Abstract

We present a method for reducing the phase flicker originated by the pulsed modulation of a Liquid Crystal on Silicon (LCoS) Spatial Light Modulator (SLM). It consists in reducing the temperature of the LCoS in a controlled way, in order to increase the viscosity of the liquid crystal. By doing this, we increase the time response of the liquid crystal, and thus reduce the amplitude of phase fluctuations. We evaluate the efficacy of this method quantifying the temporal evolution of phase shift using an experiment that is insensitive to optical polarization fluctuations. Additionally, we determine the effect of the temperature reduction on the effective phase modulation capability of the LCoS. We demonstrate that a reduction of up to 80% of the flicker initial value can be achieved when the LCoS is brought to −8 °C.

© 2012 OSA

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2011 (6)

J. Garcia-Marquez, E. Lopez-Padilla, A. Gonzalez-Vega, and E. Noe-Arias, “Flicker reduction in an LCoS spatial light modulator,” Proc. SPIE 8011, 80112S (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Lobato, Á. Lizana, A. Márquez, I. Moreno, C. Iemmi, J. Campos, and M. J. Yzuel, “Characterization of the anamorphic and spatial frequency dependent phenomenon in liquid crystal on silicon displays,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Pub. 6, 11012s (2011).

J. García-Márquez, J. E. A. Landgrave, N. Alcalá-Ochoa, and C. Pérez-Santos, “Recursive wavefront aberration correction method for LCoS spatial light modulators,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 49(6), 743–748 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Collings, T. Davey, J. Christmas, D. Chu, and B. Crossland, “The applications and technology of phase-only liquid crystal on silicon devices,” J. Disp. Technol. 7(3), 112–119 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Alcalá-Ochoa, J. García-Márquez, and A. González-Vega, “Hybrid pupil filter design using Bessel series,” Opt. Commun. 284(20), 4900–4902 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Ochoa and J. E. A. Landgrave, “Non-iterative method for designing super-resolving pupil filters,” Opt. Express 19(23), 23613–23620 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

R. J. Beck, J. P. Parry, W. N. MacPherson, A. Waddie, N. J. Weston, J. D. Shephard, and D. P. Hand, “Application of cooled spatial light modulator for high power nanosecond laser micromachining,” Opt. Express 18(16), 17059–17065 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kakarenko, M. Zaremba, I. Ducin, M. Makowski, A. Siemion, A. Siemion, J. Suszek, M. Sypek, D. Wojnowski, Z. Jaroszewicz, and A. Kołodziejczyk, “Utilization of an LCoS spatial light modulator's phase flicker for improving diffractive efficiency,” Proc. SPIE 7746, 77461J (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (6)

J. R. Moore, N. Collings, W. A. Crossland, A. B. Davey, M. Evans, A. M. Jeziorska, M. Komarčević, R. J. Parker, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. Xu, “The silicon backplane design for an LCoS polarization-insensitive phase hologram SLM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(1), 60–62 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Lizana, A. Márquez, I. Moreno, C. Iemmi, J. Campos, and M. J. Yzuel, “Wavelength dependence of polarimetric and phase-shift characterization of a liquid crystal on silicon display,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Pub. 3, 08011–08016 (2008).

A. Márquez, I. Moreno, C. Iemmi, A. Lizana, J. Campos, and M. J. Yzuel, “Mueller-Stokes characterization and optimization of a liquid crystal on silicon display showing depolarization,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1669–1685 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Jesacher, Ch. Maurer, A. Schwaighofer, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Full phase and amplitude control of holographic optical tweezers with high efficiency,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4479–4486 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lizana, I. Moreno, C. Iemmi, A. Márquez, J. Campos, and M. J. Yzuel, “Time-resolved Mueller matrix analysis of a liquid crystal on silicon display,” Appl. Opt. 47(23), 4267–4274 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Moreno, A. Lizana, A. Márquez, C. Iemmi, E. Fernández, J. Campos, and M. J. Yzuel, “Time fluctuations of the phase modulation in a liquid crystal on silicon display: characterization and effects in diffractive optics,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16711–16722 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

S. Hermerschmidt, S. Osten, S. Krüger, and T. Blümel, “Wave front generation using a phase-only modulating liquid-crystal based micro-display with HDTV resolution,” Proc. SPIE 6584, 6584OE (2007).

