Abstract

We propose and theoretically demonstrate a novel type of optical Yagi-Uda nanoantennas tunable via variation of the free-carrier density of a semiconductor disk placed in a gap of a metallic dipole feeding element. Unlike its narrowband all-metal counterparts, this nanoantenna exhibits a broadband unidirectional emission and demonstrates a bistable response in a preferential direction of the far-field zone, which opens up unique possibilities for ultrafast control of subwavelength light not attainable with dipole or bowtie architectures.

© 2012 OSA

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  6. N. Liu, M. L. Tang, M. Hentschel, H. Giessen, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Nanoantenna-enhanced gas sensing in a single tailored nanofocus,” Nat. Mater.10, 631–636 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. F. de Angelis, G. Das, P. Candeloro, M. Patrini, M. Galli, A. Bek, M. Lazzarino, I. Maksymov, C. Liberale, L. C. Andreani, and E. di Fabrizio, “Nanoscale chemical mapping using three-dimensional adiabatic compression of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Nanotech.5, 67–72 (2010).
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  9. A. Alú and N. Engheta, “Wireless at the nanoscale: optical interconnects using matched nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104, 213902 (2010).
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  10. A. F. Koenderink, “Plasmon nanoparticle array waveguides for single photon and single plasmon sources,” Nano Lett.9, 4228–4233 (2009).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  21. M. Abb, P. Albella, J. Aizpurua, and O. L. Muskens, “All-optical control of a single plasmonic nanoantenna –ITO hybrid,” Nano Lett.11, 2457–2463 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. T. Shegai, S. Chen, V. Milković, G. Zengin, P. Johansson, and M. Käll, “A bimetallic nanoantenna for directional colour routing,” Nat. Commun.2, 481 (2011).
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  28. N. Engheta, “Circuits with light at nanoscales: optical nanocircuits inspired by metamaterials,” Science317, 1698–1702 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H.-S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H.-T. Kim, N. Park, Q.-H. Park, K. Ahn, and D.-S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett.10, 2064–2068 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. P. A. Kossyrev, A. Yin, S. G. Cloutier, D. A. Cardimona, D. Huang, P. M. Asling, and J. M. Xu, “Electric field tuning of plasmonic response of nanodot array in liquid crystal matrix,” Nano Lett.5, 1978–1981 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  38. J. Li, A. Salandrino, and N. Engheta, “Optical spectrometer at the nanoscale using optical Yagi-Uda nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. B79, 195104 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  39. M. Belotti, J. F. Galisteo–López, S. de Angelis, M. Galli, I. S. Maksymov, L. C. Andreani, D. Peyrade, and Y. Chen, “All-optical switching in 2D silicon photonic crystals with low loss waveguides and optical cavities,” Opt. Express16, 11624–11636 (2008).
    [PubMed]
  40. A. Berrier, R. Ulbricht, M. Bonn, and J. Gómez–Rivas, “Ultrafast active control of localized surface plasmon resonances in silicon bowtie antenna,” Opt. Express18, 23226–23235 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. A. Berrier, P. Albella, M. Ameen Poyli, R. Ulbricht, M. Bonn, J. Aizpurua, and J. Gómez–Rivas, “Detection of deep-subwavelength dielectric layers at terahertz frequencies using semiconductor plasmonic resonators,” Opt. Express20, 5052–5060 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  44. J. Zuloaga and P. Nordlander, “On the energy shift between near-field and far-field peak intensities in localized plasmon systems,” Nano Lett.11, 1280–1283 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  45. H. X. Xu, J. Aizpurua, M. Käll, and P. Apell, “Electromagnetic contributions to single-molecule sensitivity in surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. E62, 4318–4324 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  46. P. Mühlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science308, 1607–1609 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  47. A. E. Miroshnichenko, “Nonlinear Fano-Feshbach resonances,” Phys. Rev. E79, 026611 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  48. P.-Y. Chen and A. Alú, “Optical nanoantenna arrays loaded with nonlinear materials,” Phys. Rev. B82, 235405 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  49. F. Zhou, Y. Liu, Z.-Y. Li, and Y. Xia, “Analytical model for optical bistability in nonlinear metal nano-antennae involving Kerr materials,” Opt. Express13, 13337–13344 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2012

