Abstract

Filamentation studies traditionally start from letting a beam focus in air. We present filament studies with control over the preparation propagation, in air or vacuum, using an aerodynamic window. The spectral content of the filament strongly depends on its preparation medium.

© 2012 OSA

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References

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  1. G. A. Askar’yan, “Effects of gradients of a strong electromagnetic beam on electrons and atoms,” Sov. Phys. JETP 15, 1088–1090, (1962).
  2. R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, and C. H. Townes, “Self-trapping of optical beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479–482, (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441, 49–189, (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Faccio, A. Averchi, A. Lotti1, P. Di Trapani, A. Couairon, D. Papazoglou, and S. Tzortzakis, “Ultrashort laser pulse filamentation from spontaneous X-Wave formation in air,” Opt. Express 16, 1565–1570 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, V. Ross, P. Mathieu, and J Dubois, “Ultrabroadband conical emission generated from the ultraviolet up to the far-infrared during the optical filamentation in air,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2515–2517 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Y. R. Shen and M. M. Loy, “Theoretical interpretation of small-scale filaments of light originating from moving focal spots,” Phys. Rev. A 3, 2099–2105 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Dubietis, E. Gaisauskas, G. Tamosauskas, and P. Di Trapani, “Light filaments without self-channeling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 253903 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. A. Akhmanov, A. P. Sukhorukov, and R. V. Khokhlov, “Self focusing and self trapping of intense light beams in a nonlinear medium,” Sov. Phys. JETP 23,1025–1033 (1966).
  9. J.-C. Diels and W. Rudolph, Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena, 2nd ed. (Elsevier, Boston, 2006).
  10. J. Schwarz and J.-C. Diels, “Analytical solution for uv filaments,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 013806 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. Freysz, M. Afifi, A. Ducasse, B. Pouligny, and J. R. Lalanne, “Critical microemulsions as optically nonlinear media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am B. 1, 433 (1984).
  12. A. Braun, G. Korn, X. Liu, D. Du, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, “Self-channeling of high-peak-power fs laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 20, 73–75 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Brodeur, C. Y. Chien, F. A. Ilkov, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, and V. P. Kandidov, “Moving focus in the propagation of ultrashort laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 22, 304–306 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. X. Miao Zhao, R. J. Jones, D. Funk, C. E. M. Strauss, J. P. Roberts, and A. J. Taylor, “Control of femtosecond pulse filament formation in air through variation of the initial chirp of the pulse,” In CLEO’97, page CTHL34, Baltimore, Maryland (1997).
    [PubMed]
  15. O. G. Kosareva, J.-F. Daigle, N. Panov, T. Wang, S. Hosseini, S. Yuan, G. Roy, V. Makarov, and S. L. Chin, “Arrest of self-focusing collapse in femtosecond air filaments: higher order kerr or plasma defocusing?” Opt. Lett. 36, 1035–1037 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. A. L Gaeta, “Catastrophic collapse of ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3582–3585 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. P. Maioli, R. Salamé, N. Lascoux, E. Salmon, P. Béjot, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultraviolet-visible conical emission by multiple laser filaments.” Opt. Express 17, 4726–4731 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. D. Faccio, A. Porras, A. Dubietis, F. Bragheri, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Conical emission, pulse splitting, and X-wave parametric amplification in nonlinear dynamics of ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 193901 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. D. Faccio, A. Averchi, A. Couairon, A. Dubietis, R. Piskarskas, A. Matijosius, F. Bragheri, Miguel A. Porras, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani“Competition between phase-matching and stationarity in Kerr-driven optical pulse filamentation.” Phys. Rev. E 74, 047603 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

2007 (1)

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441, 49–189, (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

D. Faccio, A. Porras, A. Dubietis, F. Bragheri, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Conical emission, pulse splitting, and X-wave parametric amplification in nonlinear dynamics of ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 193901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Faccio, A. Averchi, A. Couairon, A. Dubietis, R. Piskarskas, A. Matijosius, F. Bragheri, Miguel A. Porras, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani“Competition between phase-matching and stationarity in Kerr-driven optical pulse filamentation.” Phys. Rev. E 74, 047603 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

A. Dubietis, E. Gaisauskas, G. Tamosauskas, and P. Di Trapani, “Light filaments without self-channeling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 253903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

2001 (1)

J. Schwarz and J.-C. Diels, “Analytical solution for uv filaments,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 013806 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

A. L Gaeta, “Catastrophic collapse of ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3582–3585 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

1994 (1)

1984 (1)

E. Freysz, M. Afifi, A. Ducasse, B. Pouligny, and J. R. Lalanne, “Critical microemulsions as optically nonlinear media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am B. 1, 433 (1984).

