Abstract

We demonstrate the generation of error-free binary-phase-shift-keyed (BPSK) data at 5 Gb/s using a silicon microring modulator. The microring-modulated BPSK signal is propagated at fiber lengths up to 80 km, maintaining error-free performance, while demonstrating resilience to chromatic dispersion. Bit-error-rate measurements and eye diagrams show near equivalent performance of a microring-based BPSK modulator as compared to commercial LiNbO3 phase modulators.

© 2012 OSA

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2012 (1)

2010 (3)

2009 (5)

2008 (2)

2007 (5)

Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon micro-ring silicon modulators,” Opt. Express 15(2), 430–436 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Zhang, J.-Y. Yang, M. Song, Y. Li, B. Zhang, R. G. Beausoleil, and A. E. Willner, “Microring-based modulation and demodulation of DPSK signal,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11564–11569 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Degl’Innocenti, and P. Günter, “Electro–optically tunable microring resonators in lithium niobate,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 407–410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 65–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Shea and J. E. Mitchell, “Long-reach optical access technologies,” IEEE Netw. 21(5), 5–11 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

A. H. Gnauck and P. J. Winzer, “Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(1), 115–130 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

P. E. Green, “Fiber to the home: the next big broadband thing,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 42(9), 100–106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

2000 (1)

A. Yariv, “Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36(4), 321–322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, “Ultra-compact Si/SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(4), 549–551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Assefa, S.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, C. L. Schow, A. V. Rylyakov, and Y. A. Vlasov, “CMOS-integrated optical receivers for on-chip interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1376–1392 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Van Campenhout, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Low-power, 2 x 2 silicon electro-optic switch with 110-nm bandwidth for broadband reconfigurable optical networks,” Opt. Express 17(26), 24020–24029 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baets, R.

Beausoleil, R. G.

Bergman, K.

Biberman, A.

Chen, L.

Chen, Y.-

Cheng Zhang,

Chu, S. T.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, “Ultra-compact Si/SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(4), 549–551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, O.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dalton, L. R.

Degl’Innocenti, R.

A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Degl’Innocenti, and P. Günter, “Electro–optically tunable microring resonators in lithium niobate,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 407–410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dong, P.

Fédéli, J. M.

Fontaine, N. K.

Foresi, J. S.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, “Ultra-compact Si/SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(4), 549–551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Geis, M. W.

Gnauck, A. H.

Gondarenko, A.

Green, P. E.

P. E. Green, “Fiber to the home: the next big broadband thing,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 42(9), 100–106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Green, W. M. J.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, C. L. Schow, A. V. Rylyakov, and Y. A. Vlasov, “CMOS-integrated optical receivers for on-chip interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1376–1392 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Van Campenhout, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Low-power, 2 x 2 silicon electro-optic switch with 110-nm bandwidth for broadband reconfigurable optical networks,” Opt. Express 17(26), 24020–24029 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greene, W.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, “Ultra-compact Si/SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(4), 549–551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Grein, M. E.

Guarino, A.

A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Degl’Innocenti, and P. Günter, “Electro–optically tunable microring resonators in lithium niobate,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 407–410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Günter, P.

A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Degl’Innocenti, and P. Günter, “Electro–optically tunable microring resonators in lithium niobate,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 407–410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, “Ultra-compact Si/SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(4), 549–551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, “Ultra-compact Si/SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(4), 549–551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Iwatsuki, K.

K. Iwatsuki and J.-I. Kani, “Application and technical issues of wavelength-division multiplexing passive optical networks with colorless optical network units,” J. Opt. Netw. 1(4), C17–C24 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kani, J.-I.

K. Iwatsuki and J.-I. Kani, “Application and technical issues of wavelength-division multiplexing passive optical networks with colorless optical network units,” J. Opt. Netw. 1(4), C17–C24 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, “Ultra-compact Si/SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(4), 549–551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lennon, D. M.

Li, Y.

Liao, L.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lipson, M.

Lira, H. L. R.

Little, B. E.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, “Ultra-compact Si/SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(4), 549–551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liu, A.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, L.

Lyszczarz, T. M.

Manipatruni, S.

Mitchell, J. E.

D. P. Shea and J. E. Mitchell, “Long-reach optical access technologies,” IEEE Netw. 21(5), 5–11 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nicolaescu, R.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ophir, N.

Paniccia, M.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poberaj, G.

A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Degl’Innocenti, and P. Günter, “Electro–optically tunable microring resonators in lithium niobate,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 407–410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Poitras, C. B.

Pradhan, S.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Preston, K.

Rabiei, P.

Regreny, P.

Rezzonico, D.

A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Degl’Innocenti, and P. Günter, “Electro–optically tunable microring resonators in lithium niobate,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 407–410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Roelkens, G.

Rojo-Romeo, P.

Rubin, D.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rylyakov, A. V.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, C. L. Schow, A. V. Rylyakov, and Y. A. Vlasov, “CMOS-integrated optical receivers for on-chip interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1376–1392 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Samara-Rubio, D.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, B.

