Abstract

In present work, we demonstrate an optical cloak and illusion by appropriate design of a cluster of active sources. As pointed out by Vasquez and coworkers, the merit of such proposal with active controls is to overcome the drawback of narrow operating frequency and intrinsic loss inherent in the cloaking device made of metamaterials. Accordingly, the illusion device designed thuswise has a broadband operating frequency. By use of the rigorous multiple scattering theory, we have performed the simulations. It is shown that the active illusion device can be used as an beam rotator. In particular, we have shown that the active sources can even be reduced to dipole ones, which is expected to enable much easier experimental implementation of the cloaking and illusion effect.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85, 3966–3969 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science292, 77–79 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature455, 376–379 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial,” Science312, 892–894 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. V. M. Shalaev, “Optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics1, 41–48 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Y. Liu, W. K. Chen, J. J. Du, Z. F. Lin, S. T. Chui, and C. T. Chan, “Manipulating negative-refractive behavior with a magnetic field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101, 157407 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. U. Leonhardt, “Optical conformal mapping,” Science312, 1777–1780 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science312, 1780–1782 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science314, 977–980 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. Li and J. B. Pendry, “Hiding under the carpet: A new strategy for cloaking,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101, 203901 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science328, 337–339 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics1, 224–227 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater.2, 229–232 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science308, 534–537 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. J. Du, S. Y. Liu, Z. F. Lin, J. Zi, and S. T. Chui, “Dielectric-based extremely-low-loss subwavelength-light transport at the nanoscale: An alternative to surface-plasmon-mediated waveguiding,” Phys. Rev. A83, 035803 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. Schurig, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, “Calculation of material properties and ray tracing in transformation media,” Opt. Express14, 9794–9804 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. M. Rahm, S. A. Cummer, D. Schurig, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, “Optical design of reflectionless complex media by finite embedded coordinate transformations,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 063903 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. A. V. Kildishev and V. M. Shalaev, “Engineering space for light via transformation optics,” Opt. Lett.33, 43–45 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. Alù and N. Engheta, “Achieving transparency with plasmonic and metamaterial coatings,” Phys. Rev. E72, 016623 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. Alù and N. Engheta, “Multifrequency optical invisibility cloak with layered plasmonic shells,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 113901 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. Y. Lai, H. Y. Chen, Z. Q. Zhang, and C. T. Chan, “Complementary media invisibility cloak that cloaks objects at a distance outside the cloaking shell,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102, 093901 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. D. A. B. Miller, “On perfect cloaking,” Opt. Express14, 12457–12466 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. N. A. P. Nicorovici, G. W. Milton, R. C. McPhedran, and L. C. Botten, “Quasistatic cloaking of two-dimensional polarizable discrete systems by anomalous resonance,” Opt. Express15, 6314–6323 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. F. G. Vasquez, G. W. Milton, and D. Onofrei, “Broadband exterior cloaking,” Opt. Express17, 14800–14805 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. F. G. Vasquez, G. W. Milton, and D. Onofrei, “Active exterior cloaking for the 2D Laplace and Helmholtz equations,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103, 073901 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. H. H. Zheng, J. J. Xiao, Y. Lai, and C. T. Chan, “Exterior optical cloaking and illusions by using active sources: A boundary element perspective,” Phys. Rev. B81, 195116 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  27. Y. Lai, Jack Ng, H. Y. Chen, D. Z. Han, J. J. Xiao, Z. Q. Zhang, and C. T. Chan, “Illusion optics: The optical transformation of an object into another object,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102, 253902 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. X. D. Wang, X. G. Zhang, Q. L. Yu, and B. N. Harmon, “Multiple scattering theory for electromagnetic waves,” Phys. Rev. B47, 4161–4167 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  29. S. Y. Liu and Z. F. Lin, “Opening up complete photonic bandgaps in three-dimensional photonic crystals consisting of biaxial dielectric spheres,” Phys. Rev. E73, 066609 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  30. S. Y. Liu, W. L. Lu, Z. F. Lin, and S. T. Chui, “Molding reflection from metamaterials based on magnetic surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B84, 045425 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  31. W. C. Chew, Waves and Fields in Inhomogeneous Media (IEEE Press, New York, 1995).
  32. C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1983).
  33. J. J. Du, Z. F. Lin, S. T. Chui, W. L. Lu, H. Li, A. M. Wu, Z. Sheng, J. Zi, X. Wang, S. C. Zou, and F. W. Gan, “Optical beam steering based on the symmetry of resonant modes of nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 203903 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