2011

I. S. Maksymov and A. E. Miroshnichenko, “Active control over nanofocusing with nanorod plasmonic antennas,” Opt. Express19, 5888–5894 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Alaverdyan, N. Vamivakas, J. Barnes, C. Lebouteiller, J. Hare, and M. Atatüre, “Spectral tunability of a plasmonic antenna with a dielectric nanocrystal,” Opt. Express19, 18175–18181 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. de Angelis, A. Locatelli, D. Modotto, S. Boscolo, M. Midrio, and A.-D. Capobianco, “Frequency addressing of nano-objects by electrical tuning of optical antennas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B27, 997–1001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Giannini, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, S. C. Heck, and S. A. Maier, “Plasmonic nanoantennas: fundamentals and their use in controlling the radiative properties of nanoemitters,” Chem. Rev.111, 3888–3912 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Novotny and N. F. van Hulst, “Antennas for light,” Nat. Photonics5, 83–90 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Liu, M. L. Tang, M. Hentschel, H. Giessen, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Nanoantenna-enhanced gas sensing in a single tailored nanofocus,” Nat. Mater.10, 631–636 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Dregely, R. Taubert, J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, and H. Giessen, “3D optical Yagi-Uda nanoantenna array,” Nat. Commun.2, 267 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Dorfmüller, D. Dregely, M. Esslinger, W. Khunsin, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, and H. Giessen, “Near-field dynamics of optical Yagi–Uda nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.11, 2819–2824 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. S. Maksymov, A. R. Davoyan, and Yu. S. Kivshar, “Enhanced emission and light control with tapered plasmonic nanoantennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99, 083304 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Miroshnichenko, I. S. Maksymov, A. R. Davoyan, C. Simovski, P. Belov, and Yu. S. Kivshar, “An arrayed nanoantenna for broadband light emission and detection,” Phys. Status Solidi RRL5, 347–349 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Abb, P. Albella, J. Aizpurua, and O. L. Muskens, “All-optical control of a single plasmonic nanoantenna –ITO hybrid,” Nano Lett.11, 2457–2463 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Shegai, S. Chen, V. Milković, G. Zengin, P. Johansson, and M. Käll, “A bimetallic nanoantenna for directional colour routing,” Nat. Commun.2, 481 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Y. Ou, E. Plum, L. Jiang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Reconfigurable photonic metamaterials,” Nano Lett.11, 2142–2144 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chen, P. Albella, Z. Pirzadeh, P. Alonso-González, F. Huth, S. Bonetti, V. Bonanni, J. Åkerman, J. Nogués, P. Vavassori, A. Dmitriev, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Plasmonic nickel nanoantennas,” Small7, 2341–2347 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

A. E. Nikolaenko, F. de Angelis, S. A. Boden, N. Papasimakis, P. Ashburn, E. di Fabrizio, and N. I. Zheludev, “Carbon nanotubes in a photonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104, 153902 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Miroshnichenko, “Off-resonance field enhancement by spherical nanoshells,” Phys. Rev. A81, 053818 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Zuloaga and P. Nordlander, “On the energy shift between near-field and far-field peak intensities in localized plasmon systems,” Nano Lett.11, 1280–1283 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater.9, 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Large, M. Abb, J. Aizpurua, and O. L. Muskens, “Photoconductively loaded plasmonic nanoantenna as building block for ultracompact optical switches,” Nano Lett.10, 1741–1746 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H.-S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H.-T. Kim, N. Park, Q.-H. Park, K. Ahn, and D.-S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett.10, 2064–2068 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science329, 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kosako, Y. Kadoya, and H. F. Hofmann, “Directional control of light by a nano-optical Yagi-Uda antenna,” Nat. Photonics4, 312–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Huang and J. J. Baumberg, “Actively tuned plasmons on elastometrically driven Au nanoparticle dimers,” Nano Lett.10, 1787–1792 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. de Angelis, G. Das, P. Candeloro, M. Patrini, M. Galli, A. Bek, M. Lazzarino, I. Maksymov, C. Liberale, L. C. Andreani, and E. di Fabrizio, “Nanoscale chemical mapping using three-dimensional adiabatic compression of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Nanotech.5, 67–72 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. S. Maksymov, M. Besbes, J. P. Hugonin, J. Yang, A. Beveratos, I. Sagnes, I. Robert-Philip, and P. Lalanne, “Metal-coated nanocylinder cavity for broadband nonclassical light emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 180502 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Alú and N. Engheta, “Wireless at the nanoscale: optical interconnects using matched nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104, 213902 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics4, 83–91 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Berrier, R. Ulbricht, M. Bonn, and J. Gómez–Rivas, “Ultrafast active control of localized surface plasmon resonances in silicon bowtie antenna,” Opt. Express18, 23226–23235 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P.-Y. Chen and A. Alú, “Optical nanoantenna arrays loaded with nonlinear materials,” Phys. Rev. B82, 235405 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Zhou, Y. Liu, Z.-Y. Li, and Y. Xia, “Analytical model for optical bistability in nonlinear metal nano-antennae involving Kerr materials,” Opt. Express13, 13337–13344 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