E. Frumker and Y. Silberberg, “Phase and amplitude pulse shaping with two-dimensional phase-only spatial light modulators,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(12), 2940–2947 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

2005 (3)

2003 (1)

M. Mora-Gonzalez and N. Alcalá-Ochoa, “Sinusoidal liquid crystal display grating in the Ronchi test,” Opt. Eng. 42(6), 1725–1729 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

J. M. Huntley, “An image processing system for the analysis of speckle photographs,” J. Phys. E Sci. Instrum. 19(1), 43–49 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

H. Kneppe, F. Schneider, and N. K. Sharma, “Rotational viscosity γ1 of nematic liquid crystals,” J. Chem. Phys. 77(6), 3203–3208 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Alcalá-Ochoa, N.

J. García-Márquez, J. E. A. Landgrave, N. Alcalá-Ochoa, and C. Pérez-Santos, “Recursive wavefront aberration correction method for LCoS spatial light modulators,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 49(6), 743–748 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Alcalá-Ochoa, J. García-Márquez, and A. González-Vega, “Hybrid pupil filter design using Bessel series,” Opt. Commun. 284(20), 4900–4902 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Mora-Gonzalez and N. Alcalá-Ochoa, “Sinusoidal liquid crystal display grating in the Ronchi test,” Opt. Eng. 42(6), 1725–1729 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Arrizón, V.

Beck, R. J.

Bernet, S.

Blümel, T.

S. Hermerschmidt, S. Osten, S. Krüger, and T. Blümel, “Wave front generation using a phase-only modulating liquid-crystal based micro-display with HDTV resolution,” Proc. SPIE 6584, 6584OE (2007).

Cagigal, M. P.

Campos, J.

Canales, V. F.

Chipman, R. A.

Christmas, J.

N. Collings, T. Davey, J. Christmas, D. Chu, and B. Crossland, “The applications and technology of phase-only liquid crystal on silicon devices,” J. Disp. Technol. 7(3), 112–119 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chu, D.

N. Collings, T. Davey, J. Christmas, D. Chu, and B. Crossland, “The applications and technology of phase-only liquid crystal on silicon devices,” J. Disp. Technol. 7(3), 112–119 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Collings, N.

N. Collings, T. Davey, J. Christmas, D. Chu, and B. Crossland, “The applications and technology of phase-only liquid crystal on silicon devices,” J. Disp. Technol. 7(3), 112–119 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Moore, N. Collings, W. A. Crossland, A. B. Davey, M. Evans, A. M. Jeziorska, M. Komarčević, R. J. Parker, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. Xu, “The silicon backplane design for an LCoS polarization-insensitive phase hologram SLM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(1), 60–62 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Crossland, B.

N. Collings, T. Davey, J. Christmas, D. Chu, and B. Crossland, “The applications and technology of phase-only liquid crystal on silicon devices,” J. Disp. Technol. 7(3), 112–119 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Crossland, W. A.

J. R. Moore, N. Collings, W. A. Crossland, A. B. Davey, M. Evans, A. M. Jeziorska, M. Komarčević, R. J. Parker, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. Xu, “The silicon backplane design for an LCoS polarization-insensitive phase hologram SLM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(1), 60–62 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Davey, A. B.

J. R. Moore, N. Collings, W. A. Crossland, A. B. Davey, M. Evans, A. M. Jeziorska, M. Komarčević, R. J. Parker, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. Xu, “The silicon backplane design for an LCoS polarization-insensitive phase hologram SLM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(1), 60–62 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Davey, T.

N. Collings, T. Davey, J. Christmas, D. Chu, and B. Crossland, “The applications and technology of phase-only liquid crystal on silicon devices,” J. Disp. Technol. 7(3), 112–119 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ducin, I.

