Abstract

We have investigated the dark current of a germanium (Ge) photodetector (PD) with a GeO2 surface passivation layer and a gas-phase-doped n+/p junction. The gas-phase-doped PN diodes exhibited a dark current of approximately two orders of magnitude lower than that of the diodes formed by a conventional ion implantation process, indicating that gas-phase doping is suitable for low-damage PN junction formation. The bulk leakage (Jbulk) and surface leakage (Jsurf) components of the dark current were also investigated. We have found that GeO2 surface passivation can effectively suppress the dark current of a Ge PD in conjunction with gas-phase doping, and we have obtained extremely low values of Jbulk of 0.032 mA/cm2 and Jsurf of 0.27 μA/cm.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
  4. H. C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909–2911 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Osmond, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, R. Kaufmann, M. Acciarri, and H. von Kanel, “Ultralow dark current Ge/Si(100) photodiodes with low thermal budget,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(20), 201106 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Y. Yu, S. Ren, W. S. Jung, A. K. Okyay, D. A. B. Miller, and K. C. Saraswat, “High-efficiency p-i-n photodetectors on selective-area-grown Ge for monolithic integration,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(11), 1161–1163 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. H. Loh, H. S. Nguyen, R. Murthy, M. B. Yu, W. Y. Loh, G. Q. Lo, N. Balasubramanian, D. L. Kwong, J. Wang, and S. J. Lee, “Selective epitaxial germanium on silicon-on-insulator high speed photodetectors using low-temperature ultrathin Si0.8Ge0.2 buffer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 073503 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. Colace, P. Ferrara, G. Assanto, D. Fulgoni, and L. Nash, “Low dark-current germanium-on-silicon near-infrared detectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1813–1815 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Ahn, C. Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3916–3921 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  11. T. Yin, R. Cohen, M. M. Morse, G. Sarid, Y. Chetrit, D. Rubin, and M. J. Paniccia, “31 GHz Ge n-i-p waveguide photodetectors on Silicon-on-Insulator substrate,” Opt. Express 15(21), 13965–13971 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. K. W. Ang, T. Y. Liow, M. B. Yu, Q. Fang, J. Song, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low thermal budget monolithic integration of evanescent-coupled Ge-on-SOI photodetector on Si CMOS platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 106–113 (2010).
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  17. S. Kagawa, T. Kaneda, T. Mikawa, Y. Banba, and Y. Toyama, “Fully ion-implanted p+ -n germanium avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38(6), 429–431 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. M. Takenaka, K. Morii, M. Sugiyama, Y. Nakano, and S. Takagi, “Gas phase doping of arsenic into (100), (110), and (111) germanium substrates using a metal–organic source,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 010105 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  21. H. Matsubara, T. Sasada, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “Evidence of low interface trap density in GeO2/Ge metal-oxide-semiconductor structures fabricated by thermal oxidation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(3), 032104 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  22. T. Sasada, Y. Nakakita, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “Surface orientation dependence of interface properties of GeO2/Ge metal-oxide-semiconductor structures fabricated by thermal oxidation,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(7), 073716 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  23. N. D. Nguyen, E. Rosseel, S. Takeuchi, J. L. Everaert, L. Yang, J. Goossens, A. Moussa, T. Clarysse, O. Richard, H. Bender, S. Zaima, A. Sakai, R. Loo, J. C. Lin, W. Vandervorst, and M. Caymax, “Use of p- and n-type vapor phase doping and sub-melt laser anneal for extension junctions in sub-32 nm CMOS technology,” Thin Solid Films 518(6), S48–S52 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  24. K. Morii, T. Iwasaki, R. Nakane, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “High-performance GeO2/Ge nMOSFETs with source/drain junctions formed by gas-phase doping,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(10), 1092–1094 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  25. M. D. Jack and J. Y. M. Lee, “DLTS measurements of a germanium MIS interface,” J. Electron. Mater. 10(3), 571–589 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  26. E. E. Crisman, J. I. Lee, P. J. Stiles, and O. J. Gregory, “Characterisation of n-channel germanium mosfet with gate insulator formed by high-pressure thermal oxidation,” Electron. Lett. 23(1), 8–10 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  27. Y. Wang, Y. Z. Hu, and E. A. Irene, “Electron cyclotron resonance plasma and thermal oxidation mechanisms of germanium,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12(4), 1309–1314 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  28. V. Craciun, I. W. Boyd, B. Hutton, and D. Williams, “Characteristics of dielectric layers grown on Ge by low temperature vacuum ultraviolet-assisted oxidation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(9), 1261–1263 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  29. R. S. Johnson, H. Niimi, and G. Lucovsky, “New approach for the fabrication of device-quality Ge/GeO2 /SiO2 interfaces using low temperature remote plasma processing,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18(4), 1230–1233 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  30. Y. Nakakita, R. Nakakne, T. Sasada, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “Interface-controlled self-align source/drain Ge p-channel metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistors fabricated using thermally oxidized GeO2 interfacial layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 010109 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  31. S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, G. Dehlinger, and J. O. Chu, “Germanium-on-SOI infrared detectors for integrated photonic applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1489–1502 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (2)

M. Takenaka, K. Morii, M. Sugiyama, Y. Nakano, and S. Takagi, “Gas phase doping of arsenic into (100), (110), and (111) germanium substrates using a metal–organic source,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 010105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Nakakita, R. Nakakne, T. Sasada, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “Interface-controlled self-align source/drain Ge p-channel metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistors fabricated using thermally oxidized GeO2 interfacial layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 010109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (6)

N. D. Nguyen, E. Rosseel, S. Takeuchi, J. L. Everaert, L. Yang, J. Goossens, A. Moussa, T. Clarysse, O. Richard, H. Bender, S. Zaima, A. Sakai, R. Loo, J. C. Lin, W. Vandervorst, and M. Caymax, “Use of p- and n-type vapor phase doping and sub-melt laser anneal for extension junctions in sub-32 nm CMOS technology,” Thin Solid Films 518(6), S48–S52 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Morii, T. Iwasaki, R. Nakane, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “High-performance GeO2/Ge nMOSFETs with source/drain junctions formed by gas-phase doping,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(10), 1092–1094 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Ang, T. Y. Liow, M. B. Yu, Q. Fang, J. Song, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low thermal budget monolithic integration of evanescent-coupled Ge-on-SOI photodetector on Si CMOS platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 106–113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature 464(7285), 80–84 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Park, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, H. Nishi, K. Yamada, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, and S. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration and synchronous operation of germanium photodetectors and silicon variable optical attenuators,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8412–8421 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

J. Osmond, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, R. Kaufmann, M. Acciarri, and H. von Kanel, “Ultralow dark current Ge/Si(100) photodiodes with low thermal budget,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(20), 201106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Yu, S. Ren, W. S. Jung, A. K. Okyay, D. A. B. Miller, and K. C. Saraswat, “High-efficiency p-i-n photodetectors on selective-area-grown Ge for monolithic integration,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(11), 1161–1163 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Sasada, Y. Nakakita, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “Surface orientation dependence of interface properties of GeO2/Ge metal-oxide-semiconductor structures fabricated by thermal oxidation,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(7), 073716 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

