Abstract

LINC-NIRVANA is a near-infrared Fizeau interferometric imager that will operate at the Large Binocular Telescope. In preparation for the commissioning of this instrument, we conducted experiments for calibrating the high-layer wavefront sensor of the layer-oriented multi-conjugate adaptive optics system. For calibrating the multi-pyramid wavefront sensor, four light sources were used to simulate guide stars. Using this setup, we developed the push-pull method for calibrating the interaction matrix. The benefits of this method over the traditional push-only method are quantified, and also the effects of varying the number of push-pull frames over which aberrations are averaged is reported. Finally, we discuss a method for measuring mis-conjugation between the deformable mirror and the wavefront sensor, and the proper positioning of the wavefront sensor detector with respect to the four pupil positions.

© 2012 OSA

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  6. R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, E. Fedrigo, E. Marchetti, M. Tordi, and D. Kirkman, “Multiple field of view layer-oriented adaptive optics. Nearly whole sky coverage on 8 m class telescopes and beyond,” A&A 396, 731–744 (2002).
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    [CrossRef]
  10. R. Ragazzoni, T. M. Herbst, W. Gaessler, D. Andersen, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, E. Diolaiti, S. Esposito, J. Farinato, H. W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, A. Riccardi, P. Salinari, R. Soci, E. Vernet-Viard, and W. Xu, “A visible MCAO channel for NIRVANA at the LBT,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 536–543 (2003).
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  15. D. Meschke, P. Bizenberger, W. Gaessler, X. Zhang, L. Mohr, H. Baumeister, and E. Diolaiti, “An atmospheric turbulence generator for dynamic tests with LINC-NIRVANA’s adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773646 (2010).
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  17. R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, E. Vernet, J. Farinato, E. Marchetti, and C. Arcidiacono, “Arbitrarily Small Pupils in Layer-Oriented Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics,” PASP 117, 860–869 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. X. Zhang, W. Gaessler, A. R. Conrad, T. Bertram, C. Arcidiacono, T. M. Herbst, M. Kuerster, P. Bizenberger, D. Meschke, H.-W. Rix, C. Rao, L. Mohr, F. Briegel, F. Kittmann, J. Berwein, J. Trowitzsch, L. Schreiber, R. Ragazzoni, and E. Diolaiti, “First laboratory results with the linc-nirvana high layer wavefront sensor,” Opt. Express 19, 16087–16095 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. S. Oberti, F. Quirós-Pacheco, S. Esposito, R. Muradore, R. Arsenault, E. Fedrigo, M. Kasper, J. Kolb, E. Marchetti, A. Riccardi, C. Soenke, and S. Stroebele, “Large DM AO systems: synthetic IM or calibration on sky?” Proc. SPIE 6272, 627220 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. Riccardi, N. Bindi, R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, and P. Stefanini, “Laboratory characterization of a Foucault-like wavefront sensor for adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 3353, 941–951 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  21. C. Vérinaud, “On the nature of the measurements provided by a pyramid wave-front sensor,” Opt. Commun. 233, 27–38 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  22. S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, L. Fini, A. T. Puglisi, E. Pinna, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, F. Quirós-Pacheco, P. Stefanini, J. C. Guerra, L. Busoni, A. Tozzi, F. Pieralli, G. Agapito, G. Brusa-Zappellini, R. Demers, J. Brynnel, C. Arcidiacono, and P. Salinari, “First light AO (FLAO) system for LBT: final integration, acceptance test in Europe, and preliminary on-sky commissioning results,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773609 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. B. Costa, “Modulation effect of the atmosphere in a pyramid wave-front sensor,” Appl. Opt. 44, 60–66 (2005).
    [PubMed]
  24. A. Riccardi, N. Bindi, R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, and P. Stefanini, “Laboratory characterization of a Foucault-like wavefront sensor for adaptive optics,“ Proc. SPIE 3353, 941–951 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  25. M. D. Oliker, “Alignment techniques for DM, Lenslet, and WFS camera at the SOR,” Proc. SPIE 3126, 595–604 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  26. D. Peter, M. Feldt, B. Dorner, T. Henning, S. Hippler, and J. Aceituno, “PYRAMIR: Calibration and Operation of a Pyramid Near-Infrared Wavefront Sensor,” PASP 120, 872–886 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  27. V Korkiakoski, C Vérinaud, and M. L. Louarn, , “Improving the performance of a pyramid wavefront sensor with modal sensitivity compensation,” Appl. Opt. 47, 79–87 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  28. Ragazzoni, R. Herbst, T. M. Gaessler, W. Andersen, D. Arcidiacono, C. Baruffolo, A. Baumeister, H. Bizenberger, P. Diolaiti, E. Esposito, S. Farinato, J. Rix, H. W. Rohloff, R.-R. Riccardi, A. Salinari, P. Soci, R. Vernet-Viard, and E. Xu, “A visible MCAO channel for NIRVANA at the LBT,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 536–543 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

2010 (5)

