Abstract

We investigated an artificial Kerr-medium realized by actuated THz metamaterials. Instead of directly applying E-field inside the medium, we use micromechanical systems actuated by voltage to tune the phase shift. We established that the combined system can have a relationship between the phase shift and the voltage similar to a Kerr cell. A metamaterial Kerr-cell is designed to modulate the transmission phase difference by 0.99°/V2 which is much stronger than natural Kerr crystals. It is attributed to the mechanical tunability of metamaterials with high indices in two orthogonal directions. A Lorentzian model is used in explaining the artificial Kerr cell.

© 2012 OSA

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2011 (8)

K. Fan, A. C. Strikwerda, H. Tao, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Stand-up magnetic metamaterials at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12619–12627 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Chen, Y. Luo, J. Zhang, K. Jiang, J. B. Pendry, and S. Zhang, “Macroscopic invisibility cloaking of visible light,” Nat. Commun. 2, 176 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, H. C. Guo, H. Tanoto, T. Mei, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Switchable magnetic metamaterials using micromachining processes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(15), 1792–1796 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Fu, A. Q. Liu, W. M. Zhu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, J. B. Zhang, T. Mei, J. F. Tao, H. C. Guo, X. H. Zhang, J. H. Teng, N. I. Zheludev, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A micromachined reconfigurable metamaterial via reconfiguration of asymmetric split-ring resonators,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(18), 3589–3594 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Zhou, Y. Bao, W. Cao, C. T. Stuart, J. Gu, W. Zhang, and C. Sun, “Hiding a realistic object using a broadband terahertz invisibility cloak,” Sci. Rep. 1, (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef]

M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K. Y. Kang, Y. H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature 470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kodera, D. L. Sounas, and C. Caloz, “Artificial Faraday rotation using a ring metamaterial structure without static magnetic field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Feng, A. Mizrahi, S. Zamek, Z. Liu, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Metamaterials for enhanced polarization conversion in plasmonic excitation,” ACS Nano 5(6), 5100–5106 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science 328(5976), 337–339 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Wang, F. Garet, K. Blary, E. Lheurette, J. L. Coutaz, and D. Lippens, “Experimental verification of negative refraction for a wedge-type negative index metamaterial operating at terahertz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(18), 181902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Burgos, R. de Waele, A. Polman, and H. A. Atwater, “A single-layer wide-angle negative-index metamaterial at visible frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 9(5), 407–412 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Nikolaenko, F. De Angelis, S. A. Boden, N. Papasimakis, P. Ashburn, E. Di Fabrizio, and N. I. Zheludev, “Carbon nanotubes in a photonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(15), 153902 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (10)

J. Shin, J. T. Shen, and S. Fan, “Three-dimensional metamaterials with an ultrahigh effective refractive index over a broad bandwidth,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(9), 093903 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater. 8(7), 568–571 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. H. Gabrielli, J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, “Silicon nanostructure cloak operating at optical frequencies,” Nat. Photonics 3(8), 461–463 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, Y.-S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(2), 023901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Reconfigurable terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(14), 147401 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, H. Tao, D. V. Pilon, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Comparison of birefringent electric split-ring resonator and meanderline structures as quarter-wave plates at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express 17(1), 136–149 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Weis, O. Paul, C. Imhof, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Strongly birefringent metamaterials as negative index terahertz wave plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 171104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Powell, I. V. Shadrivov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Nonlinear electric metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(8), 084102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, T. Tyler, N. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Design, theory, and measurement of a polarization-insensitive absorber for terahertz imaging,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 125104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

I. V. Shadrivov, A. B. Kozyrev, D. W. van der Weide, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Nonlinear magnetic metamaterials,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20266–20271 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Paul, C. Imhof, B. Reinhard, R. Zengerle, and R. Beigang, “Negative index bulk metamaterial at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6736–6744 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Driscoll, S. Palit, M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, F. Keilmann, B.-G. Chae, S.-J. Yun, H.-T. Kim, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and D. N. Basov, “Dynamic tuning of an infrared hybrid-metamaterial resonance using vanadium dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 024101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1(4), 224–227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(10), 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial,” Science 312(5775), 892–894 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

J. T. Shen, P. B. Catrysse, and S. Fan, “Mechanism for designing metallic metamaterials with a high index of refraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(19), 197401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

A. A. Zharov, I. V. Shadrivov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Nonlinear properties of left-handed metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(3), 037401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ashburn, P.