A. E. Miroshnichenko, “Nonlinear Fano-Feshbach resonances,” Phys. Rev. E79, 026611 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Koenderink, “Plasmon nanoparticle array waveguides for single photon and single plasmon sources,” Nano Lett.9, 4228–4233 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. E. Sussman-Fort and R. M. Rudish, “Non-Foster impedance matching of electrically-small antennas,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.57, 2230–2241 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Berthelot, A. Bouhelier, C. Huang, J. Margueritat, G. Colas-des-Francs, E. Finot, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, S. Kostcheev, H. Ibn El Ahrach, A.-L. Baudrion, J. Plain, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Tuning of an optical dimer nanoantenna by electrically controlling its load impedance,” Nano Lett.9, 3914–3921 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Li, A. Salandrino, and N. Engheta, “Optical spectrometer at the nanoscale using optical Yagi-Uda nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. B79, 195104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

R. W. Ziolkowski and A. Erentok, “Metamaterial-based efficient electrically small antennas,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.54, 2113–2130 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Alú and N. Engheta, “Input impedance, nanocircuit loading, and radiation tuning of optical nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101, 043901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Belotti, J. F. Galisteo–López, S. de Angelis, M. Galli, I. S. Maksymov, L. C. Andreani, D. Peyrade, and Y. Chen, “All-optical switching in 2D silicon photonic crystals with low loss waveguides and optical cavities,” Opt. Express16, 11624–11636 (2008).
[PubMed]

2007

N. Engheta, “Circuits with light at nanoscales: optical nanocircuits inspired by metamaterials,” Science317, 1698–1702 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

N. Engheta, A. Salandrino, and A. Alú, “Circuit elements at optical frequencies: nanoinductors, nanocapacitors, and nanoresistors,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95, 095504 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Kossyrev, A. Yin, S. G. Cloutier, D. A. Cardimona, D. Huang, P. M. Asling, and J. M. Xu, “Electric field tuning of plasmonic response of nanodot array in liquid crystal matrix,” Nano Lett.5, 1978–1981 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Mühlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science308, 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. N. Farahani, D. W. Pohl, H.–J. Eisler, and B. Hecht, “Single quantum dot coupled to a scanning optical antenna: a tunable superemitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95, 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

M. I. Stockman, “Nanofocusing of optical energy in tapered plasmonic waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93, 137404 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

H. X. Xu, J. Aizpurua, M. Käll, and P. Apell, “Electromagnetic contributions to single-molecule sensitivity in surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. E62, 4318–4324 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Abb, M.

M. Abb, P. Albella, J. Aizpurua, and O. L. Muskens, “All-optical control of a single plasmonic nanoantenna –ITO hybrid,” Nano Lett.11, 2457–2463 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Large, M. Abb, J. Aizpurua, and O. L. Muskens, “Photoconductively loaded plasmonic nanoantenna as building block for ultracompact optical switches,” Nano Lett.10, 1741–1746 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahn, K.

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H.-S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H.-T. Kim, N. Park, Q.-H. Park, K. Ahn, and D.-S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett.10, 2064–2068 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahn, Y. H.

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H.-S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H.-T. Kim, N. Park, Q.-H. Park, K. Ahn, and D.-S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett.10, 2064–2068 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aizpurua, J.