1971 (1)

Y. R. Shen and M. M. Loy, “Theoretical interpretation of small-scale filaments of light originating from moving focal spots,” Phys. Rev. A 3, 2099–2105 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

S. A. Akhmanov, A. P. Sukhorukov, and R. V. Khokhlov, “Self focusing and self trapping of intense light beams in a nonlinear medium,” Sov. Phys. JETP 23,1025–1033 (1966).

1964 (1)

R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, and C. H. Townes, “Self-trapping of optical beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479–482, (1964).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

G. A. Askar’yan, “Effects of gradients of a strong electromagnetic beam on electrons and atoms,” Sov. Phys. JETP 15, 1088–1090, (1962).

Afifi, M.

E. Freysz, M. Afifi, A. Ducasse, B. Pouligny, and J. R. Lalanne, “Critical microemulsions as optically nonlinear media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am B. 1, 433 (1984).

Akhmanov, S. A.

S. A. Akhmanov, A. P. Sukhorukov, and R. V. Khokhlov, “Self focusing and self trapping of intense light beams in a nonlinear medium,” Sov. Phys. JETP 23,1025–1033 (1966).

Askar’yan, G. A.

G. A. Askar’yan, “Effects of gradients of a strong electromagnetic beam on electrons and atoms,” Sov. Phys. JETP 15, 1088–1090, (1962).

Averchi, A.

D. Faccio, A. Averchi, A. Lotti1, P. Di Trapani, A. Couairon, D. Papazoglou, and S. Tzortzakis, “Ultrashort laser pulse filamentation from spontaneous X-Wave formation in air,” Opt. Express 16, 1565–1570 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Faccio, A. Averchi, A. Couairon, A. Dubietis, R. Piskarskas, A. Matijosius, F. Bragheri, Miguel A. Porras, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani“Competition between phase-matching and stationarity in Kerr-driven optical pulse filamentation.” Phys. Rev. E 74, 047603 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Béjot, P.

Bernstein, A.

A. Bernstein, “Measurements of Ultrashort Pulses Self-focusing in Air,” PhD thesis, The University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, (2004).

Bernstein, A. C.

Bragheri, F.

D. Faccio, A. Averchi, A. Couairon, A. Dubietis, R. Piskarskas, A. Matijosius, F. Bragheri, Miguel A. Porras, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani“Competition between phase-matching and stationarity in Kerr-driven optical pulse filamentation.” Phys. Rev. E 74, 047603 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Faccio, A. Porras, A. Dubietis, F. Bragheri, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Conical emission, pulse splitting, and X-wave parametric amplification in nonlinear dynamics of ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 193901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Braun, A.

Brodeur, A.

Cameron, S. M.

Châteauneuf, M.

Chiao, R. Y.

R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, and C. H. Townes, “Self-trapping of optical beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479–482, (1964).
[CrossRef]

Chien, C. Y.

Chin, S. L.

Couairon, A.

D. Faccio, A. Averchi, A. Lotti1, P. Di Trapani, A. Couairon, D. Papazoglou, and S. Tzortzakis, “Ultrashort laser pulse filamentation from spontaneous X-Wave formation in air,” Opt. Express 16, 1565–1570 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441, 49–189, (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Faccio, A. Averchi, A. Couairon, A. Dubietis, R. Piskarskas, A. Matijosius, F. Bragheri, Miguel A. Porras, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani“Competition between phase-matching and stationarity in Kerr-driven optical pulse filamentation.” Phys. Rev. E 74, 047603 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Faccio, A. Porras, A. Dubietis, F. Bragheri, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Conical emission, pulse splitting, and X-wave parametric amplification in nonlinear dynamics of ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 193901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Daigle, J.-F.

Di Trapani, P.

