Abstract

We investigated the efficiencies of two different approaches to increase the radiation hardness of optical amplifiers through development of improved rare-earth (RE) doped optical fibers. We demonstrated the efficiency of codoping with Cerium the core of Erbium/Ytterbium doped optical fibers to improve their radiation tolerance. We compared the γ-rays induced degradation of two amplifiers with comparable pre-irradiation characteristics (~19 dB gain for an input power of ~10 dBm): first one is made with the standard core composition whereas the second one is Ce codoped. The radiation tolerance of the Ce-codoped fiber based amplifier is strongly enhanced. Its output gain decrease is limited to ~1.5 dB after a dose of ~900 Gy, independently of the pump power used, which authorizes the use of such fiber-based systems for challenging space missions associated with high total doses. We also showed that the responses of the two amplifiers with or without Ce-codoping can be further improved by another technique: the pre-loading of these fibers with hydrogen. In this case, the gain degradation is limited to 0.4 dB for the amplifier designed with the standard composition fiber whereas 0.2 dB are reported for the one made with Ce-codoped fiber after a cumulated dose of ~900 Gy. The mechanisms explaining the positive influences of these two treatments are discussed.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2011 (2)

M. Vivona, S. Girard, C. Marcandella, T. Robin, B. Cadier, M. Cannas, A. Boukenter, and Y. Ouerdane, “Influence of Ce codoping and H2 pre-loading on Er/Yb-doped fiber: radiation response characterized by confocal micro-luminescence,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(8-9), 1963–1965 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, Y. Ouerdane, C. Marcandella, A. Boukenter, S. Quenard, and N. Authier, “Feasibility of radiation dosimetry with phosphorus-doped optical fibers in the ultraviolet and visible domain,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(8-9), 1871–1874 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

B. P. Fox, K. Simmons-Potter, W. J. Thomes, and D. A. V. Kliner, “Gamma-radiation-induced photodarkening in unpumped optical fibers doped with rare-earth constituents,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 57(3), 1618–1625 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

M. Li, J. Ma, L. Y. Tan, Y. P. Zhou, S. Y. Yu, J. J. Yu, and C. Che, “Investigation of the irradiation effect on erbium-doped fiber amplifiers composed by different density erbium-doped fibers,” Laser Phys. 19(1), 138–142 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, Y. Ouerdane, B. Tortech, C. Marcandella, T. Robin, B. Cadier, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, P. E. Dodd, and E. W. Blackmore, “Radiation effects on Ytterbium- and Ytterbium/Erbium-doped double-clad optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 56(6), 3293–3299 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Gusarov, M. Van Uffelen, M. Hotoleanu, H. Thienpont, and F. Berghmans, “Radiation sensitivity of EDFAs based on highly Er-doped fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(11), 1540–1545 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Ma, M. Li, L. Tan, Y. Zhou, S. Yu, and Q. Ran, “Experimental investigation of radiation effect on erbium-ytterbium co-doped fiber amplifier for space optical communication in low-dose radiation environment,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15571–15577 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-18-15571 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

B. P. Fox, K. Simmons-Potter, W. J. Thomes, D. C. Meister, R. P. Bambha, and D. A. V. Kliner, “Temperature and dose-rate effects in gamma irradiated rare-earth doped fibers,” Proc. SPIE 7095, 70950B, 70950B-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Zotov, M. E. Likhachev, A. L. Tomashuk, M. L. Bubnov, M. V. Yashkov, A. N. Guryanov, and S. N. Klyamkin, “Radiation-resistant erbium-doped fiber for spacecraft applications,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(4), 2213–2215 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Zotov, M. E. Likhachev, A. L. Tomashuk, A. F. Kosolapov, M. M. Bubnov, M. V. Yashkov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Radiation resistant Er-doped fibers: optimization of pump wavelength,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(17), 1476–1478 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Regnier, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, J. A. Felix, E. W. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton- and gamma-induced effects on erbium- doped optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54(6), 2426–2434 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1998 (2)

G. M. Williams and E. J. Friebele, “Space radiation effects on erbium-doped fiber devices: sources, amplifiers, and passive measurements,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 45(3), 1531–1536 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Henschel, O. Kohn, H. U. Schmidt, J. Kirchof, and S. Unger, “Radiation-induced loss of rare earth doped silica fibres,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 45(3), 1552–1557 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

G. M. Williams, M. A. Putnam, C. G. Askins, M. E. Gingerich, and E. J. Friebele, “Radiation effects in erbium-doped optical fibres,” Electron. Lett. 28(19), 1816–1818 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1983 (1)

D. L. Griscom, E. J. Friebele, K. J. Long, and J. W. Fleming, “Fundamental defect centers in glass: electron spin resonance and optical absorption studies of irradiated phosphorus-doped silica glass and optical fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 54(7), 3743–3762 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

A. Bishay, “Radiation induced color centers in multicomponent glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 3(1), 54–114 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

J. S. Stroud, “Color-Center Kinetics in Cerium-Containing Glass,” J. Chem. Phys. 43(7), 2442–2450 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

J. S. Stroud, “Color Centers in a Cerium-Containing Silicate Glass,” J. Chem. Phys. 37(4), 836–841 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Askins, C. G.

G. M. Williams, M. A. Putnam, C. G. Askins, M. E. Gingerich, and E. J. Friebele, “Radiation effects in erbium-doped optical fibres,” Electron. Lett. 28(19), 1816–1818 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Friebele, C. G. Askins, and M. E. Gingerich, “Effect of low dose rate irradiation on doped silica core optical fibers,” Appl. Opt. 23(23), 4202–4208 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Authier, N.