J. J. Du, S. Y. Liu, Z. F. Lin, J. Zi, and S. T. Chui, “Dielectric-based extremely-low-loss subwavelength-light transport at the nanoscale: An alternative to surface-plasmon-mediated waveguiding,” Phys. Rev. A83, 035803 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Liu, W. L. Lu, Z. F. Lin, and S. T. Chui, “Molding reflection from metamaterials based on magnetic surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B84, 045425 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Du, Z. F. Lin, S. T. Chui, W. L. Lu, H. Li, A. M. Wu, Z. Sheng, J. Zi, X. Wang, S. C. Zou, and F. W. Gan, “Optical beam steering based on the symmetry of resonant modes of nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 203903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

H. H. Zheng, J. J. Xiao, Y. Lai, and C. T. Chan, “Exterior optical cloaking and illusions by using active sources: A boundary element perspective,” Phys. Rev. B81, 195116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science328, 337–339 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

Y. Lai, Jack Ng, H. Y. Chen, D. Z. Han, J. J. Xiao, Z. Q. Zhang, and C. T. Chan, “Illusion optics: The optical transformation of an object into another object,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102, 253902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. G. Vasquez, G. W. Milton, and D. Onofrei, “Broadband exterior cloaking,” Opt. Express17, 14800–14805 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. G. Vasquez, G. W. Milton, and D. Onofrei, “Active exterior cloaking for the 2D Laplace and Helmholtz equations,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103, 073901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lai, H. Y. Chen, Z. Q. Zhang, and C. T. Chan, “Complementary media invisibility cloak that cloaks objects at a distance outside the cloaking shell,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102, 093901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

A. Alù and N. Engheta, “Multifrequency optical invisibility cloak with layered plasmonic shells,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 113901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Li and J. B. Pendry, “Hiding under the carpet: A new strategy for cloaking,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101, 203901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rahm, S. A. Cummer, D. Schurig, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, “Optical design of reflectionless complex media by finite embedded coordinate transformations,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 063903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Kildishev and V. M. Shalaev, “Engineering space for light via transformation optics,” Opt. Lett.33, 43–45 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature455, 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Liu, W. K. Chen, J. J. Du, Z. F. Lin, S. T. Chui, and C. T. Chan, “Manipulating negative-refractive behavior with a magnetic field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101, 157407 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

V. M. Shalaev, “Optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics1, 41–48 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics1, 224–227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. A. P. Nicorovici, G. W. Milton, R. C. McPhedran, and L. C. Botten, “Quasistatic cloaking of two-dimensional polarizable discrete systems by anomalous resonance,” Opt. Express15, 6314–6323 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

S. Y. Liu and Z. F. Lin, “Opening up complete photonic bandgaps in three-dimensional photonic crystals consisting of biaxial dielectric spheres,” Phys. Rev. E73, 066609 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, “On perfect cloaking,” Opt. Express14, 12457–12466 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, “Calculation of material properties and ray tracing in transformation media,” Opt. Express14, 9794–9804 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Leonhardt, “Optical conformal mapping,” Science312, 1777–1780 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science312, 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science314, 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial,” Science312, 892–894 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

A. Alù and N. Engheta, “Achieving transparency with plasmonic and metamaterial coatings,” Phys. Rev. E72, 016623 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science308, 534–537 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater.2, 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science292, 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85, 3966–3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

X. D. Wang, X. G. Zhang, Q. L. Yu, and B. N. Harmon, “Multiple scattering theory for electromagnetic waves,” Phys. Rev. B47, 4161–4167 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Alù, A.

A. Alù and N. Engheta, “Multifrequency optical invisibility cloak with layered plasmonic shells,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 113901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Alù and N. Engheta, “Achieving transparency with plasmonic and metamaterial coatings,” Phys. Rev. E72, 016623 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater.2, 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartal, G.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature455, 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1983).

Botten, L. C.