Schow, C. L.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, C. L. Schow, A. V. Rylyakov, and Y. A. Vlasov, “CMOS-integrated optical receivers for on-chip interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1376–1392 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Seassal, C.

Sekaric, L.

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 65–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shakya, J.

Shea, D. P.

D. P. Shea and J. E. Mitchell, “Long-reach optical access technologies,” IEEE Netw. 21(5), 5–11 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Song, M.

Soref, R. A.

Spector, S. J.

Steier, W. H.

Steinmeyer, G.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, “Ultra-compact Si/SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(4), 549–551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Thoen, E. R.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, “Ultra-compact Si/SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(4), 549–551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Van Campenhout, J.

Van Thourhout, D.

Vlasov, Y. A.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, C. L. Schow, A. V. Rylyakov, and Y. A. Vlasov, “CMOS-integrated optical receivers for on-chip interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1376–1392 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Van Campenhout, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Low-power, 2 x 2 silicon electro-optic switch with 110-nm bandwidth for broadband reconfigurable optical networks,” Opt. Express 17(26), 24020–24029 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 65–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Willner, A. E.

Winzer, P. J.

Xia, F.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, C. L. Schow, A. V. Rylyakov, and Y. A. Vlasov, “CMOS-integrated optical receivers for on-chip interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1376–1392 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 65–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xie, C.

Xu, Q.

Yang, J.-Y.

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, “Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36(4), 321–322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, J. U.

Zhang, B.

Zhang, L.

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. Yariv, “Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36(4), 321–322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

P. E. Green, “Fiber to the home: the next big broadband thing,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 42(9), 100–106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Assefa, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, C. L. Schow, A. V. Rylyakov, and Y. A. Vlasov, “CMOS-integrated optical receivers for on-chip interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1376–1392 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Netw. (1)

D. P. Shea and J. E. Mitchell, “Long-reach optical access technologies,” IEEE Netw. 21(5), 5–11 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, “Ultra-compact Si/SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(4), 549–551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Opt. Netw. (1)

K. Iwatsuki and J.-I. Kani, “Application and technical issues of wavelength-division multiplexing passive optical networks with colorless optical network units,” J. Opt. Netw. 1(4), C17–C24 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (2)

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 65–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Degl’Innocenti, and P. Günter, “Electro–optically tunable microring resonators in lithium niobate,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 407–410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (10)

H. L. R. Lira, S. Manipatruni, and M. Lipson, “Broadband hitless silicon electro-optic switch for on-chip optical networks,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22271–22280 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Van Campenhout, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Low-power, 2 x 2 silicon electro-optic switch with 110-nm bandwidth for broadband reconfigurable optical networks,” Opt. Express 17(26), 24020–24029 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “Silicon waveguide infrared photodiodes with >35 GHz bandwidth and phototransistors with 50 AW-1 response,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5193–5204 (2009).
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L. Zhang, Y. Li, M. Song, R. G. Beausoleil, and A. E. Willner, “Data quality dependencies in microring-based DPSK transmitter and receiver,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5739–5745 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Biberman, S. Manipatruni, N. Ophir, L. Chen, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “First demonstration of long-haul transmission using silicon microring modulators,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15544–15552 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Zhang, J.-Y. Yang, M. Song, Y. Li, B. Zhang, R. G. Beausoleil, and A. E. Willner, “Microring-based modulation and demodulation of DPSK signal,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11564–11569 (2007).
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Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (5)

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W. Atia and R. S. Bondurant, “Demonstration of return-to-zero signaling in both OOK and DPSK formats to improve receiver sensitivity in an optically preamplified receiver,” Proc. LEOS Annual Meeting (IEEE, 1999), paper TuM3.

K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, S. Manipatruni, C. B. Poitras, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “DPSK modulation using a microring modulator,” Proc. Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper CTuN4.

K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, S. Manipatruni, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Error-free transmission of DPSK at 5 Gb/s using a silicon microring modulator.” Proc. European Conference on Optical Communications (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper Th.12.LeSaleve.2.

S. Manipatruni, Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “High speed carrier injection 18 Gb/s silicon micro-ring electro-optic modulator,” Proc. LEOS Annual Meeting (IEEE, 2007), paper WO2.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Microscope image of the microring modulator (doping regions are highlighted in green for p-doping and blue for n-doping) and its corresponding (b) amplitude and (c) phase response under DC conditions.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

BPSK generation using a microring modulator. (a) The two bit-states have equivalent amplitudes, but (b) a difference in phase of π.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Eye patterns of the demodulated BPSK signal from the LiNbO3 MZM (top row), LiNbO3 PM (middle row), and silicon microring modulator (bottom row) after propagating [0, 30, 55, 80] km and passing through the fiber DLI.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Signal constellation for PM-, microring-, and MZM-modulated BPSK. (b) PM-, microring-, and MZM-modulated BPSK before demodulation.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental setup for bit-error validation of microring-modulated BPSK.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) BER curves. (b) Power penalties taken relative to 0-km propagation of the LiNbO3 MZM-modulated BPSK signal.

Equations (1)

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E OUT E IN = α+(1κ) e ( j2πL λ ) α(1κ)+ e ( j2πL λ )

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