S. Girard, Y. Ouerdane, C. Marcandella, A. Boukenter, S. Quenard, and N. Authier, “Feasibility of radiation dosimetry with phosphorus-doped optical fibers in the ultraviolet and visible domain,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(8-9), 1871–1874 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Baggio, J.

S. Girard, Y. Ouerdane, B. Tortech, C. Marcandella, T. Robin, B. Cadier, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, P. E. Dodd, and E. W. Blackmore, “Radiation effects on Ytterbium- and Ytterbium/Erbium-doped double-clad optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 56(6), 3293–3299 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Regnier, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, J. A. Felix, E. W. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton- and gamma-induced effects on erbium- doped optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54(6), 2426–2434 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bambha, R. P.

B. P. Fox, K. Simmons-Potter, W. J. Thomes, D. C. Meister, R. P. Bambha, and D. A. V. Kliner, “Temperature and dose-rate effects in gamma irradiated rare-earth doped fibers,” Proc. SPIE 7095, 70950B, 70950B-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Berghmans, F.

A. Gusarov, M. Van Uffelen, M. Hotoleanu, H. Thienpont, and F. Berghmans, “Radiation sensitivity of EDFAs based on highly Er-doped fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(11), 1540–1545 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Regnier, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, J. A. Felix, E. W. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton- and gamma-induced effects on erbium- doped optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54(6), 2426–2434 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bishay, A.

A. Bishay, “Radiation induced color centers in multicomponent glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 3(1), 54–114 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Blackmore, E. W.

S. Girard, Y. Ouerdane, B. Tortech, C. Marcandella, T. Robin, B. Cadier, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, P. E. Dodd, and E. W. Blackmore, “Radiation effects on Ytterbium- and Ytterbium/Erbium-doped double-clad optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 56(6), 3293–3299 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Regnier, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, J. A. Felix, E. W. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton- and gamma-induced effects on erbium- doped optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54(6), 2426–2434 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Boscaino, R.

S. Girard, L. Mescia, M. Vivona, A. Laurent, Y. Ouerdane, C. Marcandella, F. Prudenzano, A. Boukenter, T. Robin, P. Paillet, V. Goiffon, B. Cadier, M. Cannas, and R. Boscaino, “Coupled experiment/simulation approach for the design of radiation-hardened rare-earth doped optical fibers and amplifiers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (submitted to).

Boukenter, A.

S. Girard, Y. Ouerdane, C. Marcandella, A. Boukenter, S. Quenard, and N. Authier, “Feasibility of radiation dosimetry with phosphorus-doped optical fibers in the ultraviolet and visible domain,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(8-9), 1871–1874 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Vivona, S. Girard, C. Marcandella, T. Robin, B. Cadier, M. Cannas, A. Boukenter, and Y. Ouerdane, “Influence of Ce codoping and H2 pre-loading on Er/Yb-doped fiber: radiation response characterized by confocal micro-luminescence,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(8-9), 1963–1965 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, Y. Ouerdane, B. Tortech, C. Marcandella, T. Robin, B. Cadier, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, P. E. Dodd, and E. W. Blackmore, “Radiation effects on Ytterbium- and Ytterbium/Erbium-doped double-clad optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 56(6), 3293–3299 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Regnier, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, J. A. Felix, E. W. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton- and gamma-induced effects on erbium- doped optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54(6), 2426–2434 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, L. Mescia, M. Vivona, A. Laurent, Y. Ouerdane, C. Marcandella, F. Prudenzano, A. Boukenter, T. Robin, P. Paillet, V. Goiffon, B. Cadier, M. Cannas, and R. Boscaino, “Coupled experiment/simulation approach for the design of radiation-hardened rare-earth doped optical fibers and amplifiers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (submitted to).

Bubnov, M. L.

K. V. Zotov, M. E. Likhachev, A. L. Tomashuk, M. L. Bubnov, M. V. Yashkov, A. N. Guryanov, and S. N. Klyamkin, “Radiation-resistant erbium-doped fiber for spacecraft applications,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(4), 2213–2215 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bubnov, M. M.

K. V. Zotov, M. E. Likhachev, A. L. Tomashuk, A. F. Kosolapov, M. M. Bubnov, M. V. Yashkov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Radiation resistant Er-doped fibers: optimization of pump wavelength,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(17), 1476–1478 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cadier, B.

M. Vivona, S. Girard, C. Marcandella, T. Robin, B. Cadier, M. Cannas, A. Boukenter, and Y. Ouerdane, “Influence of Ce codoping and H2 pre-loading on Er/Yb-doped fiber: radiation response characterized by confocal micro-luminescence,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(8-9), 1963–1965 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, Y. Ouerdane, B. Tortech, C. Marcandella, T. Robin, B. Cadier, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, P. E. Dodd, and E. W. Blackmore, “Radiation effects on Ytterbium- and Ytterbium/Erbium-doped double-clad optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 56(6), 3293–3299 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, L. Mescia, M. Vivona, A. Laurent, Y. Ouerdane, C. Marcandella, F. Prudenzano, A. Boukenter, T. Robin, P. Paillet, V. Goiffon, B. Cadier, M. Cannas, and R. Boscaino, “Coupled experiment/simulation approach for the design of radiation-hardened rare-earth doped optical fibers and amplifiers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (submitted to).