Brenner, P.

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science328, 337–339 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, W.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics1, 224–227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C. T.

H. H. Zheng, J. J. Xiao, Y. Lai, and C. T. Chan, “Exterior optical cloaking and illusions by using active sources: A boundary element perspective,” Phys. Rev. B81, 195116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lai, H. Y. Chen, Z. Q. Zhang, and C. T. Chan, “Complementary media invisibility cloak that cloaks objects at a distance outside the cloaking shell,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102, 093901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lai, Jack Ng, H. Y. Chen, D. Z. Han, J. J. Xiao, Z. Q. Zhang, and C. T. Chan, “Illusion optics: The optical transformation of an object into another object,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102, 253902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Liu, W. K. Chen, J. J. Du, Z. F. Lin, S. T. Chui, and C. T. Chan, “Manipulating negative-refractive behavior with a magnetic field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101, 157407 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H. Y.

Y. Lai, Jack Ng, H. Y. Chen, D. Z. Han, J. J. Xiao, Z. Q. Zhang, and C. T. Chan, “Illusion optics: The optical transformation of an object into another object,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102, 253902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lai, H. Y. Chen, Z. Q. Zhang, and C. T. Chan, “Complementary media invisibility cloak that cloaks objects at a distance outside the cloaking shell,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102, 093901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, W. K.

S. Y. Liu, W. K. Chen, J. J. Du, Z. F. Lin, S. T. Chui, and C. T. Chan, “Manipulating negative-refractive behavior with a magnetic field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101, 157407 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chettiar, U. K.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics1, 224–227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chew, W. C.

W. C. Chew, Waves and Fields in Inhomogeneous Media (IEEE Press, New York, 1995).

Chui, S. T.

J. J. Du, Z. F. Lin, S. T. Chui, W. L. Lu, H. Li, A. M. Wu, Z. Sheng, J. Zi, X. Wang, S. C. Zou, and F. W. Gan, “Optical beam steering based on the symmetry of resonant modes of nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 203903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Liu, W. L. Lu, Z. F. Lin, and S. T. Chui, “Molding reflection from metamaterials based on magnetic surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B84, 045425 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Du, S. Y. Liu, Z. F. Lin, J. Zi, and S. T. Chui, “Dielectric-based extremely-low-loss subwavelength-light transport at the nanoscale: An alternative to surface-plasmon-mediated waveguiding,” Phys. Rev. A83, 035803 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Liu, W. K. Chen, J. J. Du, Z. F. Lin, S. T. Chui, and C. T. Chan, “Manipulating negative-refractive behavior with a magnetic field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101, 157407 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cummer, S. A.

M. Rahm, S. A. Cummer, D. Schurig, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, “Optical design of reflectionless complex media by finite embedded coordinate transformations,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 063903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science314, 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dolling, G.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial,” Science312, 892–894 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Du, J. J.

J. J. Du, S. Y. Liu, Z. F. Lin, J. Zi, and S. T. Chui, “Dielectric-based extremely-low-loss subwavelength-light transport at the nanoscale: An alternative to surface-plasmon-mediated waveguiding,” Phys. Rev. A83, 035803 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Du, Z. F. Lin, S. T. Chui, W. L. Lu, H. Li, A. M. Wu, Z. Sheng, J. Zi, X. Wang, S. C. Zou, and F. W. Gan, “Optical beam steering based on the symmetry of resonant modes of nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 203903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Liu, W. K. Chen, J. J. Du, Z. F. Lin, S. T. Chui, and C. T. Chan, “Manipulating negative-refractive behavior with a magnetic field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101, 157407 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Engheta, N.

A. Alù and N. Engheta, “Multifrequency optical invisibility cloak with layered plasmonic shells,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 113901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Alù and N. Engheta, “Achieving transparency with plasmonic and metamaterial coatings,” Phys. Rev. E72, 016623 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Enkrich, C.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial,” Science312, 892–894 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ergin, T.

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science328, 337–339 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, N.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science308, 534–537 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gan, F. W.

J. J. Du, Z. F. Lin, S. T. Chui, W. L. Lu, H. Li, A. M. Wu, Z. Sheng, J. Zi, X. Wang, S. C. Zou, and F. W. Gan, “Optical beam steering based on the symmetry of resonant modes of nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 203903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Genov, D. A.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature455, 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, D. Z.