A. E. Nikolaenko, F. De Angelis, S. A. Boden, N. Papasimakis, P. Ashburn, E. Di Fabrizio, and N. I. Zheludev, “Carbon nanotubes in a photonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(15), 153902 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

S. P. Burgos, R. de Waele, A. Polman, and H. A. Atwater, “A single-layer wide-angle negative-index metamaterial at visible frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 9(5), 407–412 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Averitt, R. D.

K. Fan, A. C. Strikwerda, H. Tao, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Stand-up magnetic metamaterials at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12619–12627 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, H. Tao, D. V. Pilon, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Comparison of birefringent electric split-ring resonator and meanderline structures as quarter-wave plates at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express 17(1), 136–149 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Reconfigurable terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(14), 147401 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(10), 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Azad, A. K.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bao, Y.

F. Zhou, Y. Bao, W. Cao, C. T. Stuart, J. Gu, W. Zhang, and C. Sun, “Hiding a realistic object using a broadband terahertz invisibility cloak,” Sci. Rep. 1, (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Bartal, G.

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater. 8(7), 568–571 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Basov, D. N.

T. Driscoll, S. Palit, M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, F. Keilmann, B.-G. Chae, S.-J. Yun, H.-T. Kim, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and D. N. Basov, “Dynamic tuning of an infrared hybrid-metamaterial resonance using vanadium dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 024101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beigang, R.

P. Weis, O. Paul, C. Imhof, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Strongly birefringent metamaterials as negative index terahertz wave plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 171104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Paul, C. Imhof, B. Reinhard, R. Zengerle, and R. Beigang, “Negative index bulk metamaterial at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6736–6744 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bingham, C. M.

N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, T. Tyler, N. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Design, theory, and measurement of a polarization-insensitive absorber for terahertz imaging,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 125104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Blary, K.

S. Wang, F. Garet, K. Blary, E. Lheurette, J. L. Coutaz, and D. Lippens, “Experimental verification of negative refraction for a wedge-type negative index metamaterial operating at terahertz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(18), 181902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Boden, S. A.

A. E. Nikolaenko, F. De Angelis, S. A. Boden, N. Papasimakis, P. Ashburn, E. Di Fabrizio, and N. I. Zheludev, “Carbon nanotubes in a photonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(15), 153902 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bourouina, T.

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, H. C. Guo, H. Tanoto, T. Mei, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Switchable magnetic metamaterials using micromachining processes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(15), 1792–1796 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brehm, M.

T. Driscoll, S. Palit, M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, F. Keilmann, B.-G. Chae, S.-J. Yun, H.-T. Kim, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and D. N. Basov, “Dynamic tuning of an infrared hybrid-metamaterial resonance using vanadium dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 024101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brenner, P.

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science 328(5976), 337–339 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burgos, S. P.

S. P. Burgos, R. de Waele, A. Polman, and H. A. Atwater, “A single-layer wide-angle negative-index metamaterial at visible frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 9(5), 407–412 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, W.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1(4), 224–227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Caloz, C.