H. Matsubara, T. Sasada, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “Evidence of low interface trap density in GeO2/Ge metal-oxide-semiconductor structures fabricated by thermal oxidation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(3), 032104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Beals, J. Michel, J. F. Liu, D. H. Ahn, D. Sparacin, R. Sun, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, A. Kopa, A. Apsel, M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, and A. E. White, “Process flow innovations for photonic device integration in CMOS,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689804(2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (5)

T. Yin, R. Cohen, M. M. Morse, G. Sarid, Y. Chetrit, D. Rubin, and M. J. Paniccia, “31 GHz Ge n-i-p waveguide photodetectors on Silicon-on-Insulator substrate,” Opt. Express 15(21), 13965–13971 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. H. Loh, H. S. Nguyen, R. Murthy, M. B. Yu, W. Y. Loh, G. Q. Lo, N. Balasubramanian, D. L. Kwong, J. Wang, and S. J. Lee, “Selective epitaxial germanium on silicon-on-insulator high speed photodetectors using low-temperature ultrathin Si0.8Ge0.2 buffer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 073503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Colace, P. Ferrara, G. Assanto, D. Fulgoni, and L. Nash, “Low dark-current germanium-on-silicon near-infrared detectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1813–1815 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Ahn, C. Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3916–3921 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Fidaner, A. K. Okyay, J. E. Roth, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, K. C. Saraswat, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Ge–SiGe quantum-well waveguide photodetectors on silicon for the near-infrared,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(20), 1631–1633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, G. Dehlinger, and J. O. Chu, “Germanium-on-SOI infrared detectors for integrated photonic applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1489–1502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

C. O. Cui, K. Gopalakrishnan, P. B. Griffin, J. D. Plummer, and K. C. Saraswat, “Activation and diffusion studies of ion-implanted p and n dopants in germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(16), 3275–3277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

R. S. Johnson, H. Niimi, and G. Lucovsky, “New approach for the fabrication of device-quality Ge/GeO2 /SiO2 interfaces using low temperature remote plasma processing,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18(4), 1230–1233 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

V. Craciun, I. W. Boyd, B. Hutton, and D. Williams, “Characteristics of dielectric layers grown on Ge by low temperature vacuum ultraviolet-assisted oxidation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(9), 1261–1263 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909–2911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

S. B. Samavedam, M. T. Currie, T. A. Langdo, and E. A. Fitzgerald, “High-quality germanium photodiodes integrated on silicon substrates using optimized relaxed graded buffers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(15), 2125–2127 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

Y. Wang, Y. Z. Hu, and E. A. Irene, “Electron cyclotron resonance plasma and thermal oxidation mechanisms of germanium,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12(4), 1309–1314 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

E. E. Crisman, J. I. Lee, P. J. Stiles, and O. J. Gregory, “Characterisation of n-channel germanium mosfet with gate insulator formed by high-pressure thermal oxidation,” Electron. Lett. 23(1), 8–10 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

S. Luryi, A. Kastalsky, and J. C. Bean, “New infrared detector on a silicon chip,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 31(9), 1135–1139 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1981 (2)

S. Kagawa, T. Kaneda, T. Mikawa, Y. Banba, and Y. Toyama, “Fully ion-implanted p+ -n germanium avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38(6), 429–431 (1981).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Jack and J. Y. M. Lee, “DLTS measurements of a germanium MIS interface,” J. Electron. Mater. 10(3), 571–589 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

H. Ando, H. Kanbe, T. Kimura, T. Yamaoka, and T. Kaneda, “Characteristics of germanium avalanche photodiodes in the wavelength region of 1-1.6 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14(11), 804–809 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Acciarri, M.

J. Osmond, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, R. Kaufmann, M. Acciarri, and H. von Kanel, “Ultralow dark current Ge/Si(100) photodiodes with low thermal budget,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(20), 201106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, D.

Ahn, D. H.

M. Beals, J. Michel, J. F. Liu, D. H. Ahn, D. Sparacin, R. Sun, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, A. Kopa, A. Apsel, M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, and A. E. White, “Process flow innovations for photonic device integration in CMOS,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689804(2008).
[CrossRef]

Ando, H.

H. Ando, H. Kanbe, T. Kimura, T. Yamaoka, and T. Kaneda, “Characteristics of germanium avalanche photodiodes in the wavelength region of 1-1.6 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14(11), 804–809 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Ang, K. W.

K. W. Ang, T. Y. Liow, M. B. Yu, Q. Fang, J. Song, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low thermal budget monolithic integration of evanescent-coupled Ge-on-SOI photodetector on Si CMOS platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 106–113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Apsel, A.

M. Beals, J. Michel, J. F. Liu, D. H. Ahn, D. Sparacin, R. Sun, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, A. Kopa, A. Apsel, M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, and A. E. White, “Process flow innovations for photonic device integration in CMOS,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689804(2008).
[CrossRef]

Assanto, G.

L. Colace, P. Ferrara, G. Assanto, D. Fulgoni, and L. Nash, “Low dark-current germanium-on-silicon near-infrared detectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1813–1815 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Assefa, S.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature 464(7285), 80–84 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balasubramanian, N.

T. H. Loh, H. S. Nguyen, R. Murthy, M. B. Yu, W. Y. Loh, G. Q. Lo, N. Balasubramanian, D. L. Kwong, J. Wang, and S. J. Lee, “Selective epitaxial germanium on silicon-on-insulator high speed photodetectors using low-temperature ultrathin Si0.8Ge0.2 buffer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 073503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Banba, Y.

S. Kagawa, T. Kaneda, T. Mikawa, Y. Banba, and Y. Toyama, “Fully ion-implanted p+ -n germanium avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38(6), 429–431 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Beals, M.

M. Beals, J. Michel, J. F. Liu, D. H. Ahn, D. Sparacin, R. Sun, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, A. Kopa, A. Apsel, M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, and A. E. White, “Process flow innovations for photonic device integration in CMOS,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689804(2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Ahn, C. Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3916–3921 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bean, J. C.

S. Luryi, A. Kastalsky, and J. C. Bean, “New infrared detector on a silicon chip,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 31(9), 1135–1139 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Beattie, J.

M. Beals, J. Michel, J. F. Liu, D. H. Ahn, D. Sparacin, R. Sun, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, A. Kopa, A. Apsel, M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, and A. E. White, “Process flow innovations for photonic device integration in CMOS,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689804(2008).
[CrossRef]

Bender, H.

N. D. Nguyen, E. Rosseel, S. Takeuchi, J. L. Everaert, L. Yang, J. Goossens, A. Moussa, T. Clarysse, O. Richard, H. Bender, S. Zaima, A. Sakai, R. Loo, J. C. Lin, W. Vandervorst, and M. Caymax, “Use of p- and n-type vapor phase doping and sub-melt laser anneal for extension junctions in sub-32 nm CMOS technology,” Thin Solid Films 518(6), S48–S52 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, I. W.