Cannas, M.

M. Vivona, S. Girard, C. Marcandella, T. Robin, B. Cadier, M. Cannas, A. Boukenter, and Y. Ouerdane, “Influence of Ce codoping and H2 pre-loading on Er/Yb-doped fiber: radiation response characterized by confocal micro-luminescence,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(8-9), 1963–1965 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, L. Mescia, M. Vivona, A. Laurent, Y. Ouerdane, C. Marcandella, F. Prudenzano, A. Boukenter, T. Robin, P. Paillet, V. Goiffon, B. Cadier, M. Cannas, and R. Boscaino, “Coupled experiment/simulation approach for the design of radiation-hardened rare-earth doped optical fibers and amplifiers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (submitted to).

Che, C.

M. Li, J. Ma, L. Y. Tan, Y. P. Zhou, S. Y. Yu, J. J. Yu, and C. Che, “Investigation of the irradiation effect on erbium-doped fiber amplifiers composed by different density erbium-doped fibers,” Laser Phys. 19(1), 138–142 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dianov, E. M.

K. V. Zotov, M. E. Likhachev, A. L. Tomashuk, A. F. Kosolapov, M. M. Bubnov, M. V. Yashkov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Radiation resistant Er-doped fibers: optimization of pump wavelength,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(17), 1476–1478 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dodd, P. E.

S. Girard, Y. Ouerdane, B. Tortech, C. Marcandella, T. Robin, B. Cadier, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, P. E. Dodd, and E. W. Blackmore, “Radiation effects on Ytterbium- and Ytterbium/Erbium-doped double-clad optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 56(6), 3293–3299 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Felix, J. A.

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Regnier, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, J. A. Felix, E. W. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton- and gamma-induced effects on erbium- doped optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54(6), 2426–2434 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ferlet-Cavrois, V.

S. Girard, Y. Ouerdane, B. Tortech, C. Marcandella, T. Robin, B. Cadier, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, P. E. Dodd, and E. W. Blackmore, “Radiation effects on Ytterbium- and Ytterbium/Erbium-doped double-clad optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 56(6), 3293–3299 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Regnier, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, J. A. Felix, E. W. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton- and gamma-induced effects on erbium- doped optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54(6), 2426–2434 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fleming, J. W.

D. L. Griscom, E. J. Friebele, K. J. Long, and J. W. Fleming, “Fundamental defect centers in glass: electron spin resonance and optical absorption studies of irradiated phosphorus-doped silica glass and optical fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 54(7), 3743–3762 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Fox, B. P.

B. P. Fox, K. Simmons-Potter, W. J. Thomes, and D. A. V. Kliner, “Gamma-radiation-induced photodarkening in unpumped optical fibers doped with rare-earth constituents,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 57(3), 1618–1625 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. P. Fox, K. Simmons-Potter, W. J. Thomes, D. C. Meister, R. P. Bambha, and D. A. V. Kliner, “Temperature and dose-rate effects in gamma irradiated rare-earth doped fibers,” Proc. SPIE 7095, 70950B, 70950B-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Friebele, E. J.

G. M. Williams and E. J. Friebele, “Space radiation effects on erbium-doped fiber devices: sources, amplifiers, and passive measurements,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 45(3), 1531–1536 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Williams, M. A. Putnam, C. G. Askins, M. E. Gingerich, and E. J. Friebele, “Radiation effects in erbium-doped optical fibres,” Electron. Lett. 28(19), 1816–1818 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Friebele, C. G. Askins, and M. E. Gingerich, “Effect of low dose rate irradiation on doped silica core optical fibers,” Appl. Opt. 23(23), 4202–4208 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. L. Griscom, E. J. Friebele, K. J. Long, and J. W. Fleming, “Fundamental defect centers in glass: electron spin resonance and optical absorption studies of irradiated phosphorus-doped silica glass and optical fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 54(7), 3743–3762 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Gingerich, M. E.

G. M. Williams, M. A. Putnam, C. G. Askins, M. E. Gingerich, and E. J. Friebele, “Radiation effects in erbium-doped optical fibres,” Electron. Lett. 28(19), 1816–1818 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Friebele, C. G. Askins, and M. E. Gingerich, “Effect of low dose rate irradiation on doped silica core optical fibers,” Appl. Opt. 23(23), 4202–4208 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Girard, S.

M. Vivona, S. Girard, C. Marcandella, T. Robin, B. Cadier, M. Cannas, A. Boukenter, and Y. Ouerdane, “Influence of Ce codoping and H2 pre-loading on Er/Yb-doped fiber: radiation response characterized by confocal micro-luminescence,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(8-9), 1963–1965 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, Y. Ouerdane, C. Marcandella, A. Boukenter, S. Quenard, and N. Authier, “Feasibility of radiation dosimetry with phosphorus-doped optical fibers in the ultraviolet and visible domain,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(8-9), 1871–1874 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, Y. Ouerdane, B. Tortech, C. Marcandella, T. Robin, B. Cadier, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, P. E. Dodd, and E. W. Blackmore, “Radiation effects on Ytterbium- and Ytterbium/Erbium-doped double-clad optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 56(6), 3293–3299 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Regnier, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, J. A. Felix, E. W. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton- and gamma-induced effects on erbium- doped optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54(6), 2426–2434 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, L. Mescia, M. Vivona, A. Laurent, Y. Ouerdane, C. Marcandella, F. Prudenzano, A. Boukenter, T. Robin, P. Paillet, V. Goiffon, B. Cadier, M. Cannas, and R. Boscaino, “Coupled experiment/simulation approach for the design of radiation-hardened rare-earth doped optical fibers and amplifiers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (submitted to).