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W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(10), 107401 (2006).
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M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K. Y. Kang, Y. H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature 470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
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M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K. Y. Kang, Y. H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature 470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
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S. Wang, F. Garet, K. Blary, E. Lheurette, J. L. Coutaz, and D. Lippens, “Experimental verification of negative refraction for a wedge-type negative index metamaterial operating at terahertz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(18), 181902 (2010).
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L. H. Gabrielli, J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, “Silicon nanostructure cloak operating at optical frequencies,” Nat. Photonics 3(8), 461–463 (2009).
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L. Feng, A. Mizrahi, S. Zamek, Z. Liu, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Metamaterials for enhanced polarization conversion in plasmonic excitation,” ACS Nano 5(6), 5100–5106 (2011).
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L. Feng, A. Mizrahi, S. Zamek, Z. Liu, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Metamaterials for enhanced polarization conversion in plasmonic excitation,” ACS Nano 5(6), 5100–5106 (2011).
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S. Zhang, Y.-S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(2), 023901 (2009).
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X. Chen, Y. Luo, J. Zhang, K. Jiang, J. B. Pendry, and S. Zhang, “Macroscopic invisibility cloaking of visible light,” Nat. Commun. 2, 176 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, H. C. Guo, H. Tanoto, T. Mei, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Switchable magnetic metamaterials using micromachining processes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(15), 1792–1796 (2011).
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M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K. Y. Kang, Y. H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature 470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
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L. Feng, A. Mizrahi, S. Zamek, Z. Liu, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Metamaterials for enhanced polarization conversion in plasmonic excitation,” ACS Nano 5(6), 5100–5106 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. E. Nikolaenko, F. De Angelis, S. A. Boden, N. Papasimakis, P. Ashburn, E. Di Fabrizio, and N. I. Zheludev, “Carbon nanotubes in a photonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(15), 153902 (2010).
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H. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 295–298 (2008).
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[CrossRef]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
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[CrossRef]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(10), 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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T. Driscoll, S. Palit, M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, F. Keilmann, B.-G. Chae, S.-J. Yun, H.-T. Kim, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and D. N. Basov, “Dynamic tuning of an infrared hybrid-metamaterial resonance using vanadium dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 024101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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A. E. Nikolaenko, F. De Angelis, S. A. Boden, N. Papasimakis, P. Ashburn, E. Di Fabrizio, and N. I. Zheludev, “Carbon nanotubes in a photonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(15), 153902 (2010).
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P. Weis, O. Paul, C. Imhof, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Strongly birefringent metamaterials as negative index terahertz wave plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 171104 (2009).
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X. Chen, Y. Luo, J. Zhang, K. Jiang, J. B. Pendry, and S. Zhang, “Macroscopic invisibility cloaking of visible light,” Nat. Commun. 2, 176 (2011).
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D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
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T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
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T. Driscoll, S. Palit, M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, F. Keilmann, B.-G. Chae, S.-J. Yun, H.-T. Kim, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and D. N. Basov, “Dynamic tuning of an infrared hybrid-metamaterial resonance using vanadium dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 024101 (2008).
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Rahm, M.

P. Weis, O. Paul, C. Imhof, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Strongly birefringent metamaterials as negative index terahertz wave plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 171104 (2009).
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Robbins, D. J.

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D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
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R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
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J. Shin, J. T. Shen, and S. Fan, “Three-dimensional metamaterials with an ultrahigh effective refractive index over a broad bandwidth,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(9), 093903 (2009).
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N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, T. Tyler, N. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Design, theory, and measurement of a polarization-insensitive absorber for terahertz imaging,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 125104 (2009).
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D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
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R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
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G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial,” Science 312(5775), 892–894 (2006).
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D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
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J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
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Stuart, C. T.

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F. Zhou, Y. Bao, W. Cao, C. T. Stuart, J. Gu, W. Zhang, and C. Sun, “Hiding a realistic object using a broadband terahertz invisibility cloak,” Sci. Rep. 1, (2011), doi:.
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Tao, H.

Tao, J. F.