V. Craciun, I. W. Boyd, B. Hutton, and D. Williams, “Characteristics of dielectric layers grown on Ge by low temperature vacuum ultraviolet-assisted oxidation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(9), 1261–1263 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Carothers, D.

M. Beals, J. Michel, J. F. Liu, D. H. Ahn, D. Sparacin, R. Sun, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, A. Kopa, A. Apsel, M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, and A. E. White, “Process flow innovations for photonic device integration in CMOS,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689804(2008).
[CrossRef]

Caymax, M.

N. D. Nguyen, E. Rosseel, S. Takeuchi, J. L. Everaert, L. Yang, J. Goossens, A. Moussa, T. Clarysse, O. Richard, H. Bender, S. Zaima, A. Sakai, R. Loo, J. C. Lin, W. Vandervorst, and M. Caymax, “Use of p- and n-type vapor phase doping and sub-melt laser anneal for extension junctions in sub-32 nm CMOS technology,” Thin Solid Films 518(6), S48–S52 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

Chen, K. M.

H. C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909–2911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. K.

M. Beals, J. Michel, J. F. Liu, D. H. Ahn, D. Sparacin, R. Sun, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, A. Kopa, A. Apsel, M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, and A. E. White, “Process flow innovations for photonic device integration in CMOS,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689804(2008).
[CrossRef]

Chetrit, Y.

Chrastina, D.

J. Osmond, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, R. Kaufmann, M. Acciarri, and H. von Kanel, “Ultralow dark current Ge/Si(100) photodiodes with low thermal budget,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(20), 201106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chu, J. O.

S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, G. Dehlinger, and J. O. Chu, “Germanium-on-SOI infrared detectors for integrated photonic applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1489–1502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Clarysse, T.

N. D. Nguyen, E. Rosseel, S. Takeuchi, J. L. Everaert, L. Yang, J. Goossens, A. Moussa, T. Clarysse, O. Richard, H. Bender, S. Zaima, A. Sakai, R. Loo, J. C. Lin, W. Vandervorst, and M. Caymax, “Use of p- and n-type vapor phase doping and sub-melt laser anneal for extension junctions in sub-32 nm CMOS technology,” Thin Solid Films 518(6), S48–S52 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, R.

Colace, L.

L. Colace, P. Ferrara, G. Assanto, D. Fulgoni, and L. Nash, “Low dark-current germanium-on-silicon near-infrared detectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1813–1815 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Craciun, V.

V. Craciun, I. W. Boyd, B. Hutton, and D. Williams, “Characteristics of dielectric layers grown on Ge by low temperature vacuum ultraviolet-assisted oxidation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(9), 1261–1263 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Crisman, E. E.

E. E. Crisman, J. I. Lee, P. J. Stiles, and O. J. Gregory, “Characterisation of n-channel germanium mosfet with gate insulator formed by high-pressure thermal oxidation,” Electron. Lett. 23(1), 8–10 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Cui, C. O.

C. O. Cui, K. Gopalakrishnan, P. B. Griffin, J. D. Plummer, and K. C. Saraswat, “Activation and diffusion studies of ion-implanted p and n dopants in germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(16), 3275–3277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Currie, M. T.

S. B. Samavedam, M. T. Currie, T. A. Langdo, and E. A. Fitzgerald, “High-quality germanium photodiodes integrated on silicon substrates using optimized relaxed graded buffers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(15), 2125–2127 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dehlinger, G.

S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, G. Dehlinger, and J. O. Chu, “Germanium-on-SOI infrared detectors for integrated photonic applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1489–1502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Everaert, J. L.

N. D. Nguyen, E. Rosseel, S. Takeuchi, J. L. Everaert, L. Yang, J. Goossens, A. Moussa, T. Clarysse, O. Richard, H. Bender, S. Zaima, A. Sakai, R. Loo, J. C. Lin, W. Vandervorst, and M. Caymax, “Use of p- and n-type vapor phase doping and sub-melt laser anneal for extension junctions in sub-32 nm CMOS technology,” Thin Solid Films 518(6), S48–S52 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fang, Q.

K. W. Ang, T. Y. Liow, M. B. Yu, Q. Fang, J. Song, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low thermal budget monolithic integration of evanescent-coupled Ge-on-SOI photodetector on Si CMOS platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 106–113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ferrara, P.

L. Colace, P. Ferrara, G. Assanto, D. Fulgoni, and L. Nash, “Low dark-current germanium-on-silicon near-infrared detectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1813–1815 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fidaner, O.

O. Fidaner, A. K. Okyay, J. E. Roth, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, K. C. Saraswat, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Ge–SiGe quantum-well waveguide photodetectors on silicon for the near-infrared,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(20), 1631–1633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fitzgerald, E. A.

S. B. Samavedam, M. T. Currie, T. A. Langdo, and E. A. Fitzgerald, “High-quality germanium photodiodes integrated on silicon substrates using optimized relaxed graded buffers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(15), 2125–2127 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fulgoni, D.

L. Colace, P. Ferrara, G. Assanto, D. Fulgoni, and L. Nash, “Low dark-current germanium-on-silicon near-infrared detectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1813–1815 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gill, D. M.

M. Beals, J. Michel, J. F. Liu, D. H. Ahn, D. Sparacin, R. Sun, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, A. Kopa, A. Apsel, M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, and A. E. White, “Process flow innovations for photonic device integration in CMOS,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689804(2008).
[CrossRef]

Giziewicz, W.

Goossens, J.

N. D. Nguyen, E. Rosseel, S. Takeuchi, J. L. Everaert, L. Yang, J. Goossens, A. Moussa, T. Clarysse, O. Richard, H. Bender, S. Zaima, A. Sakai, R. Loo, J. C. Lin, W. Vandervorst, and M. Caymax, “Use of p- and n-type vapor phase doping and sub-melt laser anneal for extension junctions in sub-32 nm CMOS technology,” Thin Solid Films 518(6), S48–S52 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gopalakrishnan, K.

C. O. Cui, K. Gopalakrishnan, P. B. Griffin, J. D. Plummer, and K. C. Saraswat, “Activation and diffusion studies of ion-implanted p and n dopants in germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(16), 3275–3277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, O. J.

E. E. Crisman, J. I. Lee, P. J. Stiles, and O. J. Gregory, “Characterisation of n-channel germanium mosfet with gate insulator formed by high-pressure thermal oxidation,” Electron. Lett. 23(1), 8–10 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Griffin, P. B.

C. O. Cui, K. Gopalakrishnan, P. B. Griffin, J. D. Plummer, and K. C. Saraswat, “Activation and diffusion studies of ion-implanted p and n dopants in germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(16), 3275–3277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Harris, J. S.

O. Fidaner, A. K. Okyay, J. E. Roth, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, K. C. Saraswat, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Ge–SiGe quantum-well waveguide photodetectors on silicon for the near-infrared,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(20), 1631–1633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C. Y.