Y. Lai, Jack Ng, H. Y. Chen, D. Z. Han, J. J. Xiao, Z. Q. Zhang, and C. T. Chan, “Illusion optics: The optical transformation of an object into another object,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102, 253902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harel, E.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater.2, 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harmon, B. N.

X. D. Wang, X. G. Zhang, Q. L. Yu, and B. N. Harmon, “Multiple scattering theory for electromagnetic waves,” Phys. Rev. B47, 4161–4167 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Huffman, D. R.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1983).

Justice, B. J.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science314, 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kik, P. G.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater.2, 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kildishev, A. V.

A. V. Kildishev and V. M. Shalaev, “Engineering space for light via transformation optics,” Opt. Lett.33, 43–45 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics1, 224–227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Koel, B. E.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater.2, 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lai, Y.

H. H. Zheng, J. J. Xiao, Y. Lai, and C. T. Chan, “Exterior optical cloaking and illusions by using active sources: A boundary element perspective,” Phys. Rev. B81, 195116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lai, H. Y. Chen, Z. Q. Zhang, and C. T. Chan, “Complementary media invisibility cloak that cloaks objects at a distance outside the cloaking shell,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102, 093901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lai, Jack Ng, H. Y. Chen, D. Z. Han, J. J. Xiao, Z. Q. Zhang, and C. T. Chan, “Illusion optics: The optical transformation of an object into another object,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102, 253902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, H.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science308, 534–537 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leonhardt, U.

U. Leonhardt, “Optical conformal mapping,” Science312, 1777–1780 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, H.

J. J. Du, Z. F. Lin, S. T. Chui, W. L. Lu, H. Li, A. M. Wu, Z. Sheng, J. Zi, X. Wang, S. C. Zou, and F. W. Gan, “Optical beam steering based on the symmetry of resonant modes of nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 203903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, J.

J. Li and J. B. Pendry, “Hiding under the carpet: A new strategy for cloaking,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101, 203901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, Z. F.

J. J. Du, Z. F. Lin, S. T. Chui, W. L. Lu, H. Li, A. M. Wu, Z. Sheng, J. Zi, X. Wang, S. C. Zou, and F. W. Gan, “Optical beam steering based on the symmetry of resonant modes of nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 203903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Liu, W. L. Lu, Z. F. Lin, and S. T. Chui, “Molding reflection from metamaterials based on magnetic surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B84, 045425 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Du, S. Y. Liu, Z. F. Lin, J. Zi, and S. T. Chui, “Dielectric-based extremely-low-loss subwavelength-light transport at the nanoscale: An alternative to surface-plasmon-mediated waveguiding,” Phys. Rev. A83, 035803 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Liu, W. K. Chen, J. J. Du, Z. F. Lin, S. T. Chui, and C. T. Chan, “Manipulating negative-refractive behavior with a magnetic field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101, 157407 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Liu and Z. F. Lin, “Opening up complete photonic bandgaps in three-dimensional photonic crystals consisting of biaxial dielectric spheres,” Phys. Rev. E73, 066609 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Linden, S.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial,” Science312, 892–894 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, S. Y.

S. Y. Liu, W. L. Lu, Z. F. Lin, and S. T. Chui, “Molding reflection from metamaterials based on magnetic surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B84, 045425 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Du, S. Y. Liu, Z. F. Lin, J. Zi, and S. T. Chui, “Dielectric-based extremely-low-loss subwavelength-light transport at the nanoscale: An alternative to surface-plasmon-mediated waveguiding,” Phys. Rev. A83, 035803 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Liu, W. K. Chen, J. J. Du, Z. F. Lin, S. T. Chui, and C. T. Chan, “Manipulating negative-refractive behavior with a magnetic field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101, 157407 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Liu and Z. F. Lin, “Opening up complete photonic bandgaps in three-dimensional photonic crystals consisting of biaxial dielectric spheres,” Phys. Rev. E73, 066609 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lu, W. L.