K. Kakarenko, M. Zaremba, I. Ducin, M. Makowski, A. Siemion, A. Siemion, J. Suszek, M. Sypek, D. Wojnowski, Z. Jaroszewicz, and A. Kołodziejczyk, “Utilization of an LCoS spatial light modulator's phase flicker for improving diffractive efficiency,” Proc. SPIE 7746, 77461J (2010).
[CrossRef]

Evans, M.

J. R. Moore, N. Collings, W. A. Crossland, A. B. Davey, M. Evans, A. M. Jeziorska, M. Komarčević, R. J. Parker, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. Xu, “The silicon backplane design for an LCoS polarization-insensitive phase hologram SLM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(1), 60–62 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fernández, E.

Frumker, E.

Garcia-Marquez, J.

J. Garcia-Marquez, E. Lopez-Padilla, A. Gonzalez-Vega, and E. Noe-Arias, “Flicker reduction in an LCoS spatial light modulator,” Proc. SPIE 8011, 80112S (2011).
[CrossRef]

García-Márquez, J.

J. García-Márquez, J. E. A. Landgrave, N. Alcalá-Ochoa, and C. Pérez-Santos, “Recursive wavefront aberration correction method for LCoS spatial light modulators,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 49(6), 743–748 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Alcalá-Ochoa, J. García-Márquez, and A. González-Vega, “Hybrid pupil filter design using Bessel series,” Opt. Commun. 284(20), 4900–4902 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gonzalez-Vega, A.

J. Garcia-Marquez, E. Lopez-Padilla, A. Gonzalez-Vega, and E. Noe-Arias, “Flicker reduction in an LCoS spatial light modulator,” Proc. SPIE 8011, 80112S (2011).
[CrossRef]

González-Vega, A.

N. Alcalá-Ochoa, J. García-Márquez, and A. González-Vega, “Hybrid pupil filter design using Bessel series,” Opt. Commun. 284(20), 4900–4902 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gundu, P. N.

Hack, E.

Hand, D. P.

Hermerschmidt, S.

S. Hermerschmidt, S. Osten, S. Krüger, and T. Blümel, “Wave front generation using a phase-only modulating liquid-crystal based micro-display with HDTV resolution,” Proc. SPIE 6584, 6584OE (2007).

Huntley, J. M.

J. M. Huntley, “An image processing system for the analysis of speckle photographs,” J. Phys. E Sci. Instrum. 19(1), 43–49 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Iemmi, C.

Jaroszewicz, Z.

K. Kakarenko, M. Zaremba, I. Ducin, M. Makowski, A. Siemion, A. Siemion, J. Suszek, M. Sypek, D. Wojnowski, Z. Jaroszewicz, and A. Kołodziejczyk, “Utilization of an LCoS spatial light modulator's phase flicker for improving diffractive efficiency,” Proc. SPIE 7746, 77461J (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jesacher, A.

Jeziorska, A. M.

J. R. Moore, N. Collings, W. A. Crossland, A. B. Davey, M. Evans, A. M. Jeziorska, M. Komarčević, R. J. Parker, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. Xu, “The silicon backplane design for an LCoS polarization-insensitive phase hologram SLM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(1), 60–62 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kakarenko, K.

K. Kakarenko, M. Zaremba, I. Ducin, M. Makowski, A. Siemion, A. Siemion, J. Suszek, M. Sypek, D. Wojnowski, Z. Jaroszewicz, and A. Kołodziejczyk, “Utilization of an LCoS spatial light modulator's phase flicker for improving diffractive efficiency,” Proc. SPIE 7746, 77461J (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kneppe, H.

H. Kneppe, F. Schneider, and N. K. Sharma, “Rotational viscosity γ1 of nematic liquid crystals,” J. Chem. Phys. 77(6), 3203–3208 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kohler, C.

W. Osten, C. Kohler, and J. Liesener, “Evaluation and application of spatial light modulators for optical metrology,” Opt. Pura. Apl. 38, 71–81 (2005).

Kolodziejczyk, A.