M. Beals, J. Michel, J. F. Liu, D. H. Ahn, D. Sparacin, R. Sun, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, A. Kopa, A. Apsel, M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, and A. E. White, “Process flow innovations for photonic device integration in CMOS,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689804(2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Ahn, C. Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3916–3921 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, Y. Z.

Y. Wang, Y. Z. Hu, and E. A. Irene, “Electron cyclotron resonance plasma and thermal oxidation mechanisms of germanium,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12(4), 1309–1314 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hutton, B.

V. Craciun, I. W. Boyd, B. Hutton, and D. Williams, “Characteristics of dielectric layers grown on Ge by low temperature vacuum ultraviolet-assisted oxidation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(9), 1261–1263 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Irene, E. A.

Y. Wang, Y. Z. Hu, and E. A. Irene, “Electron cyclotron resonance plasma and thermal oxidation mechanisms of germanium,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12(4), 1309–1314 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Isella, G.

J. Osmond, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, R. Kaufmann, M. Acciarri, and H. von Kanel, “Ultralow dark current Ge/Si(100) photodiodes with low thermal budget,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(20), 201106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, Y.

Itabashi, S.

Iwasaki, T.

K. Morii, T. Iwasaki, R. Nakane, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “High-performance GeO2/Ge nMOSFETs with source/drain junctions formed by gas-phase doping,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(10), 1092–1094 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jack, M. D.

M. D. Jack and J. Y. M. Lee, “DLTS measurements of a germanium MIS interface,” J. Electron. Mater. 10(3), 571–589 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, R. S.

R. S. Johnson, H. Niimi, and G. Lucovsky, “New approach for the fabrication of device-quality Ge/GeO2 /SiO2 interfaces using low temperature remote plasma processing,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18(4), 1230–1233 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jung, W. S.

H. Y. Yu, S. Ren, W. S. Jung, A. K. Okyay, D. A. B. Miller, and K. C. Saraswat, “High-efficiency p-i-n photodetectors on selective-area-grown Ge for monolithic integration,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(11), 1161–1163 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kagawa, S.

S. Kagawa, T. Kaneda, T. Mikawa, Y. Banba, and Y. Toyama, “Fully ion-implanted p+ -n germanium avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38(6), 429–431 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Kanbe, H.

H. Ando, H. Kanbe, T. Kimura, T. Yamaoka, and T. Kaneda, “Characteristics of germanium avalanche photodiodes in the wavelength region of 1-1.6 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14(11), 804–809 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Kaneda, T.

S. Kagawa, T. Kaneda, T. Mikawa, Y. Banba, and Y. Toyama, “Fully ion-implanted p+ -n germanium avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38(6), 429–431 (1981).
[CrossRef]

H. Ando, H. Kanbe, T. Kimura, T. Yamaoka, and T. Kaneda, “Characteristics of germanium avalanche photodiodes in the wavelength region of 1-1.6 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14(11), 804–809 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Kärtner, F. X.

Kastalsky, A.

S. Luryi, A. Kastalsky, and J. C. Bean, “New infrared detector on a silicon chip,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 31(9), 1135–1139 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kaufmann, R.

J. Osmond, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, R. Kaufmann, M. Acciarri, and H. von Kanel, “Ultralow dark current Ge/Si(100) photodiodes with low thermal budget,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(20), 201106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Beals, J. Michel, J. F. Liu, D. H. Ahn, D. Sparacin, R. Sun, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, A. Kopa, A. Apsel, M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, and A. E. White, “Process flow innovations for photonic device integration in CMOS,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689804(2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Ahn, C. Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3916–3921 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909–2911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kimura, T.

H. Ando, H. Kanbe, T. Kimura, T. Yamaoka, and T. Kaneda, “Characteristics of germanium avalanche photodiodes in the wavelength region of 1-1.6 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14(11), 804–809 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Koester, S. J.

S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, G. Dehlinger, and J. O. Chu, “Germanium-on-SOI infrared detectors for integrated photonic applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1489–1502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kopa, A.

M. Beals, J. Michel, J. F. Liu, D. H. Ahn, D. Sparacin, R. Sun, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, A. Kopa, A. Apsel, M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, and A. E. White, “Process flow innovations for photonic device integration in CMOS,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689804(2008).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, Y.-H.

O. Fidaner, A. K. Okyay, J. E. Roth, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, K. C. Saraswat, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Ge–SiGe quantum-well waveguide photodetectors on silicon for the near-infrared,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(20), 1631–1633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kwong, D. L.

K. W. Ang, T. Y. Liow, M. B. Yu, Q. Fang, J. Song, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low thermal budget monolithic integration of evanescent-coupled Ge-on-SOI photodetector on Si CMOS platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 106–113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Loh, H. S. Nguyen, R. Murthy, M. B. Yu, W. Y. Loh, G. Q. Lo, N. Balasubramanian, D. L. Kwong, J. Wang, and S. J. Lee, “Selective epitaxial germanium on silicon-on-insulator high speed photodetectors using low-temperature ultrathin Si0.8Ge0.2 buffer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 073503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Langdo, T. A.

S. B. Samavedam, M. T. Currie, T. A. Langdo, and E. A. Fitzgerald, “High-quality germanium photodiodes integrated on silicon substrates using optimized relaxed graded buffers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(15), 2125–2127 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. I.

E. E. Crisman, J. I. Lee, P. J. Stiles, and O. J. Gregory, “Characterisation of n-channel germanium mosfet with gate insulator formed by high-pressure thermal oxidation,” Electron. Lett. 23(1), 8–10 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. Y. M.

M. D. Jack and J. Y. M. Lee, “DLTS measurements of a germanium MIS interface,” J. Electron. Mater. 10(3), 571–589 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. K.

H. C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909–2911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. J.

T. H. Loh, H. S. Nguyen, R. Murthy, M. B. Yu, W. Y. Loh, G. Q. Lo, N. Balasubramanian, D. L. Kwong, J. Wang, and S. J. Lee, “Selective epitaxial germanium on silicon-on-insulator high speed photodetectors using low-temperature ultrathin Si0.8Ge0.2 buffer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 073503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lim, D. R.

H. C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909–2911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J. C.

N. D. Nguyen, E. Rosseel, S. Takeuchi, J. L. Everaert, L. Yang, J. Goossens, A. Moussa, T. Clarysse, O. Richard, H. Bender, S. Zaima, A. Sakai, R. Loo, J. C. Lin, W. Vandervorst, and M. Caymax, “Use of p- and n-type vapor phase doping and sub-melt laser anneal for extension junctions in sub-32 nm CMOS technology,” Thin Solid Films 518(6), S48–S52 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liow, T. Y.

K. W. Ang, T. Y. Liow, M. B. Yu, Q. Fang, J. Song, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low thermal budget monolithic integration of evanescent-coupled Ge-on-SOI photodetector on Si CMOS platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 106–113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

Liu, J. F.