Goiffon, V.

S. Girard, L. Mescia, M. Vivona, A. Laurent, Y. Ouerdane, C. Marcandella, F. Prudenzano, A. Boukenter, T. Robin, P. Paillet, V. Goiffon, B. Cadier, M. Cannas, and R. Boscaino, “Coupled experiment/simulation approach for the design of radiation-hardened rare-earth doped optical fibers and amplifiers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (submitted to).

Griscom, D. L.

D. L. Griscom, E. J. Friebele, K. J. Long, and J. W. Fleming, “Fundamental defect centers in glass: electron spin resonance and optical absorption studies of irradiated phosphorus-doped silica glass and optical fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 54(7), 3743–3762 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Gunn, D.

Guryanov, A. N.

K. V. Zotov, M. E. Likhachev, A. L. Tomashuk, M. L. Bubnov, M. V. Yashkov, A. N. Guryanov, and S. N. Klyamkin, “Radiation-resistant erbium-doped fiber for spacecraft applications,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(4), 2213–2215 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Zotov, M. E. Likhachev, A. L. Tomashuk, A. F. Kosolapov, M. M. Bubnov, M. V. Yashkov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Radiation resistant Er-doped fibers: optimization of pump wavelength,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(17), 1476–1478 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gusarov, A.

A. Gusarov, M. Van Uffelen, M. Hotoleanu, H. Thienpont, and F. Berghmans, “Radiation sensitivity of EDFAs based on highly Er-doped fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(11), 1540–1545 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Regnier, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, J. A. Felix, E. W. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton- and gamma-induced effects on erbium- doped optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54(6), 2426–2434 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Henschel, H.

H. Henschel, O. Kohn, H. U. Schmidt, J. Kirchof, and S. Unger, “Radiation-induced loss of rare earth doped silica fibres,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 45(3), 1552–1557 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hotoleanu, M.

Kirchof, J.

H. Henschel, O. Kohn, H. U. Schmidt, J. Kirchof, and S. Unger, “Radiation-induced loss of rare earth doped silica fibres,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 45(3), 1552–1557 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kliner, D. A. V.

B. P. Fox, K. Simmons-Potter, W. J. Thomes, and D. A. V. Kliner, “Gamma-radiation-induced photodarkening in unpumped optical fibers doped with rare-earth constituents,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 57(3), 1618–1625 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. P. Fox, K. Simmons-Potter, W. J. Thomes, D. C. Meister, R. P. Bambha, and D. A. V. Kliner, “Temperature and dose-rate effects in gamma irradiated rare-earth doped fibers,” Proc. SPIE 7095, 70950B, 70950B-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Klyamkin, S. N.

K. V. Zotov, M. E. Likhachev, A. L. Tomashuk, M. L. Bubnov, M. V. Yashkov, A. N. Guryanov, and S. N. Klyamkin, “Radiation-resistant erbium-doped fiber for spacecraft applications,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(4), 2213–2215 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kohn, O.

H. Henschel, O. Kohn, H. U. Schmidt, J. Kirchof, and S. Unger, “Radiation-induced loss of rare earth doped silica fibres,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 45(3), 1552–1557 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kosolapov, A. F.

K. V. Zotov, M. E. Likhachev, A. L. Tomashuk, A. F. Kosolapov, M. M. Bubnov, M. V. Yashkov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Radiation resistant Er-doped fibers: optimization of pump wavelength,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(17), 1476–1478 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Laurent, A.

S. Girard, L. Mescia, M. Vivona, A. Laurent, Y. Ouerdane, C. Marcandella, F. Prudenzano, A. Boukenter, T. Robin, P. Paillet, V. Goiffon, B. Cadier, M. Cannas, and R. Boscaino, “Coupled experiment/simulation approach for the design of radiation-hardened rare-earth doped optical fibers and amplifiers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (submitted to).

Li, M.

M. Li, J. Ma, L. Y. Tan, Y. P. Zhou, S. Y. Yu, J. J. Yu, and C. Che, “Investigation of the irradiation effect on erbium-doped fiber amplifiers composed by different density erbium-doped fibers,” Laser Phys. 19(1), 138–142 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Ma, M. Li, L. Tan, Y. Zhou, S. Yu, and Q. Ran, “Experimental investigation of radiation effect on erbium-ytterbium co-doped fiber amplifier for space optical communication in low-dose radiation environment,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15571–15577 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-18-15571 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Likhachev, M. E.

K. V. Zotov, M. E. Likhachev, A. L. Tomashuk, A. F. Kosolapov, M. M. Bubnov, M. V. Yashkov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Radiation resistant Er-doped fibers: optimization of pump wavelength,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(17), 1476–1478 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Zotov, M. E. Likhachev, A. L. Tomashuk, M. L. Bubnov, M. V. Yashkov, A. N. Guryanov, and S. N. Klyamkin, “Radiation-resistant erbium-doped fiber for spacecraft applications,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(4), 2213–2215 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Long, K. J.

D. L. Griscom, E. J. Friebele, K. J. Long, and J. W. Fleming, “Fundamental defect centers in glass: electron spin resonance and optical absorption studies of irradiated phosphorus-doped silica glass and optical fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 54(7), 3743–3762 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ma, J.