K. Kakarenko, M. Zaremba, I. Ducin, M. Makowski, A. Siemion, A. Siemion, J. Suszek, M. Sypek, D. Wojnowski, Z. Jaroszewicz, and A. Kołodziejczyk, “Utilization of an LCoS spatial light modulator's phase flicker for improving diffractive efficiency,” Proc. SPIE 7746, 77461J (2010).
[CrossRef]

Komarcevic, M.

J. R. Moore, N. Collings, W. A. Crossland, A. B. Davey, M. Evans, A. M. Jeziorska, M. Komarčević, R. J. Parker, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. Xu, “The silicon backplane design for an LCoS polarization-insensitive phase hologram SLM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(1), 60–62 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Krüger, S.

S. Hermerschmidt, S. Osten, S. Krüger, and T. Blümel, “Wave front generation using a phase-only modulating liquid-crystal based micro-display with HDTV resolution,” Proc. SPIE 6584, 6584OE (2007).

Landgrave, J. E. A.

J. García-Márquez, J. E. A. Landgrave, N. Alcalá-Ochoa, and C. Pérez-Santos, “Recursive wavefront aberration correction method for LCoS spatial light modulators,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 49(6), 743–748 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Ochoa and J. E. A. Landgrave, “Non-iterative method for designing super-resolving pupil filters,” Opt. Express 19(23), 23613–23620 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liesener, J.

W. Osten, C. Kohler, and J. Liesener, “Evaluation and application of spatial light modulators for optical metrology,” Opt. Pura. Apl. 38, 71–81 (2005).

Lizana, A.

Lizana, Á.

L. Lobato, Á. Lizana, A. Márquez, I. Moreno, C. Iemmi, J. Campos, and M. J. Yzuel, “Characterization of the anamorphic and spatial frequency dependent phenomenon in liquid crystal on silicon displays,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Pub. 6, 11012s (2011).

Lobato, L.

L. Lobato, Á. Lizana, A. Márquez, I. Moreno, C. Iemmi, J. Campos, and M. J. Yzuel, “Characterization of the anamorphic and spatial frequency dependent phenomenon in liquid crystal on silicon displays,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Pub. 6, 11012s (2011).

Lopez-Padilla, E.

J. Garcia-Marquez, E. Lopez-Padilla, A. Gonzalez-Vega, and E. Noe-Arias, “Flicker reduction in an LCoS spatial light modulator,” Proc. SPIE 8011, 80112S (2011).
[CrossRef]

MacPherson, W. N.

Makowski, M.

K. Kakarenko, M. Zaremba, I. Ducin, M. Makowski, A. Siemion, A. Siemion, J. Suszek, M. Sypek, D. Wojnowski, Z. Jaroszewicz, and A. Kołodziejczyk, “Utilization of an LCoS spatial light modulator's phase flicker for improving diffractive efficiency,” Proc. SPIE 7746, 77461J (2010).
[CrossRef]

Márquez, A.

Maurer, Ch.

Méndez, G.

Moore, J. R.

J. R. Moore, N. Collings, W. A. Crossland, A. B. Davey, M. Evans, A. M. Jeziorska, M. Komarčević, R. J. Parker, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. Xu, “The silicon backplane design for an LCoS polarization-insensitive phase hologram SLM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(1), 60–62 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mora-Gonzalez, M.

M. Mora-Gonzalez and N. Alcalá-Ochoa, “Sinusoidal liquid crystal display grating in the Ronchi test,” Opt. Eng. 42(6), 1725–1729 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Moreno, I.

Noe-Arias, E.

J. Garcia-Marquez, E. Lopez-Padilla, A. Gonzalez-Vega, and E. Noe-Arias, “Flicker reduction in an LCoS spatial light modulator,” Proc. SPIE 8011, 80112S (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ochoa, N. A.

Osten, S.

S. Hermerschmidt, S. Osten, S. Krüger, and T. Blümel, “Wave front generation using a phase-only modulating liquid-crystal based micro-display with HDTV resolution,” Proc. SPIE 6584, 6584OE (2007).