S. Y. Liu, W. L. Lu, Z. F. Lin, and S. T. Chui, “Molding reflection from metamaterials based on magnetic surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B84, 045425 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Du, Z. F. Lin, S. T. Chui, W. L. Lu, H. Li, A. M. Wu, Z. Sheng, J. Zi, X. Wang, S. C. Zou, and F. W. Gan, “Optical beam steering based on the symmetry of resonant modes of nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 203903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maier, S. A.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater.2, 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McPhedran, R. C.

Meltzer, S.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater.2, 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, D. A. B.

Milton, G. W.

Mock, J. J.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science314, 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ng, Jack

Y. Lai, Jack Ng, H. Y. Chen, D. Z. Han, J. J. Xiao, Z. Q. Zhang, and C. T. Chan, “Illusion optics: The optical transformation of an object into another object,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102, 253902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nicorovici, N. A. P.

Onofrei, D.

F. G. Vasquez, G. W. Milton, and D. Onofrei, “Broadband exterior cloaking,” Opt. Express17, 14800–14805 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. G. Vasquez, G. W. Milton, and D. Onofrei, “Active exterior cloaking for the 2D Laplace and Helmholtz equations,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103, 073901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science328, 337–339 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rahm, S. A. Cummer, D. Schurig, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, “Optical design of reflectionless complex media by finite embedded coordinate transformations,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 063903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Li and J. B. Pendry, “Hiding under the carpet: A new strategy for cloaking,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101, 203901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, “Calculation of material properties and ray tracing in transformation media,” Opt. Express14, 9794–9804 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science314, 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science312, 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85, 3966–3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rahm, M.

M. Rahm, S. A. Cummer, D. Schurig, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, “Optical design of reflectionless complex media by finite embedded coordinate transformations,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 063903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Requicha, A. A. G.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater.2, 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schultz, S.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science292, 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schurig, D.

M. Rahm, S. A. Cummer, D. Schurig, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, “Optical design of reflectionless complex media by finite embedded coordinate transformations,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 063903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science312, 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science314, 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, “Calculation of material properties and ray tracing in transformation media,” Opt. Express14, 9794–9804 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shalaev, V. M.

A. V. Kildishev and V. M. Shalaev, “Engineering space for light via transformation optics,” Opt. Lett.33, 43–45 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics1, 224–227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Shalaev, “Optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics1, 41–48 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shelby, R. A.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science292, 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheng, Z.

J. J. Du, Z. F. Lin, S. T. Chui, W. L. Lu, H. Li, A. M. Wu, Z. Sheng, J. Zi, X. Wang, S. C. Zou, and F. W. Gan, “Optical beam steering based on the symmetry of resonant modes of nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 203903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, D. R.

M. Rahm, S. A. Cummer, D. Schurig, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, “Optical design of reflectionless complex media by finite embedded coordinate transformations,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 063903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science312, 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, “Calculation of material properties and ray tracing in transformation media,” Opt. Express14, 9794–9804 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science314, 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science292, 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial,” Science312, 892–894 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Starr, A. F.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science314, 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stenger, N.

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science328, 337–339 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, C.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science308, 534–537 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ulin-Avila, E.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature455, 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valentine, J.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature455, 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vasquez, F. G.

F. G. Vasquez, G. W. Milton, and D. Onofrei, “Broadband exterior cloaking,” Opt. Express17, 14800–14805 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. G. Vasquez, G. W. Milton, and D. Onofrei, “Active exterior cloaking for the 2D Laplace and Helmholtz equations,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103, 073901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

J. J. Du, Z. F. Lin, S. T. Chui, W. L. Lu, H. Li, A. M. Wu, Z. Sheng, J. Zi, X. Wang, S. C. Zou, and F. W. Gan, “Optical beam steering based on the symmetry of resonant modes of nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 203903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, X. D.

X. D. Wang, X. G. Zhang, Q. L. Yu, and B. N. Harmon, “Multiple scattering theory for electromagnetic waves,” Phys. Rev. B47, 4161–4167 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wegener, M.

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science328, 337–339 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial,” Science312, 892–894 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, A. M.

J. J. Du, Z. F. Lin, S. T. Chui, W. L. Lu, H. Li, A. M. Wu, Z. Sheng, J. Zi, X. Wang, S. C. Zou, and F. W. Gan, “Optical beam steering based on the symmetry of resonant modes of nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 203903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiao, J. J.