D. Faccio, A. Averchi, A. Lotti1, P. Di Trapani, A. Couairon, D. Papazoglou, and S. Tzortzakis, “Ultrashort laser pulse filamentation from spontaneous X-Wave formation in air,” Opt. Express 16, 1565–1570 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Faccio, A. Porras, A. Dubietis, F. Bragheri, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Conical emission, pulse splitting, and X-wave parametric amplification in nonlinear dynamics of ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 193901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Faccio, A. Averchi, A. Couairon, A. Dubietis, R. Piskarskas, A. Matijosius, F. Bragheri, Miguel A. Porras, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani“Competition between phase-matching and stationarity in Kerr-driven optical pulse filamentation.” Phys. Rev. E 74, 047603 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Dubietis, E. Gaisauskas, G. Tamosauskas, and P. Di Trapani, “Light filaments without self-channeling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 253903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diels, J.-C.

A. C. Bernstein, T. R. Nelson, T. S. Luk, A. McPherson, S. M. Cameron, and J.-C. Diels, “Time-resolved measurements of self-focusing pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2354–2355 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Schwarz and J.-C. Diels, “Analytical solution for uv filaments,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 013806 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Diels and W. Rudolph, Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena, 2nd ed. (Elsevier, Boston, 2006).

Du, D.

Dubietis, A.

D. Faccio, A. Porras, A. Dubietis, F. Bragheri, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Conical emission, pulse splitting, and X-wave parametric amplification in nonlinear dynamics of ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 193901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Faccio, A. Averchi, A. Couairon, A. Dubietis, R. Piskarskas, A. Matijosius, F. Bragheri, Miguel A. Porras, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani“Competition between phase-matching and stationarity in Kerr-driven optical pulse filamentation.” Phys. Rev. E 74, 047603 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Dubietis, E. Gaisauskas, G. Tamosauskas, and P. Di Trapani, “Light filaments without self-channeling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 253903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dubois, J

Ducasse, A.

E. Freysz, M. Afifi, A. Ducasse, B. Pouligny, and J. R. Lalanne, “Critical microemulsions as optically nonlinear media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am B. 1, 433 (1984).

Faccio, D.

D. Faccio, A. Averchi, A. Lotti1, P. Di Trapani, A. Couairon, D. Papazoglou, and S. Tzortzakis, “Ultrashort laser pulse filamentation from spontaneous X-Wave formation in air,” Opt. Express 16, 1565–1570 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Faccio, A. Porras, A. Dubietis, F. Bragheri, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Conical emission, pulse splitting, and X-wave parametric amplification in nonlinear dynamics of ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 193901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Faccio, A. Averchi, A. Couairon, A. Dubietis, R. Piskarskas, A. Matijosius, F. Bragheri, Miguel A. Porras, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani“Competition between phase-matching and stationarity in Kerr-driven optical pulse filamentation.” Phys. Rev. E 74, 047603 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Freysz, E.

E. Freysz, M. Afifi, A. Ducasse, B. Pouligny, and J. R. Lalanne, “Critical microemulsions as optically nonlinear media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am B. 1, 433 (1984).

Funk, D.

X. Miao Zhao, R. J. Jones, D. Funk, C. E. M. Strauss, J. P. Roberts, and A. J. Taylor, “Control of femtosecond pulse filament formation in air through variation of the initial chirp of the pulse,” In CLEO’97, page CTHL34, Baltimore, Maryland (1997).
[PubMed]

Gaeta, A. L

A. L Gaeta, “Catastrophic collapse of ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3582–3585 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaisauskas, E.

A. Dubietis, E. Gaisauskas, G. Tamosauskas, and P. Di Trapani, “Light filaments without self-channeling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 253903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garmire, E.

R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, and C. H. Townes, “Self-trapping of optical beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479–482, (1964).
[CrossRef]

Hosseini, S.

Ilkov, F. A.

Jones, R. J.

X. Miao Zhao, R. J. Jones, D. Funk, C. E. M. Strauss, J. P. Roberts, and A. J. Taylor, “Control of femtosecond pulse filament formation in air through variation of the initial chirp of the pulse,” In CLEO’97, page CTHL34, Baltimore, Maryland (1997).
[PubMed]

Kandidov, V. P.

Kasparian, J.

Khokhlov, R. V.