M. Li, J. Ma, L. Y. Tan, Y. P. Zhou, S. Y. Yu, J. J. Yu, and C. Che, “Investigation of the irradiation effect on erbium-doped fiber amplifiers composed by different density erbium-doped fibers,” Laser Phys. 19(1), 138–142 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Ma, M. Li, L. Tan, Y. Zhou, S. Yu, and Q. Ran, “Experimental investigation of radiation effect on erbium-ytterbium co-doped fiber amplifier for space optical communication in low-dose radiation environment,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15571–15577 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-18-15571 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marcandella, C.

S. Girard, Y. Ouerdane, C. Marcandella, A. Boukenter, S. Quenard, and N. Authier, “Feasibility of radiation dosimetry with phosphorus-doped optical fibers in the ultraviolet and visible domain,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(8-9), 1871–1874 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Vivona, S. Girard, C. Marcandella, T. Robin, B. Cadier, M. Cannas, A. Boukenter, and Y. Ouerdane, “Influence of Ce codoping and H2 pre-loading on Er/Yb-doped fiber: radiation response characterized by confocal micro-luminescence,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(8-9), 1963–1965 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, Y. Ouerdane, B. Tortech, C. Marcandella, T. Robin, B. Cadier, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, P. E. Dodd, and E. W. Blackmore, “Radiation effects on Ytterbium- and Ytterbium/Erbium-doped double-clad optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 56(6), 3293–3299 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, L. Mescia, M. Vivona, A. Laurent, Y. Ouerdane, C. Marcandella, F. Prudenzano, A. Boukenter, T. Robin, P. Paillet, V. Goiffon, B. Cadier, M. Cannas, and R. Boscaino, “Coupled experiment/simulation approach for the design of radiation-hardened rare-earth doped optical fibers and amplifiers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (submitted to).

Meister, D. C.

B. P. Fox, K. Simmons-Potter, W. J. Thomes, D. C. Meister, R. P. Bambha, and D. A. V. Kliner, “Temperature and dose-rate effects in gamma irradiated rare-earth doped fibers,” Proc. SPIE 7095, 70950B, 70950B-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mescia, L.

S. Girard, L. Mescia, M. Vivona, A. Laurent, Y. Ouerdane, C. Marcandella, F. Prudenzano, A. Boukenter, T. Robin, P. Paillet, V. Goiffon, B. Cadier, M. Cannas, and R. Boscaino, “Coupled experiment/simulation approach for the design of radiation-hardened rare-earth doped optical fibers and amplifiers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (submitted to).

Meunier, J.-P.

S. Girard, Y. Ouerdane, B. Tortech, C. Marcandella, T. Robin, B. Cadier, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, P. E. Dodd, and E. W. Blackmore, “Radiation effects on Ytterbium- and Ytterbium/Erbium-doped double-clad optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 56(6), 3293–3299 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Regnier, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, J. A. Felix, E. W. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton- and gamma-induced effects on erbium- doped optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54(6), 2426–2434 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ouerdane, Y.

S. Girard, Y. Ouerdane, C. Marcandella, A. Boukenter, S. Quenard, and N. Authier, “Feasibility of radiation dosimetry with phosphorus-doped optical fibers in the ultraviolet and visible domain,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(8-9), 1871–1874 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Vivona, S. Girard, C. Marcandella, T. Robin, B. Cadier, M. Cannas, A. Boukenter, and Y. Ouerdane, “Influence of Ce codoping and H2 pre-loading on Er/Yb-doped fiber: radiation response characterized by confocal micro-luminescence,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(8-9), 1963–1965 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, Y. Ouerdane, B. Tortech, C. Marcandella, T. Robin, B. Cadier, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, P. E. Dodd, and E. W. Blackmore, “Radiation effects on Ytterbium- and Ytterbium/Erbium-doped double-clad optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 56(6), 3293–3299 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Regnier, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, J. A. Felix, E. W. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton- and gamma-induced effects on erbium- doped optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54(6), 2426–2434 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, L. Mescia, M. Vivona, A. Laurent, Y. Ouerdane, C. Marcandella, F. Prudenzano, A. Boukenter, T. Robin, P. Paillet, V. Goiffon, B. Cadier, M. Cannas, and R. Boscaino, “Coupled experiment/simulation approach for the design of radiation-hardened rare-earth doped optical fibers and amplifiers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (submitted to).

Paillet, P.

S. Girard, Y. Ouerdane, B. Tortech, C. Marcandella, T. Robin, B. Cadier, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, P. E. Dodd, and E. W. Blackmore, “Radiation effects on Ytterbium- and Ytterbium/Erbium-doped double-clad optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 56(6), 3293–3299 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Regnier, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, J. A. Felix, E. W. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton- and gamma-induced effects on erbium- doped optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54(6), 2426–2434 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, L. Mescia, M. Vivona, A. Laurent, Y. Ouerdane, C. Marcandella, F. Prudenzano, A. Boukenter, T. Robin, P. Paillet, V. Goiffon, B. Cadier, M. Cannas, and R. Boscaino, “Coupled experiment/simulation approach for the design of radiation-hardened rare-earth doped optical fibers and amplifiers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (submitted to).

Prudenzano, F.