A. Berrier, P. Albella, M. Ameen Poyli, R. Ulbricht, M. Bonn, J. Aizpurua, and J. Gómez–Rivas, “Detection of deep-subwavelength dielectric layers at terahertz frequencies using semiconductor plasmonic resonators,” Opt. Express20, 5052–5060 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chen, P. Albella, Z. Pirzadeh, P. Alonso-González, F. Huth, S. Bonetti, V. Bonanni, J. Åkerman, J. Nogués, P. Vavassori, A. Dmitriev, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Plasmonic nickel nanoantennas,” Small7, 2341–2347 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Abb, P. Albella, J. Aizpurua, and O. L. Muskens, “All-optical control of a single plasmonic nanoantenna –ITO hybrid,” Nano Lett.11, 2457–2463 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Large, M. Abb, J. Aizpurua, and O. L. Muskens, “Photoconductively loaded plasmonic nanoantenna as building block for ultracompact optical switches,” Nano Lett.10, 1741–1746 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. X. Xu, J. Aizpurua, M. Käll, and P. Apell, “Electromagnetic contributions to single-molecule sensitivity in surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. E62, 4318–4324 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Åkerman, J.

J. Chen, P. Albella, Z. Pirzadeh, P. Alonso-González, F. Huth, S. Bonetti, V. Bonanni, J. Åkerman, J. Nogués, P. Vavassori, A. Dmitriev, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Plasmonic nickel nanoantennas,” Small7, 2341–2347 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Alaverdyan, Y.

Albella, P.

A. Berrier, P. Albella, M. Ameen Poyli, R. Ulbricht, M. Bonn, J. Aizpurua, and J. Gómez–Rivas, “Detection of deep-subwavelength dielectric layers at terahertz frequencies using semiconductor plasmonic resonators,” Opt. Express20, 5052–5060 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chen, P. Albella, Z. Pirzadeh, P. Alonso-González, F. Huth, S. Bonetti, V. Bonanni, J. Åkerman, J. Nogués, P. Vavassori, A. Dmitriev, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Plasmonic nickel nanoantennas,” Small7, 2341–2347 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Abb, P. Albella, J. Aizpurua, and O. L. Muskens, “All-optical control of a single plasmonic nanoantenna –ITO hybrid,” Nano Lett.11, 2457–2463 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alivisatos, A. P.

N. Liu, M. L. Tang, M. Hentschel, H. Giessen, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Nanoantenna-enhanced gas sensing in a single tailored nanofocus,” Nat. Mater.10, 631–636 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alonso-González, P.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A tunable plasmonic Yagi-Uda nanoantenna consisting of silver nanorods used for reflector, feeding element and directors. The yellow area of the feeding elements corresponds to the semiconductor nano-disk used as loading. The nanoantenna is surrounded by air. The semi-transparent red arrow schematically shows the direction of the incident plane wave.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Top) Far-field power spectra of the nanoantenna in the maximum emission direction as a function of the wavelength for different free carrier densities from 0 cm−3 to 3 · 1021 cm−3 (from bottom curve and up). Red dashed line indicates the operating wavelength of a Yagi-Uda nanoantenna with the same dimensions but equipped with an all-metal feeding element. (Bottom) Stationary |E| electric field distributions in the near-field zone of the nanoantenna corresponding to the resonance peaks denoted by the capital letters in the top panel.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Free carrier density in the nano-disk loading of the feeding element as a function of the optical intensity at different operating wavelengths. (b) Absolute value of the electric field in the nano-disk loading as a function of the free carrier density at different operating wavelengths.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a–e) Far-field power angular diagram of the nanoantenna in the E-plane (solid curves) and H-plane (dashed curves) at operating wavelengths (free carrier densities) of 0.95μm (1.9 · 1021 cm−3), 0.975μm (1.5 · 1021 cm−3), 1μm (1.2 · 1021 cm−3), 1.025μm (0.8 · 1021 cm−3) and 1.05μm (0.55 · 1021 cm−3). A dB scale is used to emphasize the difference in the backward lobes. (f–j) Power emitted by the nanoantenna in the maximum emission direction as a function of the optical intensity.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ε ( ω ) = ε exp ( ω ) ( ω p ω ) 2 1 1 + i 1 ω τ D ,
N ( t ) t = N ( t ) τ c + c 2 ε 0 2 n 0 2 β TPA 8 h ¯ ω 0 | E ( t ) | 4 ,

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