisteo–López, S. de Angelis, M. Galli, I. S. Maksymov, L. C. Andreani, D. Peyrade, and Y. Chen, “All-optical switching in 2D silicon photonic crystals with low loss waveguides and optical cavities,” Opt. Express 16, 11624–11636 (2008).
    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. A. Berrier, P. Albella, M. Ameen Poyli, R. Ulbricht, M. Bonn, J. Aizpurua, and J. Gómez–Rivas, “Detection of deep-subwavelength dielectric layers at terahertz frequencies using semiconductor plasmonic resonators,” Opt. Express 20, 5052–5060 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  44. J. Zuloaga and P. Nordlander, “On the energy shift between near-field and far-field peak intensities in localized plasmon systems,” Nano Lett. 11, 1280–1283 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  45. H. X. Xu, J. Aizpurua, M. Käll, and P. Apell, “Electromagnetic contributions to single-molecule sensitivity in surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. E 62, 4318–4324 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  46. P. Mühlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308, 1607–1609 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  47. A. E. Miroshnichenko, “Nonlinear Fano-Feshbach resonances,” Phys. Rev. E 79, 026611 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  48. P.-Y. Chen and A. Alú, “Optical nanoantenna arrays loaded with nonlinear materials,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 235405 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  49. F. Zhou, Y. Liu, Z.-Y. Li, and Y. Xia, “Analytical model for optical bistability in nonlinear metal nano-antennae involving Kerr materials,” Opt. Express 13, 13337–13344 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2012

2011

V. Giannini, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, S. C. Heck, and S. A. Maier, “Plasmonic nanoantennas: fundamentals and their use in controlling the radiative properties of nanoemitters,” Chem. Rev. 111, 3888–3912 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Novotny and N. F. van Hulst, “Antennas for light,” Nat. Photonics 5, 83–90 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Liu, M. L. Tang, M. Hentschel, H. Giessen, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Nanoantenna-enhanced gas sensing in a single tailored nanofocus,” Nat. Mater. 10, 631–636 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Dregely, R. Taubert, J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, and H. Giessen, “3D optical Yagi-Uda nanoantenna array,” Nat. Commun. 2, 267 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Dorfmüller, D. Dregely, M. Esslinger, W. Khunsin, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, and H. Giessen, “Near-field dynamics of optical Yagi–Uda nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 11, 2819–2824 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. S. Maksymov, A. R. Davoyan, and Yu. S. Kivshar, “Enhanced emission and light control with tapered plasmonic nanoantennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 083304 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Miroshnichenko, I. S. Maksymov, A. R. Davoyan, C. Simovski, P. Belov, and Yu. S. Kivshar, “An arrayed nanoantenna for broadband light emission and detection,” Phys. Status Solidi RRL 5, 347–349 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Abb, P. Albella, J. Aizpurua, and O. L. Muskens, “All-optical control of a single plasmonic nanoantenna –ITO hybrid,” Nano Lett. 11, 2457–2463 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Shegai, S. Chen, V. Milković, G. Zengin, P. Johansson, and M. Käll, “A bimetallic nanoantenna for directional colour routing,” Nat. Commun. 2, 481 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. S. Maksymov and A. E. Miroshnichenko, “Active control over nanofocusing with nanorod plasmonic antennas,” Opt. Express 19, 5888–5894 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Alaverdyan, N. Vamivakas, J. Barnes, C. Lebouteiller, J. Hare, and M. Atatüre, “Spectral tunability of a plasmonic antenna with a dielectric nanocrystal,” Opt. Express 19, 18175–18181 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Y. Ou, E. Plum, L. Jiang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Reconfigurable photonic metamaterials,” Nano Lett. 11, 2142–2144 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. de Angelis, A. Locatelli, D. Modotto, S. Boscolo, M. Midrio, and A.-D. Capobianco, “Frequency addressing of nano-objects by electrical tuning of optical antennas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 997–1001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, P. Albella, Z. Pirzadeh, P. Alonso-González, F. Huth, S. Bonetti, V. Bonanni, J. Åkerman, J. Nogués, P. Vavassori, A. Dmitriev, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Plasmonic nickel nanoantennas,” Small 7, 2341–2347 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