S. Girard, L. Mescia, M. Vivona, A. Laurent, Y. Ouerdane, C. Marcandella, F. Prudenzano, A. Boukenter, T. Robin, P. Paillet, V. Goiffon, B. Cadier, M. Cannas, and R. Boscaino, “Coupled experiment/simulation approach for the design of radiation-hardened rare-earth doped optical fibers and amplifiers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (submitted to).

Putnam, M. A.

G. M. Williams, M. A. Putnam, C. G. Askins, M. E. Gingerich, and E. J. Friebele, “Radiation effects in erbium-doped optical fibres,” Electron. Lett. 28(19), 1816–1818 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Quenard, S.

S. Girard, Y. Ouerdane, C. Marcandella, A. Boukenter, S. Quenard, and N. Authier, “Feasibility of radiation dosimetry with phosphorus-doped optical fibers in the ultraviolet and visible domain,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(8-9), 1871–1874 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ran, Q.

Regnier, E.

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Regnier, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, J. A. Felix, E. W. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton- and gamma-induced effects on erbium- doped optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54(6), 2426–2434 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Robin, T.

M. Vivona, S. Girard, C. Marcandella, T. Robin, B. Cadier, M. Cannas, A. Boukenter, and Y. Ouerdane, “Influence of Ce codoping and H2 pre-loading on Er/Yb-doped fiber: radiation response characterized by confocal micro-luminescence,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(8-9), 1963–1965 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, Y. Ouerdane, B. Tortech, C. Marcandella, T. Robin, B. Cadier, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, P. E. Dodd, and E. W. Blackmore, “Radiation effects on Ytterbium- and Ytterbium/Erbium-doped double-clad optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 56(6), 3293–3299 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, L. Mescia, M. Vivona, A. Laurent, Y. Ouerdane, C. Marcandella, F. Prudenzano, A. Boukenter, T. Robin, P. Paillet, V. Goiffon, B. Cadier, M. Cannas, and R. Boscaino, “Coupled experiment/simulation approach for the design of radiation-hardened rare-earth doped optical fibers and amplifiers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (submitted to).

Rose, T. S.

Schmidt, H. U.

H. Henschel, O. Kohn, H. U. Schmidt, J. Kirchof, and S. Unger, “Radiation-induced loss of rare earth doped silica fibres,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 45(3), 1552–1557 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schwank, J. R.

S. Girard, Y. Ouerdane, B. Tortech, C. Marcandella, T. Robin, B. Cadier, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, P. E. Dodd, and E. W. Blackmore, “Radiation effects on Ytterbium- and Ytterbium/Erbium-doped double-clad optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 56(6), 3293–3299 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Regnier, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, J. A. Felix, E. W. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton- and gamma-induced effects on erbium- doped optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54(6), 2426–2434 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shaneyfelt, M. R.

S. Girard, Y. Ouerdane, B. Tortech, C. Marcandella, T. Robin, B. Cadier, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, P. E. Dodd, and E. W. Blackmore, “Radiation effects on Ytterbium- and Ytterbium/Erbium-doped double-clad optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 56(6), 3293–3299 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Regnier, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, J. A. Felix, E. W. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton- and gamma-induced effects on erbium- doped optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54(6), 2426–2434 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Simmons-Potter, K.

B. P. Fox, K. Simmons-Potter, W. J. Thomes, and D. A. V. Kliner, “Gamma-radiation-induced photodarkening in unpumped optical fibers doped with rare-earth constituents,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 57(3), 1618–1625 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. P. Fox, K. Simmons-Potter, W. J. Thomes, D. C. Meister, R. P. Bambha, and D. A. V. Kliner, “Temperature and dose-rate effects in gamma irradiated rare-earth doped fibers,” Proc. SPIE 7095, 70950B, 70950B-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stroud, J. S.

J. S. Stroud, “Color-Center Kinetics in Cerium-Containing Glass,” J. Chem. Phys. 43(7), 2442–2450 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Stroud, “Color Centers in a Cerium-Containing Silicate Glass,” J. Chem. Phys. 37(4), 836–841 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Tan, L.

Tan, L. Y.

M. Li, J. Ma, L. Y. Tan, Y. P. Zhou, S. Y. Yu, J. J. Yu, and C. Che, “Investigation of the irradiation effect on erbium-doped fiber amplifiers composed by different density erbium-doped fibers,” Laser Phys. 19(1), 138–142 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thienpont, H.

A. Gusarov, M. Van Uffelen, M. Hotoleanu, H. Thienpont, and F. Berghmans, “Radiation sensitivity of EDFAs based on highly Er-doped fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(11), 1540–1545 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Regnier, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, J. A. Felix, E. W. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton- and gamma-induced effects on erbium- doped optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54(6), 2426–2434 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thomes, W. J.

B. P. Fox, K. Simmons-Potter, W. J. Thomes, and D. A. V. Kliner, “Gamma-radiation-induced photodarkening in unpumped optical fibers doped with rare-earth constituents,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 57(3), 1618–1625 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. P. Fox, K. Simmons-Potter, W. J. Thomes, D. C. Meister, R. P. Bambha, and D. A. V. Kliner, “Temperature and dose-rate effects in gamma irradiated rare-earth doped fibers,” Proc. SPIE 7095, 70950B, 70950B-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tomashuk, A. L.