S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, F. Quirós-Pacheco, E. Pinna, A. Puglisi, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, L. Busoni, L. Fini, P. Stefanini, G. Brusa, A. Tozzi, P. Ranfagni, F. Pieralli, J. C. Guerra, C. Arcidiacono, and P. Salinari, “Laboratory characterization and performance of the high-order adaptive optics system for the large binocular telescope,” Appl. Opt. 49, G174–G189 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Herbst, R. Ragazzoni, A. Eckart, and G. Weigelt, “Imaging beyond the fringe: an update on the LINC-NIRVANA Fizeau interferometer for the LBT,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 773407 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Meschke, P. Bizenberger, W. Gaessler, X. Zhang, L. Mohr, H. Baumeister, and E. Diolaiti, “An atmospheric turbulence generator for dynamic tests with LINC-NIRVANA’s adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773646 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Lorenzetti, F. D’Alessio, G. Li Causi, F. Vitali, M. Centrone, R. Speziali, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, R. Ragazzoni, T. Bertram, F. Briegel, F. de Bonis, W. Gässler, T. Herbst, M. Kürster, and R.-R. Rohloff, “Feeding the wavefront sensors of LINC-NIRVANA: the dedicated Patrol Camera,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 77343S (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, L. Fini, A. T. Puglisi, E. Pinna, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, F. Quirós-Pacheco, P. Stefanini, J. C. Guerra, L. Busoni, A. Tozzi, F. Pieralli, G. Agapito, G. Brusa-Zappellini, R. Demers, J. Brynnel, C. Arcidiacono, and P. Salinari, “First light AO (FLAO) system for LBT: final integration, acceptance test in Europe, and preliminary on-sky commissioning results,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773609 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (5)

D. Peter, M. Feldt, B. Dorner, T. Henning, S. Hippler, and J. Aceituno, “PYRAMIR: Calibration and Operation of a Pyramid Near-Infrared Wavefront Sensor,” PASP 120, 872–886 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Arcidiacono, M. Lombini, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, E. Diolaiti, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, G. Gentile, L. Schreiber, E. Marchetti, J. Kolb, S. Tordo, R. Donaldson, C. Soenke, S. Oberti, E. Fedrigo, E. Vernet, and N. Hubin, “Layer oriented wavefront sensor for MAD on sky operations,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70155P (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Bertram, A. Eckart, B. Lindhorst, S. Rost, C. Straubmeier, E. Tremou, Y. Wang, I. Wank, G. Witzel, U. Beckmann, M. Brix, S. Egner, and T. Herbst, “The LINC-NIRVANA fringe and flexure tracking system,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 701327 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Schreiber, M. Lombini, I. Foppiani, D. Meschke, F. De Bonis, P. Bizenberger, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, E. Diolaiti, S. Egner, J. Farinato, W. Gaessler, T. Herbst, G. Innocenti, F. Kittmann, L. Mohr, R. Ragazzoni, and R.-R. Rohloff, “Integration of the mid-high wavefront sensor to the LINC-NIRVANA post-focal relay,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70155A (2008).
[CrossRef]

V Korkiakoski, C Vérinaud, and M. L. Louarn, , “Improving the performance of a pyramid wavefront sensor with modal sensitivity compensation,” Appl. Opt. 47, 79–87 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

S. Oberti, F. Quirós-Pacheco, S. Esposito, R. Muradore, R. Arsenault, E. Fedrigo, M. Kasper, J. Kolb, E. Marchetti, A. Riccardi, C. Soenke, and S. Stroebele, “Large DM AO systems: synthetic IM or calibration on sky?” Proc. SPIE 6272, 627220 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, E. Vernet, J. Farinato, E. Marchetti, and C. Arcidiacono, “Arbitrarily Small Pupils in Layer-Oriented Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics,” PASP 117, 860–869 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Costa, “Modulation effect of the atmosphere in a pyramid wave-front sensor,” Appl. Opt. 44, 60–66 (2005).
[PubMed]

2004 (3)

C. Vérinaud, “On the nature of the measurements provided by a pyramid wave-front sensor,” Opt. Commun. 233, 27–38 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Kasper, E. Fedrigo, D. P. Looze, H. Bonnet, L. Ivanescu, and S. Oberti, “Fast calibration of high-order adaptive optics systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 1004–1008 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. N. Hubin, J. Kolb, M. Le Louarn, J.-L. Lizon, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, J. Santos, S. Tordo, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, and E. Vernet-Viard, “MAD status report,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 236–247 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

A. Riccardi, G. Brusa, P. Salinari, S. Busoni, O. Lardiere, P. Ranfagni, D. Gallieni, R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, S. Miller, and P. Mantegazza, “Adaptive secondary mirrors for the Large binocular telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5169, 159–168 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, T. M. Herbst, W. Gaessler, D. Andersen, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, E. Diolaiti, S. Esposito, J. Farinato, H. W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, A. Riccardi, P. Salinari, R. Soci, E. Vernet-Viard, and W. Xu, “A visible MCAO channel for NIRVANA at the LBT,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 536–543 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ragazzoni, R. Herbst, T. M. Gaessler, W. Andersen, D. Arcidiacono, C. Baruffolo, A. Baumeister, H. Bizenberger, P. Diolaiti, E. Esposito, S. Farinato, J. Rix, H. W. Rohloff, R.-R. Riccardi, A. Salinari, P. Soci, R. Vernet-Viard, and E. Xu, “A visible MCAO channel for NIRVANA at the LBT,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 536–543 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, E. Fedrigo, E. Marchetti, M. Tordi, and D. Kirkman, “Multiple field of view layer-oriented adaptive optics. Nearly whole sky coverage on 8 m class telescopes and beyond,” A&A 396, 731–744 (2002).