H. H. Zheng, J. J. Xiao, Y. Lai, and C. T. Chan, “Exterior optical cloaking and illusions by using active sources: A boundary element perspective,” Phys. Rev. B81, 195116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lai, Jack Ng, H. Y. Chen, D. Z. Han, J. J. Xiao, Z. Q. Zhang, and C. T. Chan, “Illusion optics: The optical transformation of an object into another object,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102, 253902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, Q. L.

X. D. Wang, X. G. Zhang, Q. L. Yu, and B. N. Harmon, “Multiple scattering theory for electromagnetic waves,” Phys. Rev. B47, 4161–4167 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zentgraf, T.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature455, 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature455, 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature455, 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science308, 534–537 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X. G.

X. D. Wang, X. G. Zhang, Q. L. Yu, and B. N. Harmon, “Multiple scattering theory for electromagnetic waves,” Phys. Rev. B47, 4161–4167 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z. Q.

Y. Lai, H. Y. Chen, Z. Q. Zhang, and C. T. Chan, “Complementary media invisibility cloak that cloaks objects at a distance outside the cloaking shell,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102, 093901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lai, Jack Ng, H. Y. Chen, D. Z. Han, J. J. Xiao, Z. Q. Zhang, and C. T. Chan, “Illusion optics: The optical transformation of an object into another object,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102, 253902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheng, H. H.

H. H. Zheng, J. J. Xiao, Y. Lai, and C. T. Chan, “Exterior optical cloaking and illusions by using active sources: A boundary element perspective,” Phys. Rev. B81, 195116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zi, J.

J. J. Du, S. Y. Liu, Z. F. Lin, J. Zi, and S. T. Chui, “Dielectric-based extremely-low-loss subwavelength-light transport at the nanoscale: An alternative to surface-plasmon-mediated waveguiding,” Phys. Rev. A83, 035803 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Du, Z. F. Lin, S. T. Chui, W. L. Lu, H. Li, A. M. Wu, Z. Sheng, J. Zi, X. Wang, S. C. Zou, and F. W. Gan, “Optical beam steering based on the symmetry of resonant modes of nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 203903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zou, S. C.

J. J. Du, Z. F. Lin, S. T. Chui, W. L. Lu, H. Li, A. M. Wu, Z. Sheng, J. Zi, X. Wang, S. C. Zou, and F. W. Gan, “Optical beam steering based on the symmetry of resonant modes of nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 203903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater.2, 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics

V. M. Shalaev, “Optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics1, 41–48 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics1, 224–227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature455, 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

J. J. Du, S. Y. Liu, Z. F. Lin, J. Zi, and S. T. Chui, “Dielectric-based extremely-low-loss subwavelength-light transport at the nanoscale: An alternative to surface-plasmon-mediated waveguiding,” Phys. Rev. A83, 035803 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

H. H. Zheng, J. J. Xiao, Y. Lai, and C. T. Chan, “Exterior optical cloaking and illusions by using active sources: A boundary element perspective,” Phys. Rev. B81, 195116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. D. Wang, X. G. Zhang, Q. L. Yu, and B. N. Harmon, “Multiple scattering theory for electromagnetic waves,” Phys. Rev. B47, 4161–4167 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Liu, W. L. Lu, Z. F. Lin, and S. T. Chui, “Molding reflection from metamaterials based on magnetic surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B84, 045425 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E

S. Y. Liu and Z. F. Lin, “Opening up complete photonic bandgaps in three-dimensional photonic crystals consisting of biaxial dielectric spheres,” Phys. Rev. E73, 066609 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Alù and N. Engheta, “Achieving transparency with plasmonic and metamaterial coatings,” Phys. Rev. E72, 016623 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