S. A. Akhmanov, A. P. Sukhorukov, and R. V. Khokhlov, “Self focusing and self trapping of intense light beams in a nonlinear medium,” Sov. Phys. JETP 23,1025–1033 (1966).

Korn, G.

Kosareva, O. G.

Lalanne, J. R.

E. Freysz, M. Afifi, A. Ducasse, B. Pouligny, and J. R. Lalanne, “Critical microemulsions as optically nonlinear media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am B. 1, 433 (1984).

Lascoux, N.

Liu, X.

Lotti1, A.

Loy, M. M.

Y. R. Shen and M. M. Loy, “Theoretical interpretation of small-scale filaments of light originating from moving focal spots,” Phys. Rev. A 3, 2099–2105 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Luk, T. S.

Maioli, P.

Makarov, V.

Mathieu, P.

Matijosius, A.

D. Faccio, A. Averchi, A. Couairon, A. Dubietis, R. Piskarskas, A. Matijosius, F. Bragheri, Miguel A. Porras, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani“Competition between phase-matching and stationarity in Kerr-driven optical pulse filamentation.” Phys. Rev. E 74, 047603 (2006).
[CrossRef]

McPherson, A.

Miao Zhao, X.

X. Miao Zhao, R. J. Jones, D. Funk, C. E. M. Strauss, J. P. Roberts, and A. J. Taylor, “Control of femtosecond pulse filament formation in air through variation of the initial chirp of the pulse,” In CLEO’97, page CTHL34, Baltimore, Maryland (1997).
[PubMed]

Mourou, G.

Mysyrowicz, A.

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441, 49–189, (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, T. R.

Panov, N.

Papazoglou, D.

Piskarskas, A.

D. Faccio, A. Averchi, A. Couairon, A. Dubietis, R. Piskarskas, A. Matijosius, F. Bragheri, Miguel A. Porras, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani“Competition between phase-matching and stationarity in Kerr-driven optical pulse filamentation.” Phys. Rev. E 74, 047603 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Piskarskas, R.

D. Faccio, A. Averchi, A. Couairon, A. Dubietis, R. Piskarskas, A. Matijosius, F. Bragheri, Miguel A. Porras, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani“Competition between phase-matching and stationarity in Kerr-driven optical pulse filamentation.” Phys. Rev. E 74, 047603 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Porras, A.

D. Faccio, A. Porras, A. Dubietis, F. Bragheri, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Conical emission, pulse splitting, and X-wave parametric amplification in nonlinear dynamics of ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 193901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Porras, Miguel A.

D. Faccio, A. Averchi, A. Couairon, A. Dubietis, R. Piskarskas, A. Matijosius, F. Bragheri, Miguel A. Porras, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani“Competition between phase-matching and stationarity in Kerr-driven optical pulse filamentation.” Phys. Rev. E 74, 047603 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pouligny, B.

E. Freysz, M. Afifi, A. Ducasse, B. Pouligny, and J. R. Lalanne, “Critical microemulsions as optically nonlinear media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am B. 1, 433 (1984).

Roberts, J. P.

X. Miao Zhao, R. J. Jones, D. Funk, C. E. M. Strauss, J. P. Roberts, and A. J. Taylor, “Control of femtosecond pulse filament formation in air through variation of the initial chirp of the pulse,” In CLEO’97, page CTHL34, Baltimore, Maryland (1997).
[PubMed]

Ross, V.

Roy, G.

Rudolph, W.

J.-C. Diels and W. Rudolph, Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena, 2nd ed. (Elsevier, Boston, 2006).

Salamé, R.

Salmon, E.

Schwarz, J.

J. Schwarz and J.-C. Diels, “Analytical solution for uv filaments,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 013806 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. R.

Y. R. Shen and M. M. Loy, “Theoretical interpretation of small-scale filaments of light originating from moving focal spots,” Phys. Rev. A 3, 2099–2105 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Squier, J.

Strauss, C. E. M.

X. Miao Zhao, R. J. Jones, D. Funk, C. E. M. Strauss, J. P. Roberts, and A. J. Taylor, “Control of femtosecond pulse filament formation in air through variation of the initial chirp of the pulse,” In CLEO’97, page CTHL34, Baltimore, Maryland (1997).
[PubMed]

Sukhorukov, A. P.