M. Beals, J. Michel, J. F. Liu, D. H. Ahn, D. Sparacin, R. Sun, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, A. Kopa, A. Apsel, M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, and A. E. White, “Process flow innovations for photonic device integration in CMOS,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689804(2008).
[CrossRef]

Lo, G. Q.

K. W. Ang, T. Y. Liow, M. B. Yu, Q. Fang, J. Song, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low thermal budget monolithic integration of evanescent-coupled Ge-on-SOI photodetector on Si CMOS platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 106–113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Loh, H. S. Nguyen, R. Murthy, M. B. Yu, W. Y. Loh, G. Q. Lo, N. Balasubramanian, D. L. Kwong, J. Wang, and S. J. Lee, “Selective epitaxial germanium on silicon-on-insulator high speed photodetectors using low-temperature ultrathin Si0.8Ge0.2 buffer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 073503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Loh, T. H.

T. H. Loh, H. S. Nguyen, R. Murthy, M. B. Yu, W. Y. Loh, G. Q. Lo, N. Balasubramanian, D. L. Kwong, J. Wang, and S. J. Lee, “Selective epitaxial germanium on silicon-on-insulator high speed photodetectors using low-temperature ultrathin Si0.8Ge0.2 buffer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 073503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Loh, W. Y.

T. H. Loh, H. S. Nguyen, R. Murthy, M. B. Yu, W. Y. Loh, G. Q. Lo, N. Balasubramanian, D. L. Kwong, J. Wang, and S. J. Lee, “Selective epitaxial germanium on silicon-on-insulator high speed photodetectors using low-temperature ultrathin Si0.8Ge0.2 buffer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 073503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Loo, R.

N. D. Nguyen, E. Rosseel, S. Takeuchi, J. L. Everaert, L. Yang, J. Goossens, A. Moussa, T. Clarysse, O. Richard, H. Bender, S. Zaima, A. Sakai, R. Loo, J. C. Lin, W. Vandervorst, and M. Caymax, “Use of p- and n-type vapor phase doping and sub-melt laser anneal for extension junctions in sub-32 nm CMOS technology,” Thin Solid Films 518(6), S48–S52 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Luan, H. C.

H. C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909–2911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lucovsky, G.

R. S. Johnson, H. Niimi, and G. Lucovsky, “New approach for the fabrication of device-quality Ge/GeO2 /SiO2 interfaces using low temperature remote plasma processing,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18(4), 1230–1233 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Luryi, S.

S. Luryi, A. Kastalsky, and J. C. Bean, “New infrared detector on a silicon chip,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 31(9), 1135–1139 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Matsubara, H.

H. Matsubara, T. Sasada, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “Evidence of low interface trap density in GeO2/Ge metal-oxide-semiconductor structures fabricated by thermal oxidation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(3), 032104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Michel, J.

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Beals, J. Michel, J. F. Liu, D. H. Ahn, D. Sparacin, R. Sun, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, A. Kopa, A. Apsel, M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, and A. E. White, “Process flow innovations for photonic device integration in CMOS,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689804(2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Ahn, C. Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3916–3921 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mikawa, T.

S. Kagawa, T. Kaneda, T. Mikawa, Y. Banba, and Y. Toyama, “Fully ion-implanted p+ -n germanium avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38(6), 429–431 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

H. Y. Yu, S. Ren, W. S. Jung, A. K. Okyay, D. A. B. Miller, and K. C. Saraswat, “High-efficiency p-i-n photodetectors on selective-area-grown Ge for monolithic integration,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(11), 1161–1163 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Fidaner, A. K. Okyay, J. E. Roth, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, K. C. Saraswat, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Ge–SiGe quantum-well waveguide photodetectors on silicon for the near-infrared,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(20), 1631–1633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Morii, K.

M. Takenaka, K. Morii, M. Sugiyama, Y. Nakano, and S. Takagi, “Gas phase doping of arsenic into (100), (110), and (111) germanium substrates using a metal–organic source,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 010105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Morii, T. Iwasaki, R. Nakane, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “High-performance GeO2/Ge nMOSFETs with source/drain junctions formed by gas-phase doping,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(10), 1092–1094 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Morse, M. M.

Moussa, A.

N. D. Nguyen, E. Rosseel, S. Takeuchi, J. L. Everaert, L. Yang, J. Goossens, A. Moussa, T. Clarysse, O. Richard, H. Bender, S. Zaima, A. Sakai, R. Loo, J. C. Lin, W. Vandervorst, and M. Caymax, “Use of p- and n-type vapor phase doping and sub-melt laser anneal for extension junctions in sub-32 nm CMOS technology,” Thin Solid Films 518(6), S48–S52 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Murthy, R.

T. H. Loh, H. S. Nguyen, R. Murthy, M. B. Yu, W. Y. Loh, G. Q. Lo, N. Balasubramanian, D. L. Kwong, J. Wang, and S. J. Lee, “Selective epitaxial germanium on silicon-on-insulator high speed photodetectors using low-temperature ultrathin Si0.8Ge0.2 buffer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 073503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nakakita, Y.

Y. Nakakita, R. Nakakne, T. Sasada, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “Interface-controlled self-align source/drain Ge p-channel metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistors fabricated using thermally oxidized GeO2 interfacial layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 010109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Sasada, Y. Nakakita, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “Surface orientation dependence of interface properties of GeO2/Ge metal-oxide-semiconductor structures fabricated by thermal oxidation,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(7), 073716 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nakakne, R.

Y. Nakakita, R. Nakakne, T. Sasada, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “Interface-controlled self-align source/drain Ge p-channel metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistors fabricated using thermally oxidized GeO2 interfacial layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 010109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nakane, R.

K. Morii, T. Iwasaki, R. Nakane, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “High-performance GeO2/Ge nMOSFETs with source/drain junctions formed by gas-phase doping,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(10), 1092–1094 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nakano, Y.

M. Takenaka, K. Morii, M. Sugiyama, Y. Nakano, and S. Takagi, “Gas phase doping of arsenic into (100), (110), and (111) germanium substrates using a metal–organic source,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 010105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nash, L.

L. Colace, P. Ferrara, G. Assanto, D. Fulgoni, and L. Nash, “Low dark-current germanium-on-silicon near-infrared detectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1813–1815 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, H. S.

T. H. Loh, H. S. Nguyen, R. Murthy, M. B. Yu, W. Y. Loh, G. Q. Lo, N. Balasubramanian, D. L. Kwong, J. Wang, and S. J. Lee, “Selective epitaxial germanium on silicon-on-insulator high speed photodetectors using low-temperature ultrathin Si0.8Ge0.2 buffer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 073503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, N. D.

N. D. Nguyen, E. Rosseel, S. Takeuchi, J. L. Everaert, L. Yang, J. Goossens, A. Moussa, T. Clarysse, O. Richard, H. Bender, S. Zaima, A. Sakai, R. Loo, J. C. Lin, W. Vandervorst, and M. Caymax, “Use of p- and n-type vapor phase doping and sub-melt laser anneal for extension junctions in sub-32 nm CMOS technology,” Thin Solid Films 518(6), S48–S52 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Niimi, H.