K. V. Zotov, M. E. Likhachev, A. L. Tomashuk, A. F. Kosolapov, M. M. Bubnov, M. V. Yashkov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Radiation resistant Er-doped fibers: optimization of pump wavelength,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(17), 1476–1478 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Zotov, M. E. Likhachev, A. L. Tomashuk, M. L. Bubnov, M. V. Yashkov, A. N. Guryanov, and S. N. Klyamkin, “Radiation-resistant erbium-doped fiber for spacecraft applications,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(4), 2213–2215 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tortech, B.

S. Girard, Y. Ouerdane, B. Tortech, C. Marcandella, T. Robin, B. Cadier, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, P. E. Dodd, and E. W. Blackmore, “Radiation effects on Ytterbium- and Ytterbium/Erbium-doped double-clad optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 56(6), 3293–3299 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Regnier, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, J. A. Felix, E. W. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton- and gamma-induced effects on erbium- doped optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54(6), 2426–2434 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Unger, S.

H. Henschel, O. Kohn, H. U. Schmidt, J. Kirchof, and S. Unger, “Radiation-induced loss of rare earth doped silica fibres,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 45(3), 1552–1557 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Valley, G. C.

Van Uffelen, M.

A. Gusarov, M. Van Uffelen, M. Hotoleanu, H. Thienpont, and F. Berghmans, “Radiation sensitivity of EDFAs based on highly Er-doped fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(11), 1540–1545 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Regnier, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, J. A. Felix, E. W. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton- and gamma-induced effects on erbium- doped optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54(6), 2426–2434 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vivona, M.

M. Vivona, S. Girard, C. Marcandella, T. Robin, B. Cadier, M. Cannas, A. Boukenter, and Y. Ouerdane, “Influence of Ce codoping and H2 pre-loading on Er/Yb-doped fiber: radiation response characterized by confocal micro-luminescence,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(8-9), 1963–1965 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, L. Mescia, M. Vivona, A. Laurent, Y. Ouerdane, C. Marcandella, F. Prudenzano, A. Boukenter, T. Robin, P. Paillet, V. Goiffon, B. Cadier, M. Cannas, and R. Boscaino, “Coupled experiment/simulation approach for the design of radiation-hardened rare-earth doped optical fibers and amplifiers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (submitted to).

Williams, G. M.

G. M. Williams and E. J. Friebele, “Space radiation effects on erbium-doped fiber devices: sources, amplifiers, and passive measurements,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 45(3), 1531–1536 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Williams, M. A. Putnam, C. G. Askins, M. E. Gingerich, and E. J. Friebele, “Radiation effects in erbium-doped optical fibres,” Electron. Lett. 28(19), 1816–1818 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yashkov, M. V.

K. V. Zotov, M. E. Likhachev, A. L. Tomashuk, M. L. Bubnov, M. V. Yashkov, A. N. Guryanov, and S. N. Klyamkin, “Radiation-resistant erbium-doped fiber for spacecraft applications,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(4), 2213–2215 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Zotov, M. E. Likhachev, A. L. Tomashuk, A. F. Kosolapov, M. M. Bubnov, M. V. Yashkov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Radiation resistant Er-doped fibers: optimization of pump wavelength,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(17), 1476–1478 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J. J.

M. Li, J. Ma, L. Y. Tan, Y. P. Zhou, S. Y. Yu, J. J. Yu, and C. Che, “Investigation of the irradiation effect on erbium-doped fiber amplifiers composed by different density erbium-doped fibers,” Laser Phys. 19(1), 138–142 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, S.

Yu, S. Y.

M. Li, J. Ma, L. Y. Tan, Y. P. Zhou, S. Y. Yu, J. J. Yu, and C. Che, “Investigation of the irradiation effect on erbium-doped fiber amplifiers composed by different density erbium-doped fibers,” Laser Phys. 19(1), 138–142 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Y.

Zhou, Y. P.

M. Li, J. Ma, L. Y. Tan, Y. P. Zhou, S. Y. Yu, J. J. Yu, and C. Che, “Investigation of the irradiation effect on erbium-doped fiber amplifiers composed by different density erbium-doped fibers,” Laser Phys. 19(1), 138–142 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zotov, K. V.

K. V. Zotov, M. E. Likhachev, A. L. Tomashuk, A. F. Kosolapov, M. M. Bubnov, M. V. Yashkov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Radiation resistant Er-doped fibers: optimization of pump wavelength,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(17), 1476–1478 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Zotov, M. E. Likhachev, A. L. Tomashuk, M. L. Bubnov, M. V. Yashkov, A. N. Guryanov, and S. N. Klyamkin, “Radiation-resistant erbium-doped fiber for spacecraft applications,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(4), 2213–2215 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (1)

G. M. Williams, M. A. Putnam, C. G. Askins, M. E. Gingerich, and E. J. Friebele, “Radiation effects in erbium-doped optical fibres,” Electron. Lett. 28(19), 1816–1818 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

K. V. Zotov, M. E. Likhachev, A. L. Tomashuk, A. F. Kosolapov, M. M. Bubnov, M. V. Yashkov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Radiation resistant Er-doped fibers: optimization of pump wavelength,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(17), 1476–1478 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (7)

S. Girard, L. Mescia, M. Vivona, A. Laurent, Y. Ouerdane, C. Marcandella, F. Prudenzano, A. Boukenter, T. Robin, P. Paillet, V. Goiffon, B. Cadier, M. Cannas, and R. Boscaino, “Coupled experiment/simulation approach for the design of radiation-hardened rare-earth doped optical fibers and amplifiers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (submitted to).