S. A. Akhmanov, A. P. Sukhorukov, and R. V. Khokhlov, “Self focusing and self trapping of intense light beams in a nonlinear medium,” Sov. Phys. JETP 23,1025–1033 (1966).

Tamosauskas, G.

A. Dubietis, E. Gaisauskas, G. Tamosauskas, and P. Di Trapani, “Light filaments without self-channeling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 253903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, A. J.

X. Miao Zhao, R. J. Jones, D. Funk, C. E. M. Strauss, J. P. Roberts, and A. J. Taylor, “Control of femtosecond pulse filament formation in air through variation of the initial chirp of the pulse,” In CLEO’97, page CTHL34, Baltimore, Maryland (1997).
[PubMed]

Théberge, F.

Townes, C. H.

R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, and C. H. Townes, “Self-trapping of optical beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479–482, (1964).
[CrossRef]

Tzortzakis, S.

Wang, T.

Wolf, J.-P.

Yuan, S.

J. Opt. Soc. Am B. (1)

E. Freysz, M. Afifi, A. Ducasse, B. Pouligny, and J. R. Lalanne, “Critical microemulsions as optically nonlinear media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am B. 1, 433 (1984).

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rep. (1)

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441, 49–189, (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

J. Schwarz and J.-C. Diels, “Analytical solution for uv filaments,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 013806 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. Shen and M. M. Loy, “Theoretical interpretation of small-scale filaments of light originating from moving focal spots,” Phys. Rev. A 3, 2099–2105 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

D. Faccio, A. Averchi, A. Couairon, A. Dubietis, R. Piskarskas, A. Matijosius, F. Bragheri, Miguel A. Porras, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani“Competition between phase-matching and stationarity in Kerr-driven optical pulse filamentation.” Phys. Rev. E 74, 047603 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

A. Dubietis, E. Gaisauskas, G. Tamosauskas, and P. Di Trapani, “Light filaments without self-channeling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 253903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, and C. H. Townes, “Self-trapping of optical beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479–482, (1964).
[CrossRef]

A. L Gaeta, “Catastrophic collapse of ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3582–3585 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Faccio, A. Porras, A. Dubietis, F. Bragheri, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Conical emission, pulse splitting, and X-wave parametric amplification in nonlinear dynamics of ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 193901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys. JETP (2)

G. A. Askar’yan, “Effects of gradients of a strong electromagnetic beam on electrons and atoms,” Sov. Phys. JETP 15, 1088–1090, (1962).

S. A. Akhmanov, A. P. Sukhorukov, and R. V. Khokhlov, “Self focusing and self trapping of intense light beams in a nonlinear medium,” Sov. Phys. JETP 23,1025–1033 (1966).

Other (3)

J.-C. Diels and W. Rudolph, Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena, 2nd ed. (Elsevier, Boston, 2006).

X. Miao Zhao, R. J. Jones, D. Funk, C. E. M. Strauss, J. P. Roberts, and A. J. Taylor, “Control of femtosecond pulse filament formation in air through variation of the initial chirp of the pulse,” In CLEO’97, page CTHL34, Baltimore, Maryland (1997).
[PubMed]

A. Bernstein, “Measurements of Ultrashort Pulses Self-focusing in Air,” PhD thesis, The University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, (2004).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spectra recorded at various distances from the geometrical focus of the 3 m lens are displayed for the case of (right) focusing in vacuum (aerodynamic window on) and (left) focusing in air (aerodynamic window off). New wavelengths are generated in the blue region of the spectrum when (left) focusing in air (aerodynamic window off).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Autocorrelations and pulse spectra measured at 23 m from the source (compressor). From left to right: false color coding for the autocorrelation intensity; sample traces of the autocorrelation at specific pulse energies; detailed mapping of the autocorrelations versus pulse energy in the range of 0.1 to 3.5 mJ; selected pulse spectra between 700 and 940 nm, for the same 3 representative pulse energies selected for the sample autocorrelations.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison between a frog-retrieved pulse shape measured at 10 m from the source, for an initial energy of 0.3 mJ and 2.2 mJ. (a) and (c) are the pulse amplitude and phase in time. (b) and (d) are their Fourier transforms superimposed on independently measured on-axis spectra of the same shots.

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