A. Alù and N. Engheta, “Multifrequency optical invisibility cloak with layered plasmonic shells,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 113901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lai, H. Y. Chen, Z. Q. Zhang, and C. T. Chan, “Complementary media invisibility cloak that cloaks objects at a distance outside the cloaking shell,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102, 093901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rahm, S. A. Cummer, D. Schurig, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, “Optical design of reflectionless complex media by finite embedded coordinate transformations,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 063903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Du, Z. F. Lin, S. T. Chui, W. L. Lu, H. Li, A. M. Wu, Z. Sheng, J. Zi, X. Wang, S. C. Zou, and F. W. Gan, “Optical beam steering based on the symmetry of resonant modes of nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 203903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lai, Jack Ng, H. Y. Chen, D. Z. Han, J. J. Xiao, Z. Q. Zhang, and C. T. Chan, “Illusion optics: The optical transformation of an object into another object,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102, 253902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. G. Vasquez, G. W. Milton, and D. Onofrei, “Active exterior cloaking for the 2D Laplace and Helmholtz equations,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103, 073901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Li and J. B. Pendry, “Hiding under the carpet: A new strategy for cloaking,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101, 203901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85, 3966–3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Liu, W. K. Chen, J. J. Du, Z. F. Lin, S. T. Chui, and C. T. Chan, “Manipulating negative-refractive behavior with a magnetic field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101, 157407 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

U. Leonhardt, “Optical conformal mapping,” Science312, 1777–1780 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science312, 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science314, 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science292, 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial,” Science312, 892–894 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science328, 337–339 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science308, 534–537 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

W. C. Chew, Waves and Fields in Inhomogeneous Media (IEEE Press, New York, 1995).

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1983).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The order mc and the corresponding number N of the active sources to realize cloak for an incident plane wave. The size of the device is Rd = 20λ, the size of the “quite region” is Rc = 2λ, they are marked in Fig. 2(a) and Fig. 2(c) by red solid line and white solid line, respectively. The active sources are arranged uniformly around a circle r = 10λ.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Cloaking an object with 3 higher order active sources of mc = 58 (a), (b) and 94 lower order active sources of mc = 1 (c), (d). Panels (a) and (c) correspond to the total electric field patterns and panels (b) and (d) correspond to the electric patterns of EtotEext. The incident TM Gaussian beam has the working wavelength λ, the waist radius 2λ, and the beam center located at (0,0). The cloaking objects are the perfect electric conductance (PEC) film with the length l = 5λ for (a), (b) and the length l′ = 10λ for (c), (d), respectively. The red solid circles and the white solid circles in panels (a) and (c) denote, respectively, the size of the cloak devices Rd = 20λ and the size of the “quiet region” Rc = 2λ.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The total electric field patterns for a PEC object of the length 10λ arranged vertically (a) and horizontally (b) under the radiation of a TM line source. Panels (c) and (d) are the corresponding scattering field patterns for the cases in (a) and (b), respectively. Panels (e) and (f) are the electric field patterns when the illusion devices are switched on. Panel (g) and (h) are the corresponding electric field patterns of EtotEext for the cases shown in panels (e) and (f), respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The electric field patterns for a TM Gaussian beam incident on a PEC film of the length 10λ placed vertically (a) and horizontally (b). Panels (c) and (d) correspond to the electric field patterns when the illusion device is switched on. Panels (e) and (f) are the electric field patterns of EtotEext that correspond to the cases in (c) and (d), respectively. The white solid arrows in panels (a)–(d) denote the direction of the incident Gaussian beam, while the yellow solid arrows in panels (a)–(d) denote the direction of the outgoing Gaussian beam. The positions of the active dipole line sources and the size of the illusion device are the same as those in Fig. 3.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E ext ( k , r ) = E 0 m = m c m c p m J m ( k r ) e i m ϕ e z ,
E act ( k , r ) = E 0 n = 1 N m = m c m c q n , m H m ( 1 ) ( k | r r n | ) e i m ϕ n e z ,
H v ( 1 ) ( k r j ) e i v ϕ j = m = G m v ( k , r i j ) J m ( k r i ) e i m ϕ i ,
b m ( i ) = t m ( i ) [ p ˜ m ( i ) j i n S m n ( i , j ) b n ( j ) ] ,
E sca = E 0 i m b m ( i ) H m ( 1 ) ( k r i ) e i m ϕ i e z .
E sca illu = E 0 i m b m ( i , ext ) H m ( 1 ) ( k r i ) e i m ϕ i e z ,
E act ( r ) = { E inc ( r ) r = R c E sca illu ( r ) r = R d ,

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