Abstract

Vertical integration of nanoplasmonic circuits through the use of vertically coupled nanoring resonators was examined. The devices are shown to be capable of frequency selective signal transfer between device layers with planar device footprints on the order of 1.00μm2. The frequency selectivity of the devices is shown to be tunable through altering the radius of the coupled nanoring resonators. Coupling efficiencies of up to 39% between adjacent device layers are reached for two and three-levels coupling.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2010 (3)

S. Sederberg, V. Van, and A. Y. Elezzabi, “Monolithic integration of plasmonic waveguides into a complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor- and photonic-compatible platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(12), 121101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. West, S. Ishii, G. Naik, N. Emani, V. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Searching for better plasmonic materials,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(6), 795–808 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Han, A. Y. Elezzabi, and V. Van, “Experimental realization of subwavelength plasmonic slot waveguides on a silicon platform,” Opt. Lett. 35(4), 502–504 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

2006 (2)

J. A. Dionne, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly confined photon transport in subwavelength metallic slot waveguides,” Nano Lett. 6(9), 1928–1932 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, and G. Mattiussi, “Characterization of long-range surface-plasmon-polariton waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 043109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Boltasseva, T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, K. Kjaer, M. S. Larsen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi; “Integrated optical components utilizing long-range surface plasmon polaritons,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(1), 413–422 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater. 2(4), 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

J. A. Dionne, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly confined photon transport in subwavelength metallic slot waveguides,” Nano Lett. 6(9), 1928–1932 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater. 2(4), 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berini, P.

P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, and G. Mattiussi, “Characterization of long-range surface-plasmon-polariton waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 043109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Boltasseva, A.

P. West, S. Ishii, G. Naik, N. Emani, V. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Searching for better plasmonic materials,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(6), 795–808 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Boltasseva, T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, K. Kjaer, M. S. Larsen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi; “Integrated optical components utilizing long-range surface plasmon polaritons,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(1), 413–422 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Boltasseva, T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, K. Kjaer, M. S. Larsen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi; “Integrated optical components utilizing long-range surface plasmon polaritons,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(1), 413–422 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Charbonneau, R.

P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, and G. Mattiussi, “Characterization of long-range surface-plasmon-polariton waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 043109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devaux, E.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dionne, J. A.

J. A. Dionne, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly confined photon transport in subwavelength metallic slot waveguides,” Nano Lett. 6(9), 1928–1932 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ebbesen, T. W.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elezzabi, A. Y.

Z. Han, A. Y. Elezzabi, and V. Van, “Experimental realization of subwavelength plasmonic slot waveguides on a silicon platform,” Opt. Lett. 35(4), 502–504 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sederberg, V. Van, and A. Y. Elezzabi, “Monolithic integration of plasmonic waveguides into a complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor- and photonic-compatible platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(12), 121101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Emani, N.

P. West, S. Ishii, G. Naik, N. Emani, V. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Searching for better plasmonic materials,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(6), 795–808 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

Han, Z.

Harel, E.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater. 2(4), 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoffman, G. B.

Ishii, S.

P. West, S. Ishii, G. Naik, N. Emani, V. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Searching for better plasmonic materials,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(6), 795–808 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kik, P. G.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater. 2(4), 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kjaer, K.

Koel, B. E.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater. 2(4), 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lahoud, N.

P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, and G. Mattiussi, “Characterization of long-range surface-plasmon-polariton waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 043109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Laluet, J. Y.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larsen, M. S.

Leosson, K.

Lezec, H. J.

J. A. Dionne, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly confined photon transport in subwavelength metallic slot waveguides,” Nano Lett. 6(9), 1928–1932 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maier, S. A.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater. 2(4), 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mattiussi, G.

P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, and G. Mattiussi, “Characterization of long-range surface-plasmon-polariton waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 043109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Meltzer, S.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater. 2(4), 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Naik, G.

P. West, S. Ishii, G. Naik, N. Emani, V. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Searching for better plasmonic materials,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(6), 795–808 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nikolajsen, T.

Reano, R. M.

Requicha, A. A.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater. 2(4), 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sederberg, S.

S. Sederberg, V. Van, and A. Y. Elezzabi, “Monolithic integration of plasmonic waveguides into a complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor- and photonic-compatible platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(12), 121101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V.

P. West, S. Ishii, G. Naik, N. Emani, V. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Searching for better plasmonic materials,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(6), 795–808 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Van, V.

Z. Han, A. Y. Elezzabi, and V. Van, “Experimental realization of subwavelength plasmonic slot waveguides on a silicon platform,” Opt. Lett. 35(4), 502–504 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sederberg, V. Van, and A. Y. Elezzabi, “Monolithic integration of plasmonic waveguides into a complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor- and photonic-compatible platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(12), 121101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Veronis, G.

Volkov, V. S.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

West, P.

P. West, S. Ishii, G. Naik, N. Emani, V. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Searching for better plasmonic materials,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(6), 795–808 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Sederberg, V. Van, and A. Y. Elezzabi, “Monolithic integration of plasmonic waveguides into a complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor- and photonic-compatible platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(12), 121101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, and G. Mattiussi, “Characterization of long-range surface-plasmon-polariton waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 043109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

P. West, S. Ishii, G. Naik, N. Emani, V. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Searching for better plasmonic materials,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(6), 795–808 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

J. A. Dionne, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly confined photon transport in subwavelength metallic slot waveguides,” Nano Lett. 6(9), 1928–1932 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater. 2(4), 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (2)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic 2-D representative side view of the vertically coupled nanoring resonators with parallel input and output waveguides and dimensions w1 = h1 = h2 = 100 nm, w2 = 25 nm, and nanorings with radii, r. (b) Angled-view of the same structure without the Ag and SiO2 layers. (c) Angled-view of two-level system with perpendicular input and output waveguides. (d,e,f) Angled view of three-level systems with different arrangements of output waveguides. In all of the above devices, the labeled ports are: input (A), throughput (B), drop (C,E), and add (D,F).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Normalized intensity input mode for the Ag/Si/Ag gap plasmon waveguide centered at a wavelength of 1.42 μm and measured at a distance of 1 µm from the center of the nanoring at port A. (b-f) Transmission spectra at the throughput port B (blue), and drop port C (red) for the two-level device geometries depicted in Fig. 1. (b) 400 nm, (c) 500 nm, (d) 560 nm, and (e) 600 nm nanorings radii for the two-level system with parallel input and output waveguides as depicted in Fig. 1(b). (f) Two-level system with perpendicular input and output waveguides and r = 560 nm as depicted in Fig. 1(c).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmission spectra at the throughput port B (blue), and drop ports C (red) and E (green) for the three-level device geometries depicted in Fig. 1. (a) Three-level system with 560 nm nanoring radii as depicted in Fig. 1(d). (b) Three-level system with r = 560 nm as depicted in Fig. 1(e). (c) Three-level system with r = 560 nm as depicted in Fig. 1(f).

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