R. S. Johnson, H. Niimi, and G. Lucovsky, “New approach for the fabrication of device-quality Ge/GeO2 /SiO2 interfaces using low temperature remote plasma processing,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18(4), 1230–1233 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nishi, H.

Okyay, A. K.

H. Y. Yu, S. Ren, W. S. Jung, A. K. Okyay, D. A. B. Miller, and K. C. Saraswat, “High-efficiency p-i-n photodetectors on selective-area-grown Ge for monolithic integration,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(11), 1161–1163 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Fidaner, A. K. Okyay, J. E. Roth, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, K. C. Saraswat, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Ge–SiGe quantum-well waveguide photodetectors on silicon for the near-infrared,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(20), 1631–1633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Osmond, J.

J. Osmond, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, R. Kaufmann, M. Acciarri, and H. von Kanel, “Ultralow dark current Ge/Si(100) photodiodes with low thermal budget,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(20), 201106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Paniccia, M. J.

Park, S.

Patel, S. S.

M. Beals, J. Michel, J. F. Liu, D. H. Ahn, D. Sparacin, R. Sun, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, A. Kopa, A. Apsel, M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, and A. E. White, “Process flow innovations for photonic device integration in CMOS,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689804(2008).
[CrossRef]

Plummer, J. D.

C. O. Cui, K. Gopalakrishnan, P. B. Griffin, J. D. Plummer, and K. C. Saraswat, “Activation and diffusion studies of ion-implanted p and n dopants in germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(16), 3275–3277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pomerene, A.

M. Beals, J. Michel, J. F. Liu, D. H. Ahn, D. Sparacin, R. Sun, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, A. Kopa, A. Apsel, M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, and A. E. White, “Process flow innovations for photonic device integration in CMOS,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689804(2008).
[CrossRef]

Rasras, M. S.

M. Beals, J. Michel, J. F. Liu, D. H. Ahn, D. Sparacin, R. Sun, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, A. Kopa, A. Apsel, M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, and A. E. White, “Process flow innovations for photonic device integration in CMOS,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689804(2008).
[CrossRef]

Ren, S.

H. Y. Yu, S. Ren, W. S. Jung, A. K. Okyay, D. A. B. Miller, and K. C. Saraswat, “High-efficiency p-i-n photodetectors on selective-area-grown Ge for monolithic integration,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(11), 1161–1163 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Richard, O.

N. D. Nguyen, E. Rosseel, S. Takeuchi, J. L. Everaert, L. Yang, J. Goossens, A. Moussa, T. Clarysse, O. Richard, H. Bender, S. Zaima, A. Sakai, R. Loo, J. C. Lin, W. Vandervorst, and M. Caymax, “Use of p- and n-type vapor phase doping and sub-melt laser anneal for extension junctions in sub-32 nm CMOS technology,” Thin Solid Films 518(6), S48–S52 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rosseel, E.

N. D. Nguyen, E. Rosseel, S. Takeuchi, J. L. Everaert, L. Yang, J. Goossens, A. Moussa, T. Clarysse, O. Richard, H. Bender, S. Zaima, A. Sakai, R. Loo, J. C. Lin, W. Vandervorst, and M. Caymax, “Use of p- and n-type vapor phase doping and sub-melt laser anneal for extension junctions in sub-32 nm CMOS technology,” Thin Solid Films 518(6), S48–S52 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Roth, J. E.

O. Fidaner, A. K. Okyay, J. E. Roth, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, K. C. Saraswat, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Ge–SiGe quantum-well waveguide photodetectors on silicon for the near-infrared,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(20), 1631–1633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rubin, D.

Sakai, A.

N. D. Nguyen, E. Rosseel, S. Takeuchi, J. L. Everaert, L. Yang, J. Goossens, A. Moussa, T. Clarysse, O. Richard, H. Bender, S. Zaima, A. Sakai, R. Loo, J. C. Lin, W. Vandervorst, and M. Caymax, “Use of p- and n-type vapor phase doping and sub-melt laser anneal for extension junctions in sub-32 nm CMOS technology,” Thin Solid Films 518(6), S48–S52 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Samavedam, S. B.

S. B. Samavedam, M. T. Currie, T. A. Langdo, and E. A. Fitzgerald, “High-quality germanium photodiodes integrated on silicon substrates using optimized relaxed graded buffers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(15), 2125–2127 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sandland, J. G.

H. C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909–2911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Saraswat, K. C.

H. Y. Yu, S. Ren, W. S. Jung, A. K. Okyay, D. A. B. Miller, and K. C. Saraswat, “High-efficiency p-i-n photodetectors on selective-area-grown Ge for monolithic integration,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(11), 1161–1163 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Fidaner, A. K. Okyay, J. E. Roth, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, K. C. Saraswat, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Ge–SiGe quantum-well waveguide photodetectors on silicon for the near-infrared,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(20), 1631–1633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. O. Cui, K. Gopalakrishnan, P. B. Griffin, J. D. Plummer, and K. C. Saraswat, “Activation and diffusion studies of ion-implanted p and n dopants in germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(16), 3275–3277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sarid, G.

Sasada, T.

Y. Nakakita, R. Nakakne, T. Sasada, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “Interface-controlled self-align source/drain Ge p-channel metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistors fabricated using thermally oxidized GeO2 interfacial layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 010109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Sasada, Y. Nakakita, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “Surface orientation dependence of interface properties of GeO2/Ge metal-oxide-semiconductor structures fabricated by thermal oxidation,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(7), 073716 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Matsubara, T. Sasada, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “Evidence of low interface trap density in GeO2/Ge metal-oxide-semiconductor structures fabricated by thermal oxidation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(3), 032104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schaevitz, R. K.

O. Fidaner, A. K. Okyay, J. E. Roth, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, K. C. Saraswat, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Ge–SiGe quantum-well waveguide photodetectors on silicon for the near-infrared,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(20), 1631–1633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schaub, J. D.

S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, G. Dehlinger, and J. O. Chu, “Germanium-on-SOI infrared detectors for integrated photonic applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1489–1502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shinojima, H.

Song, J.

K. W. Ang, T. Y. Liow, M. B. Yu, Q. Fang, J. Song, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low thermal budget monolithic integration of evanescent-coupled Ge-on-SOI photodetector on Si CMOS platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 106–113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sparacin, D.

M. Beals, J. Michel, J. F. Liu, D. H. Ahn, D. Sparacin, R. Sun, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, A. Kopa, A. Apsel, M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, and A. E. White, “Process flow innovations for photonic device integration in CMOS,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689804(2008).
[CrossRef]

Stiles, P. J.

E. E. Crisman, J. I. Lee, P. J. Stiles, and O. J. Gregory, “Characterisation of n-channel germanium mosfet with gate insulator formed by high-pressure thermal oxidation,” Electron. Lett. 23(1), 8–10 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Sugiyama, M.