A. E. Nikolaenko, F. de Angelis, S. A. Boden, N. Papasimakis, P. Ashburn, E. di Fabrizio, and N. I. Zheludev, “Carbon nanotubes in a photonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 153902 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H.-S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H.-T. Kim, N. Park, Q.-H. Park, K. Ahn, and D.-S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10, 2064–2068 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9, 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Large, M. Abb, J. Aizpurua, and O. L. Muskens, “Photoconductively loaded plasmonic nanoantenna as building block for ultracompact optical switches,” Nano Lett. 10, 1741–1746 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329, 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kosako, Y. Kadoya, and H. F. Hofmann, “Directional control of light by a nano-optical Yagi-Uda antenna,” Nat. Photonics 4, 312–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Huang and J. J. Baumberg, “Actively tuned plasmons on elastometrically driven Au nanoparticle dimers,” Nano Lett. 10, 1787–1792 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. de Angelis, G. Das, P. Candeloro, M. Patrini, M. Galli, A. Bek, M. Lazzarino, I. Maksymov, C. Liberale, L. C. Andreani, and E. di Fabrizio, “Nanoscale chemical mapping using three-dimensional adiabatic compression of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Nanotech. 5, 67–72 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. S. Maksymov, M. Besbes, J. P. Hugonin, J. Yang, A. Beveratos, I. Sagnes, I. Robert-Philip, and P. Lalanne, “Metal-coated nanocylinder cavity for broadband nonclassical light emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 180502 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Alú and N. Engheta, “Wireless at the nanoscale: optical interconnects using matched nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 213902 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics 4, 83–91 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Miroshnichenko, “Off-resonance field enhancement by spherical nanoshells,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 053818 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Zuloaga and P. Nordlander, “On the energy shift between near-field and far-field peak intensities in localized plasmon systems,” Nano Lett. 11, 1280–1283 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Berrier, R. Ulbricht, M. Bonn, and J. Gómez–Rivas, “Ultrafast active control of localized surface plasmon resonances in silicon bowtie antenna,” Opt. Express 18, 23226–23235 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P.-Y. Chen and A. Alú, “Optical nanoantenna arrays loaded with nonlinear materials,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 235405 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Zhou, Y. Liu, Z.-Y. Li, and Y. Xia, “Analytical model for optical bistability in nonlinear metal nano-antennae involving Kerr materials,” Opt. Express 13, 13337–13344 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

J. Berthelot, A. Bouhelier, C. Huang, J. Margueritat, G. Colas-des-Francs, E. Finot, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, S. Kostcheev, H. Ibn El Ahrach, A.-L. Baudrion, J. Plain, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Tuning of an optical dimer nanoantenna by electrically controlling its load impedance,” Nano Lett. 9, 3914–3921 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Miroshnichenko, “Nonlinear Fano-Feshbach resonances,” Phys. Rev. E 79, 026611 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Koenderink, “Plasmon nanoparticle array waveguides for single photon and single plasmon sources,” Nano Lett. 9, 4228–4233 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. E. Sussman-Fort and R. M. Rudish, “Non-Foster impedance matching of electrically-small antennas,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 57, 2230–2241 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, A. Salandrino, and N. Engheta, “Optical spectrometer at the nanoscale using optical Yagi-Uda nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 195104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

M. Belotti, J. F. Galisteo–López, S. de Angelis, M. Galli, I. S. Maksymov, L. C. Andreani, D. Peyrade, and Y. Chen, “All-optical switching in 2D silicon photonic crystals with low loss waveguides and optical cavities,” Opt. Express 16, 11624–11636 (2008).
[PubMed]

R. W. Ziolkowski and A. Erentok, “Metamaterial-based efficient electrically small antennas,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 54, 2113–2130 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Alú and N. Engheta, “Input impedance, nanocircuit loading, and radiation tuning of optical nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 043901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

N. Engheta, “Circuits with light at nanoscales: optical nanocircuits inspired by metamaterials,” Science 317, 1698–1702 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

P. A. Kossyrev, A. Yin, S. G. Cloutier, D. A. Cardimona, D. Huang, P. M. Asling, and J. M. Xu, “Electric field tuning of plasmonic response of nanodot array in liquid crystal matrix,” Nano Lett. 5, 1978–1981 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Engheta, A. Salandrino, and A. Alú, “Circuit elements at optical frequencies: nanoinductors, nanocapacitors, and nanoresistors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 095504 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. N. Farahani, D. W. Pohl, H.–J. Eisler, and B. Hecht, “Single quantum dot coupled to a scanning optical antenna: a tunable superemitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Mühlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308, 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

M. I. Stockman, “Nanofocusing of optical energy in tapered plasmonic waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 137404 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

H. X. Xu, J. Aizpurua, M. Käll, and P. Apell, “Electromagnetic contributions to single-molecule sensitivity in surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. E 62, 4318–4324 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Abb, M.

M. Abb, P. Albella, J. Aizpurua, and O. L. Muskens, “All-optical control of a single plasmonic nanoantenna –ITO hybrid,” Nano Lett. 11, 2457–2463 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Large, M. Abb, J. Aizpurua, and O. L. Muskens, “Photoconductively loaded plasmonic nanoantenna as building block for ultracompact optical switches,” Nano Lett. 10, 1741–1746 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahn, K.

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H.-S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H.-T. Kim, N. Park, Q.-H. Park, K. Ahn, and D.-S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10, 2064–2068 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahn, Y. H.

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H.-S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H.-T. Kim, N. Park, Q.-H. Park, K. Ahn, and D.-S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10, 2064–2068 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aizpurua, J.