Osten, W.

W. Osten, C. Kohler, and J. Liesener, “Evaluation and application of spatial light modulators for optical metrology,” Opt. Pura. Apl. 38, 71–81 (2005).

Parker, R. J.

J. R. Moore, N. Collings, W. A. Crossland, A. B. Davey, M. Evans, A. M. Jeziorska, M. Komarčević, R. J. Parker, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. Xu, “The silicon backplane design for an LCoS polarization-insensitive phase hologram SLM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(1), 60–62 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Parry, J. P.

Pérez-Santos, C.

J. García-Márquez, J. E. A. Landgrave, N. Alcalá-Ochoa, and C. Pérez-Santos, “Recursive wavefront aberration correction method for LCoS spatial light modulators,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 49(6), 743–748 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rastogi, P.

Ritsch-Marte, M.

Sánchez-de-La-Llave, D.

Schneider, F.

H. Kneppe, F. Schneider, and N. K. Sharma, “Rotational viscosity γ1 of nematic liquid crystals,” J. Chem. Phys. 77(6), 3203–3208 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Schwaighofer, A.

Sharma, N. K.

H. Kneppe, F. Schneider, and N. K. Sharma, “Rotational viscosity γ1 of nematic liquid crystals,” J. Chem. Phys. 77(6), 3203–3208 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Shephard, J. D.

Siemion, A.

K. Kakarenko, M. Zaremba, I. Ducin, M. Makowski, A. Siemion, A. Siemion, J. Suszek, M. Sypek, D. Wojnowski, Z. Jaroszewicz, and A. Kołodziejczyk, “Utilization of an LCoS spatial light modulator's phase flicker for improving diffractive efficiency,” Proc. SPIE 7746, 77461J (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Kakarenko, M. Zaremba, I. Ducin, M. Makowski, A. Siemion, A. Siemion, J. Suszek, M. Sypek, D. Wojnowski, Z. Jaroszewicz, and A. Kołodziejczyk, “Utilization of an LCoS spatial light modulator's phase flicker for improving diffractive efficiency,” Proc. SPIE 7746, 77461J (2010).
[CrossRef]

Silberberg, Y.

Suszek, J.

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Appl. Opt. (2)

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Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MPG (2174 KB)     

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Twyman-Green interferometer used to measure the temporal-phase fluctuations. Elements: He-Ne laser (1), collimator (2), pupil (3), beam splitter (4), flat mirror (5), LCoS-SLM and module to control temperature (6), LCoS panel (6a), Peltier cooler (6c), tip-and-tilt/water circulator (6d), water pipes (6e), focusing lens (7), and high speed CCD (8). All elements labeled as 6 are located into a semi-hermetic enclosure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A sample frame of a high speed video used to quantify phase fluctuation. Phase shift fluctuation is observed as the vertical displacement of the bright spots (Media 1).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Phase fluctuation as a function of time for two measurements of gray level value equal to 130. The waveforms differ because the LCoS applies different pulse width modulation patterns for the same gray level value.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

RMS value of phase fluctuation as a function of grayscale. The phase fluctuation is shown as a band because the fluctuation amplitude for each gray level value is variable.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

RMS value of phase fluctuation as a function of temperature. Note the asymptotic behavior when decreasing temperature.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Phase fluctuation as a function of time for gray level value of 200 at two different temperatures. The phase fluctuation is reduced to the 18% of its RMS value at room temperature when the LCoS is cooled to −8 °C. The 120 Hz component of the flicker has been reduced at low temperature. Spectra are shown for 25° C and −8°C.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Example of images displayed by the LCoS, ((a) and (b)) in order to quantify phase shifting, and their resulting interferograms ((c) and (d)) at room temperature. The red and green vertical lines indicate the columns used to quantify relative phase shifts.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Example of phase shift observed across the columns 250 (reference) and 80 (phase shift) of interferograms (b) and (d) (Fig. 7). The phase difference at column 250 is used as a control and should be close to zero. The phase difference at column 80 is due to the relative phase shift between gray level values zero and 200.

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