M. Takenaka, K. Morii, M. Sugiyama, Y. Nakano, and S. Takagi, “Gas phase doping of arsenic into (100), (110), and (111) germanium substrates using a metal–organic source,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 010105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sun, R.

M. Beals, J. Michel, J. F. Liu, D. H. Ahn, D. Sparacin, R. Sun, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, A. Kopa, A. Apsel, M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, and A. E. White, “Process flow innovations for photonic device integration in CMOS,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689804(2008).
[CrossRef]

Takagi, S.

M. Takenaka, K. Morii, M. Sugiyama, Y. Nakano, and S. Takagi, “Gas phase doping of arsenic into (100), (110), and (111) germanium substrates using a metal–organic source,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 010105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Nakakita, R. Nakakne, T. Sasada, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “Interface-controlled self-align source/drain Ge p-channel metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistors fabricated using thermally oxidized GeO2 interfacial layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 010109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Morii, T. Iwasaki, R. Nakane, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “High-performance GeO2/Ge nMOSFETs with source/drain junctions formed by gas-phase doping,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(10), 1092–1094 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Sasada, Y. Nakakita, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “Surface orientation dependence of interface properties of GeO2/Ge metal-oxide-semiconductor structures fabricated by thermal oxidation,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(7), 073716 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Matsubara, T. Sasada, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “Evidence of low interface trap density in GeO2/Ge metal-oxide-semiconductor structures fabricated by thermal oxidation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(3), 032104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Takenaka, M.

Y. Nakakita, R. Nakakne, T. Sasada, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “Interface-controlled self-align source/drain Ge p-channel metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistors fabricated using thermally oxidized GeO2 interfacial layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 010109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Takenaka, K. Morii, M. Sugiyama, Y. Nakano, and S. Takagi, “Gas phase doping of arsenic into (100), (110), and (111) germanium substrates using a metal–organic source,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 010105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Morii, T. Iwasaki, R. Nakane, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “High-performance GeO2/Ge nMOSFETs with source/drain junctions formed by gas-phase doping,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(10), 1092–1094 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Sasada, Y. Nakakita, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “Surface orientation dependence of interface properties of GeO2/Ge metal-oxide-semiconductor structures fabricated by thermal oxidation,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(7), 073716 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Matsubara, T. Sasada, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “Evidence of low interface trap density in GeO2/Ge metal-oxide-semiconductor structures fabricated by thermal oxidation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(3), 032104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Takeuchi, S.

N. D. Nguyen, E. Rosseel, S. Takeuchi, J. L. Everaert, L. Yang, J. Goossens, A. Moussa, T. Clarysse, O. Richard, H. Bender, S. Zaima, A. Sakai, R. Loo, J. C. Lin, W. Vandervorst, and M. Caymax, “Use of p- and n-type vapor phase doping and sub-melt laser anneal for extension junctions in sub-32 nm CMOS technology,” Thin Solid Films 518(6), S48–S52 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Toyama, Y.

S. Kagawa, T. Kaneda, T. Mikawa, Y. Banba, and Y. Toyama, “Fully ion-implanted p+ -n germanium avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38(6), 429–431 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchizawa, T.

Tu, K. Y.

M. Beals, J. Michel, J. F. Liu, D. H. Ahn, D. Sparacin, R. Sun, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, A. Kopa, A. Apsel, M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, and A. E. White, “Process flow innovations for photonic device integration in CMOS,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689804(2008).
[CrossRef]

Vandervorst, W.

N. D. Nguyen, E. Rosseel, S. Takeuchi, J. L. Everaert, L. Yang, J. Goossens, A. Moussa, T. Clarysse, O. Richard, H. Bender, S. Zaima, A. Sakai, R. Loo, J. C. Lin, W. Vandervorst, and M. Caymax, “Use of p- and n-type vapor phase doping and sub-melt laser anneal for extension junctions in sub-32 nm CMOS technology,” Thin Solid Films 518(6), S48–S52 (2010).
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Vlasov, Y. A.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature 464(7285), 80–84 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

von Kanel, H.

J. Osmond, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, R. Kaufmann, M. Acciarri, and H. von Kanel, “Ultralow dark current Ge/Si(100) photodiodes with low thermal budget,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(20), 201106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wada, K.

S. Park, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, H. Nishi, K. Yamada, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, and S. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration and synchronous operation of germanium photodetectors and silicon variable optical attenuators,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8412–8421 (2010).
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H. C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909–2911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

T. H. Loh, H. S. Nguyen, R. Murthy, M. B. Yu, W. Y. Loh, G. Q. Lo, N. Balasubramanian, D. L. Kwong, J. Wang, and S. J. Lee, “Selective epitaxial germanium on silicon-on-insulator high speed photodetectors using low-temperature ultrathin Si0.8Ge0.2 buffer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 073503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, Y. Z. Hu, and E. A. Irene, “Electron cyclotron resonance plasma and thermal oxidation mechanisms of germanium,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12(4), 1309–1314 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, T.

White, A. E.

M. Beals, J. Michel, J. F. Liu, D. H. Ahn, D. Sparacin, R. Sun, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, A. Kopa, A. Apsel, M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, and A. E. White, “Process flow innovations for photonic device integration in CMOS,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689804(2008).
[CrossRef]

Williams, D.

V. Craciun, I. W. Boyd, B. Hutton, and D. Williams, “Characteristics of dielectric layers grown on Ge by low temperature vacuum ultraviolet-assisted oxidation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(9), 1261–1263 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Xia, F.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature 464(7285), 80–84 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamada, K.

Yamaoka, T.

H. Ando, H. Kanbe, T. Kimura, T. Yamaoka, and T. Kaneda, “Characteristics of germanium avalanche photodiodes in the wavelength region of 1-1.6 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14(11), 804–809 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Yang, L.

N. D. Nguyen, E. Rosseel, S. Takeuchi, J. L. Everaert, L. Yang, J. Goossens, A. Moussa, T. Clarysse, O. Richard, H. Bender, S. Zaima, A. Sakai, R. Loo, J. C. Lin, W. Vandervorst, and M. Caymax, “Use of p- and n-type vapor phase doping and sub-melt laser anneal for extension junctions in sub-32 nm CMOS technology,” Thin Solid Films 518(6), S48–S52 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yin, T.

Yu, H. Y.

H. Y. Yu, S. Ren, W. S. Jung, A. K. Okyay, D. A. B. Miller, and K. C. Saraswat, “High-efficiency p-i-n photodetectors on selective-area-grown Ge for monolithic integration,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(11), 1161–1163 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, M. B.

K. W. Ang, T. Y. Liow, M. B. Yu, Q. Fang, J. Song, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low thermal budget monolithic integration of evanescent-coupled Ge-on-SOI photodetector on Si CMOS platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 106–113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Loh, H. S. Nguyen, R. Murthy, M. B. Yu, W. Y. Loh, G. Q. Lo, N. Balasubramanian, D. L. Kwong, J. Wang, and S. J. Lee, “Selective epitaxial germanium on silicon-on-insulator high speed photodetectors using low-temperature ultrathin Si0.8Ge0.2 buffer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 073503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zaima, S.