A. Berrier, P. Albella, M. Ameen Poyli, R. Ulbricht, M. Bonn, J. Aizpurua, and J. Gómez–Rivas, “Detection of deep-subwavelength dielectric layers at terahertz frequencies using semiconductor plasmonic resonators,” Opt. Express 20, 5052–5060 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chen, P. Albella, Z. Pirzadeh, P. Alonso-González, F. Huth, S. Bonetti, V. Bonanni, J. Åkerman, J. Nogués, P. Vavassori, A. Dmitriev, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Plasmonic nickel nanoantennas,” Small 7, 2341–2347 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Abb, P. Albella, J. Aizpurua, and O. L. Muskens, “All-optical control of a single plasmonic nanoantenna –ITO hybrid,” Nano Lett. 11, 2457–2463 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Large, M. Abb, J. Aizpurua, and O. L. Muskens, “Photoconductively loaded plasmonic nanoantenna as building block for ultracompact optical switches,” Nano Lett. 10, 1741–1746 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. X. Xu, J. Aizpurua, M. Käll, and P. Apell, “Electromagnetic contributions to single-molecule sensitivity in surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. E 62, 4318–4324 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Åkerman, J.

J. Chen, P. Albella, Z. Pirzadeh, P. Alonso-González, F. Huth, S. Bonetti, V. Bonanni, J. Åkerman, J. Nogués, P. Vavassori, A. Dmitriev, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Plasmonic nickel nanoantennas,” Small 7, 2341–2347 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Alaverdyan, Y.

Albella, P.

A. Berrier, P. Albella, M. Ameen Poyli, R. Ulbricht, M. Bonn, J. Aizpurua, and J. Gómez–Rivas, “Detection of deep-subwavelength dielectric layers at terahertz frequencies using semiconductor plasmonic resonators,” Opt. Express 20, 5052–5060 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chen, P. Albella, Z. Pirzadeh, P. Alonso-González, F. Huth, S. Bonetti, V. Bonanni, J. Åkerman, J. Nogués, P. Vavassori, A. Dmitriev, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Plasmonic nickel nanoantennas,” Small 7, 2341–2347 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Abb, P. Albella, J. Aizpurua, and O. L. Muskens, “All-optical control of a single plasmonic nanoantenna –ITO hybrid,” Nano Lett. 11, 2457–2463 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alivisatos, A. P.

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F. Huang and J. J. Baumberg, “Actively tuned plasmons on elastometrically driven Au nanoparticle dimers,” Nano Lett. 10, 1787–1792 (2010).
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I. S. Maksymov, M. Besbes, J. P. Hugonin, J. Yang, A. Beveratos, I. Sagnes, I. Robert-Philip, and P. Lalanne, “Metal-coated nanocylinder cavity for broadband nonclassical light emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 180502 (2010).
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J. Chen, P. Albella, Z. Pirzadeh, P. Alonso-González, F. Huth, S. Bonetti, V. Bonanni, J. Åkerman, J. Nogués, P. Vavassori, A. Dmitriev, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Plasmonic nickel nanoantennas,” Small 7, 2341–2347 (2011).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A tunable plasmonic Yagi-Uda nanoantenna consisting of silver nanorods used for reflector, feeding element and directors. The yellow area of the feeding elements corresponds to the semiconductor nano-disk used as loading. The nanoantenna is surrounded by air. The semi-transparent red arrow schematically shows the direction of the incident plane wave.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Top) Far-field power spectra of the nanoantenna in the maximum emission direction as a function of the wavelength for different free carrier densities from 0 cm−3 to 3 · 1021 cm−3 (from bottom curve and up). Red dashed line indicates the operating wavelength of a Yagi-Uda nanoantenna with the same dimensions but equipped with an all-metal feeding element. (Bottom) Stationary |E| electric field distributions in the near-field zone of the nanoantenna corresponding to the resonance peaks denoted by the capital letters in the top panel.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Free carrier density in the nano-disk loading of the feeding element as a function of the optical intensity at different operating wavelengths. (b) Absolute value of the electric field in the nano-disk loading as a function of the free carrier density at different operating wavelengths.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a–e) Far-field power angular diagram of the nanoantenna in the E-plane (solid curves) and H-plane (dashed curves) at operating wavelengths (free carrier densities) of 0.95μm (1.9 · 1021 cm−3), 0.975μm (1.5 · 1021 cm−3), 1μm (1.2 · 1021 cm−3), 1.025μm (0.8 · 1021 cm−3) and 1.05μm (0.55 · 1021 cm−3). A dB scale is used to emphasize the difference in the backward lobes. (f–j) Power emitted by the nanoantenna in the maximum emission direction as a function of the optical intensity.

Equations (2)

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ε ( ω ) = ε exp ( ω ) ( ω p ω ) 2 1 1 + i 1 ω τ D ,
N ( t ) t = N ( t ) τ c + c 2 ε 0 2 n 0 2 β TPA 8 h ¯ ω 0 | E ( t ) | 4 ,

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