Y. H. Fu, A. Q. Liu, W. M. Zhu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, J. B. Zhang, T. Mei, J. F. Tao, H. C. Guo, X. H. Zhang, J. H. Teng, N. I. Zheludev, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A micromachined reconfigurable metamaterial via reconfiguration of asymmetric split-ring resonators,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(18), 3589–3594 (2011).
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H. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 295–298 (2008).
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Y. H. Fu, A. Q. Liu, W. M. Zhu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, J. B. Zhang, T. Mei, J. F. Tao, H. C. Guo, X. H. Zhang, J. H. Teng, N. I. Zheludev, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A micromachined reconfigurable metamaterial via reconfiguration of asymmetric split-ring resonators,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(18), 3589–3594 (2011).
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Y. H. Fu, A. Q. Liu, W. M. Zhu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, J. B. Zhang, T. Mei, J. F. Tao, H. C. Guo, X. H. Zhang, J. H. Teng, N. I. Zheludev, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A micromachined reconfigurable metamaterial via reconfiguration of asymmetric split-ring resonators,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(18), 3589–3594 (2011).
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W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, H. C. Guo, H. Tanoto, T. Mei, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Switchable magnetic metamaterials using micromachining processes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(15), 1792–1796 (2011).
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J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater. 8(7), 568–571 (2009).
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Vier, D. C.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
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S. Wang, F. Garet, K. Blary, E. Lheurette, J. L. Coutaz, and D. Lippens, “Experimental verification of negative refraction for a wedge-type negative index metamaterial operating at terahertz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(18), 181902 (2010).
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T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science 328(5976), 337–339 (2010).
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Weis, P.

P. Weis, O. Paul, C. Imhof, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Strongly birefringent metamaterials as negative index terahertz wave plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 171104 (2009).
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T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
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T. Driscoll, S. Palit, M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, F. Keilmann, B.-G. Chae, S.-J. Yun, H.-T. Kim, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and D. N. Basov, “Dynamic tuning of an infrared hybrid-metamaterial resonance using vanadium dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 024101 (2008).
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Zentgraf, T.

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X. Chen, Y. Luo, J. Zhang, K. Jiang, J. B. Pendry, and S. Zhang, “Macroscopic invisibility cloaking of visible light,” Nat. Commun. 2, 176 (2011).
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[CrossRef]

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X. Chen, Y. Luo, J. Zhang, K. Jiang, J. B. Pendry, and S. Zhang, “Macroscopic invisibility cloaking of visible light,” Nat. Commun. 2, 176 (2011).
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S. Zhang, Y.-S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(2), 023901 (2009).
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Zhang, W.

F. Zhou, Y. Bao, W. Cao, C. T. Stuart, J. Gu, W. Zhang, and C. Sun, “Hiding a realistic object using a broadband terahertz invisibility cloak,” Sci. Rep. 1, (2011), doi:.
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S. Zhang, Y.-S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(2), 023901 (2009).
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K. Fan, A. C. Strikwerda, H. Tao, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Stand-up magnetic metamaterials at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12619–12627 (2011).
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S. Zhang, Y.-S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(2), 023901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater. 8(7), 568–571 (2009).
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H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Reconfigurable terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(14), 147401 (2009).
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T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X. H.

Y. H. Fu, A. Q. Liu, W. M. Zhu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, J. B. Zhang, T. Mei, J. F. Tao, H. C. Guo, X. H. Zhang, J. H. Teng, N. I. Zheludev, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A micromachined reconfigurable metamaterial via reconfiguration of asymmetric split-ring resonators,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(18), 3589–3594 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, H. C. Guo, H. Tanoto, T. Mei, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Switchable magnetic metamaterials using micromachining processes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(15), 1792–1796 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X. M.

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, H. C. Guo, H. Tanoto, T. Mei, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Switchable magnetic metamaterials using micromachining processes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(15), 1792–1796 (2011).
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Y. H. Fu, A. Q. Liu, W. M. Zhu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, J. B. Zhang, T. Mei, J. F. Tao, H. C. Guo, X. H. Zhang, J. H. Teng, N. I. Zheludev, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A micromachined reconfigurable metamaterial via reconfiguration of asymmetric split-ring resonators,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(18), 3589–3594 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zharov, A. A.

A. A. Zharov, I. V. Shadrivov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Nonlinear properties of left-handed metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(3), 037401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheludev, N. I.