N. D. Nguyen, E. Rosseel, S. Takeuchi, J. L. Everaert, L. Yang, J. Goossens, A. Moussa, T. Clarysse, O. Richard, H. Bender, S. Zaima, A. Sakai, R. Loo, J. C. Lin, W. Vandervorst, and M. Caymax, “Use of p- and n-type vapor phase doping and sub-melt laser anneal for extension junctions in sub-32 nm CMOS technology,” Thin Solid Films 518(6), S48–S52 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

S. Kagawa, T. Kaneda, T. Mikawa, Y. Banba, and Y. Toyama, “Fully ion-implanted p+ -n germanium avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38(6), 429–431 (1981).
[CrossRef]

C. O. Cui, K. Gopalakrishnan, P. B. Griffin, J. D. Plummer, and K. C. Saraswat, “Activation and diffusion studies of ion-implanted p and n dopants in germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(16), 3275–3277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Matsubara, T. Sasada, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “Evidence of low interface trap density in GeO2/Ge metal-oxide-semiconductor structures fabricated by thermal oxidation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(3), 032104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Craciun, I. W. Boyd, B. Hutton, and D. Williams, “Characteristics of dielectric layers grown on Ge by low temperature vacuum ultraviolet-assisted oxidation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(9), 1261–1263 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Samavedam, M. T. Currie, T. A. Langdo, and E. A. Fitzgerald, “High-quality germanium photodiodes integrated on silicon substrates using optimized relaxed graded buffers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(15), 2125–2127 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909–2911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Osmond, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, R. Kaufmann, M. Acciarri, and H. von Kanel, “Ultralow dark current Ge/Si(100) photodiodes with low thermal budget,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(20), 201106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Loh, H. S. Nguyen, R. Murthy, M. B. Yu, W. Y. Loh, G. Q. Lo, N. Balasubramanian, D. L. Kwong, J. Wang, and S. J. Lee, “Selective epitaxial germanium on silicon-on-insulator high speed photodetectors using low-temperature ultrathin Si0.8Ge0.2 buffer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 073503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

E. E. Crisman, J. I. Lee, P. J. Stiles, and O. J. Gregory, “Characterisation of n-channel germanium mosfet with gate insulator formed by high-pressure thermal oxidation,” Electron. Lett. 23(1), 8–10 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (2)

K. Morii, T. Iwasaki, R. Nakane, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “High-performance GeO2/Ge nMOSFETs with source/drain junctions formed by gas-phase doping,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(10), 1092–1094 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Yu, S. Ren, W. S. Jung, A. K. Okyay, D. A. B. Miller, and K. C. Saraswat, “High-efficiency p-i-n photodetectors on selective-area-grown Ge for monolithic integration,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(11), 1161–1163 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. Ando, H. Kanbe, T. Kimura, T. Yamaoka, and T. Kaneda, “Characteristics of germanium avalanche photodiodes in the wavelength region of 1-1.6 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14(11), 804–809 (1978).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, G. Dehlinger, and J. O. Chu, “Germanium-on-SOI infrared detectors for integrated photonic applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1489–1502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Ang, T. Y. Liow, M. B. Yu, Q. Fang, J. Song, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low thermal budget monolithic integration of evanescent-coupled Ge-on-SOI photodetector on Si CMOS platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 106–113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

O. Fidaner, A. K. Okyay, J. E. Roth, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, K. C. Saraswat, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Ge–SiGe quantum-well waveguide photodetectors on silicon for the near-infrared,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(20), 1631–1633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Colace, P. Ferrara, G. Assanto, D. Fulgoni, and L. Nash, “Low dark-current germanium-on-silicon near-infrared detectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1813–1815 (2007).
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S. Luryi, A. Kastalsky, and J. C. Bean, “New infrared detector on a silicon chip,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 31(9), 1135–1139 (1984).
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J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Sasada, Y. Nakakita, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “Surface orientation dependence of interface properties of GeO2/Ge metal-oxide-semiconductor structures fabricated by thermal oxidation,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(7), 073716 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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M. D. Jack and J. Y. M. Lee, “DLTS measurements of a germanium MIS interface,” J. Electron. Mater. 10(3), 571–589 (1981).
[CrossRef]

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Y. Wang, Y. Z. Hu, and E. A. Irene, “Electron cyclotron resonance plasma and thermal oxidation mechanisms of germanium,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12(4), 1309–1314 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Johnson, H. Niimi, and G. Lucovsky, “New approach for the fabrication of device-quality Ge/GeO2 /SiO2 interfaces using low temperature remote plasma processing,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18(4), 1230–1233 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

Y. Nakakita, R. Nakakne, T. Sasada, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “Interface-controlled self-align source/drain Ge p-channel metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistors fabricated using thermally oxidized GeO2 interfacial layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 010109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Takenaka, K. Morii, M. Sugiyama, Y. Nakano, and S. Takagi, “Gas phase doping of arsenic into (100), (110), and (111) germanium substrates using a metal–organic source,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 010105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature 464(7285), 80–84 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. Beals, J. Michel, J. F. Liu, D. H. Ahn, D. Sparacin, R. Sun, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, A. Kopa, A. Apsel, M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, and A. E. White, “Process flow innovations for photonic device integration in CMOS,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689804(2008).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

N. D. Nguyen, E. Rosseel, S. Takeuchi, J. L. Everaert, L. Yang, J. Goossens, A. Moussa, T. Clarysse, O. Richard, H. Bender, S. Zaima, A. Sakai, R. Loo, J. C. Lin, W. Vandervorst, and M. Caymax, “Use of p- and n-type vapor phase doping and sub-melt laser anneal for extension junctions in sub-32 nm CMOS technology,” Thin Solid Films 518(6), S48–S52 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

Thorlabs Inc, http://www.thorlabs.com .

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SIMS profile of arsenic in Ge diffused by gas-phase doping at 600 °C for 60 min.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Cross-sectional TEM and (b) electron beam holography images for PN diode fabricated by gas-phase doping at 600 °C for 60 min.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

I-V characteristics of PN diodes fabricated by gas-phase doping and phosphorus ion implantation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Temperature dependences of reverse currents of PN didoes fabricated by gas-phase doping and ion implantation of phosphorus and arsenic.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) I-V characteristics of SiO2-passivated PN diodes with different peripheral lengths fabricated by gas-phase doping and (b) dark current as a function of edge length of PN diodes measured at bias voltage of −1.0 V.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Dark current and photocurrent of GeO2-passivated Ge PD with gas-phase-doped junction, and (b) responsivity as a function of wavelength.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Dark current as a function of area of GeO2-passivated Ge PD with gas-phase-doped junction.

Equations (1)

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I dark = J bulk A+ J surf 4π A ,

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