G. M. Williams and E. J. Friebele, “Space radiation effects on erbium-doped fiber devices: sources, amplifiers, and passive measurements,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 45(3), 1531–1536 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Henschel, O. Kohn, H. U. Schmidt, J. Kirchof, and S. Unger, “Radiation-induced loss of rare earth doped silica fibres,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 45(3), 1552–1557 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. P. Fox, K. Simmons-Potter, W. J. Thomes, and D. A. V. Kliner, “Gamma-radiation-induced photodarkening in unpumped optical fibers doped with rare-earth constituents,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 57(3), 1618–1625 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, Y. Ouerdane, B. Tortech, C. Marcandella, T. Robin, B. Cadier, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, P. E. Dodd, and E. W. Blackmore, “Radiation effects on Ytterbium- and Ytterbium/Erbium-doped double-clad optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 56(6), 3293–3299 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Regnier, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, J. A. Felix, E. W. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton- and gamma-induced effects on erbium- doped optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54(6), 2426–2434 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Zotov, M. E. Likhachev, A. L. Tomashuk, M. L. Bubnov, M. V. Yashkov, A. N. Guryanov, and S. N. Klyamkin, “Radiation-resistant erbium-doped fiber for spacecraft applications,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(4), 2213–2215 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. L. Griscom, E. J. Friebele, K. J. Long, and J. W. Fleming, “Fundamental defect centers in glass: electron spin resonance and optical absorption studies of irradiated phosphorus-doped silica glass and optical fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 54(7), 3743–3762 (1983).
[CrossRef]

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J. S. Stroud, “Color-Center Kinetics in Cerium-Containing Glass,” J. Chem. Phys. 43(7), 2442–2450 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Stroud, “Color Centers in a Cerium-Containing Silicate Glass,” J. Chem. Phys. 37(4), 836–841 (1962).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (3)

M. Vivona, S. Girard, C. Marcandella, T. Robin, B. Cadier, M. Cannas, A. Boukenter, and Y. Ouerdane, “Influence of Ce codoping and H2 pre-loading on Er/Yb-doped fiber: radiation response characterized by confocal micro-luminescence,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(8-9), 1963–1965 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Bishay, “Radiation induced color centers in multicomponent glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 3(1), 54–114 (1970).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, Y. Ouerdane, C. Marcandella, A. Boukenter, S. Quenard, and N. Authier, “Feasibility of radiation dosimetry with phosphorus-doped optical fibers in the ultraviolet and visible domain,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(8-9), 1871–1874 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. (1)

M. Li, J. Ma, L. Y. Tan, Y. P. Zhou, S. Y. Yu, J. J. Yu, and C. Che, “Investigation of the irradiation effect on erbium-doped fiber amplifiers composed by different density erbium-doped fibers,” Laser Phys. 19(1), 138–142 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

B. P. Fox, K. Simmons-Potter, W. J. Thomes, D. C. Meister, R. P. Bambha, and D. A. V. Kliner, “Temperature and dose-rate effects in gamma irradiated rare-earth doped fibers,” Proc. SPIE 7095, 70950B, 70950B-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

M. Ott, “Radiation effects expected for fiber laser/amplifier and rare-earth doped optical fibers,” NASA GSFC, Parts, Packaging and Assembly Technologies Office Survey Report, 2004.

M. Alam, J. Abramczyk, P. Madasamy, W. Torruellas, and A. Sanchez, “Fiber amplifier performance in gamma radiation environment,” OSA/Optical Fiber Conference 2007, paper OMF4.

B. Brichard, A. F. Fernandez, H. Ooms, and F. Berghmans, “Gamma dose rate effect in erbium doped fibers for space gyroscopes,” in Proc. of the 16th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (2003).

M. Vivona, S. Girard, T. Robin, B. Cadier, L. Vaccaro, M. Cannas, A. Boukenter, and Y. Ouerdane, “Influence of Ce3+ codoping on the photoluminescence excitation channels of phosphosilicate Er/Yb doped glasses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (in press), 2012. Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/LPT.2011.2182644
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Dependence of the amplifier output power versus the diode pump power for the amplifier A#1 based on fiber #1 (Yb/Er/P) and for A#2 based on fiber #2 (Yb/Er/P/Ce). Typical picture of RE-fibers cross section is illustrated in the inset. (b) Experimental procedure for the testing of fiber amplifiers under gamma-ray irradiation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dose dependence of the gain of the four amplifiers (A#1, A#2,A#1H,A#2H) during irradiation at a dose rate of 0.003 Gy/s. The gains were normalized to their maximum values to authorize a more direct comparison between radiation effects in the different amplifiers.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dependence of the output power loss L(I) versus the pump power for the amplifier A#1 and A#2 respectively irradiated at doses of 420 Gy and 900 Gy (dose rate of 0.003 Gy/s).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dose dependence of the radiation-induced attenuation (RIA) measured at both pump (915 nm) and signal (1545 nm) wavelengths during irradiation up to 900 Gy at a dose rate of 0.003 Gy/s (room temperature of the #3 and #3H fibers. The inset highlights the low RIA values measured for the H2-pretreated #3H fiber.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dose dependence of the amplifier gains for our four amplifiers A#1, A#2, A#1H and A#2H (dose rate of 0.003 Gy/s) and of other Yb/Er amplifiers reported in [10, 11].

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Characteristics of Tested Rare-Earth Optical Fibers

Equations (1)

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L( P pump )=10×log( ( P irr ( P pump )/ P 0 ( P pump ) ) )

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