Y. H. Fu, A. Q. Liu, W. M. Zhu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, J. B. Zhang, T. Mei, J. F. Tao, H. C. Guo, X. H. Zhang, J. H. Teng, N. I. Zheludev, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A micromachined reconfigurable metamaterial via reconfiguration of asymmetric split-ring resonators,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(18), 3589–3594 (2011).
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A. E. Nikolaenko, F. De Angelis, S. A. Boden, N. Papasimakis, P. Ashburn, E. Di Fabrizio, and N. I. Zheludev, “Carbon nanotubes in a photonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(15), 153902 (2010).
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Zhou, F.

F. Zhou, Y. Bao, W. Cao, C. T. Stuart, J. Gu, W. Zhang, and C. Sun, “Hiding a realistic object using a broadband terahertz invisibility cloak,” Sci. Rep. 1, (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Zhu, W. M.

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, H. C. Guo, H. Tanoto, T. Mei, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Switchable magnetic metamaterials using micromachining processes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(15), 1792–1796 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Fu, A. Q. Liu, W. M. Zhu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, J. B. Zhang, T. Mei, J. F. Tao, H. C. Guo, X. H. Zhang, J. H. Teng, N. I. Zheludev, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A micromachined reconfigurable metamaterial via reconfiguration of asymmetric split-ring resonators,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(18), 3589–3594 (2011).
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ACS Nano (1)

L. Feng, A. Mizrahi, S. Zamek, Z. Liu, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Metamaterials for enhanced polarization conversion in plasmonic excitation,” ACS Nano 5(6), 5100–5106 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

Y. H. Fu, A. Q. Liu, W. M. Zhu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, J. B. Zhang, T. Mei, J. F. Tao, H. C. Guo, X. H. Zhang, J. H. Teng, N. I. Zheludev, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A micromachined reconfigurable metamaterial via reconfiguration of asymmetric split-ring resonators,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(18), 3589–3594 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (1)

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, H. C. Guo, H. Tanoto, T. Mei, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Switchable magnetic metamaterials using micromachining processes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(15), 1792–1796 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

D. A. Powell, I. V. Shadrivov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Nonlinear electric metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(8), 084102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Kodera, D. L. Sounas, and C. Caloz, “Artificial Faraday rotation using a ring metamaterial structure without static magnetic field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Wang, F. Garet, K. Blary, E. Lheurette, J. L. Coutaz, and D. Lippens, “Experimental verification of negative refraction for a wedge-type negative index metamaterial operating at terahertz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(18), 181902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Weis, O. Paul, C. Imhof, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Strongly birefringent metamaterials as negative index terahertz wave plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 171104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Driscoll, S. Palit, M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, F. Keilmann, B.-G. Chae, S.-J. Yun, H.-T. Kim, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and D. N. Basov, “Dynamic tuning of an infrared hybrid-metamaterial resonance using vanadium dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 024101 (2008).
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IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the artificial Kerr-medium, and (b) the corresponding structure parameters. The metal film thickness and the array period are fixed as t = 0.2 μm and p = 150 μm, respectively. The parameters of the meta-atoms are fixed as a = b = 60 μm, w = 4 μm, and g2 = 5 μm, respectively. Only g1 will be changed.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Simulated transmittance spectra for x- and y-polarizations, respectively. (b) For x- and (c) y-polarization, the simulated surface current patterns at 1.309 THz (marked by the vertical dashed line in Fig. 2(a)), respectively. The solid arrows show the polarization of the incident light. Here, g1 is 2.5 μm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Simulated transmittance spectra for the x-polarization as a function of applied voltage. (b) The corresponding phase difference of the transmitted waves between x- and y-polarizations.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Applied voltage dependence of the phase difference between the two orthogonal polarizations at different frequencies in the regimes far from resonance ((a) and (b)) and in the regime very near to the resonance ((c)). Solid lines correspond to the simulated results; dashed, dotted and dash-dot lines correspond to the analytic results using Lorentzian model.

Equations (2)

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t=1 ia ω ω 0 (Δ g 1 )+i(γ+a)
Δφ= βA 2 ( 1 γ + 1 a 1 aT )α V 2

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