2000 (1)

R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, and E. Marchetti, “Adaptive optics for 100-m-class telescopes: new challenges require new solutions,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 1076–1087 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

A. Riccardi, N. Bindi, R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, and P. Stefanini, “Laboratory characterization of a Foucault-like wavefront sensor for adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 3353, 941–951 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Riccardi, N. Bindi, R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, and P. Stefanini, “Laboratory characterization of a Foucault-like wavefront sensor for adaptive optics,“ Proc. SPIE 3353, 941–951 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

M. D. Oliker, “Alignment techniques for DM, Lenslet, and WFS camera at the SOR,” Proc. SPIE 3126, 595–604 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

R. Ragazzoni, “Pupil plane wavefront sensing with an oscillating prism,” J. Mod. Opt. 43, 289–293 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

Aceituno, J.

D. Peter, M. Feldt, B. Dorner, T. Henning, S. Hippler, and J. Aceituno, “PYRAMIR: Calibration and Operation of a Pyramid Near-Infrared Wavefront Sensor,” PASP 120, 872–886 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Agapito, G.

S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, L. Fini, A. T. Puglisi, E. Pinna, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, F. Quirós-Pacheco, P. Stefanini, J. C. Guerra, L. Busoni, A. Tozzi, F. Pieralli, G. Agapito, G. Brusa-Zappellini, R. Demers, J. Brynnel, C. Arcidiacono, and P. Salinari, “First light AO (FLAO) system for LBT: final integration, acceptance test in Europe, and preliminary on-sky commissioning results,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773609 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Andersen, D.

R. Ragazzoni, T. M. Herbst, W. Gaessler, D. Andersen, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, E. Diolaiti, S. Esposito, J. Farinato, H. W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, A. Riccardi, P. Salinari, R. Soci, E. Vernet-Viard, and W. Xu, “A visible MCAO channel for NIRVANA at the LBT,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 536–543 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Andersen, W.

Ragazzoni, R. Herbst, T. M. Gaessler, W. Andersen, D. Arcidiacono, C. Baruffolo, A. Baumeister, H. Bizenberger, P. Diolaiti, E. Esposito, S. Farinato, J. Rix, H. W. Rohloff, R.-R. Riccardi, A. Salinari, P. Soci, R. Vernet-Viard, and E. Xu, “A visible MCAO channel for NIRVANA at the LBT,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 536–543 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Andrighettoni, M.

A. Riccardi, G. Brusa, P. Salinari, S. Busoni, O. Lardiere, P. Ranfagni, D. Gallieni, R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, S. Miller, and P. Mantegazza, “Adaptive secondary mirrors for the Large binocular telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5169, 159–168 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Arcidiacono, C.

X. Zhang, W. Gaessler, A. R. Conrad, T. Bertram, C. Arcidiacono, T. M. Herbst, M. Kuerster, P. Bizenberger, D. Meschke, H.-W. Rix, C. Rao, L. Mohr, F. Briegel, F. Kittmann, J. Berwein, J. Trowitzsch, L. Schreiber, R. Ragazzoni, and E. Diolaiti, “First laboratory results with the linc-nirvana high layer wavefront sensor,” Opt. Express 19, 16087–16095 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, L. Fini, A. T. Puglisi, E. Pinna, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, F. Quirós-Pacheco, P. Stefanini, J. C. Guerra, L. Busoni, A. Tozzi, F. Pieralli, G. Agapito, G. Brusa-Zappellini, R. Demers, J. Brynnel, C. Arcidiacono, and P. Salinari, “First light AO (FLAO) system for LBT: final integration, acceptance test in Europe, and preliminary on-sky commissioning results,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773609 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, F. Quirós-Pacheco, E. Pinna, A. Puglisi, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, L. Busoni, L. Fini, P. Stefanini, G. Brusa, A. Tozzi, P. Ranfagni, F. Pieralli, J. C. Guerra, C. Arcidiacono, and P. Salinari, “Laboratory characterization and performance of the high-order adaptive optics system for the large binocular telescope,” Appl. Opt. 49, G174–G189 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Arcidiacono, M. Lombini, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, E. Diolaiti, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, G. Gentile, L. Schreiber, E. Marchetti, J. Kolb, S. Tordo, R. Donaldson, C. Soenke, S. Oberti, E. Fedrigo, E. Vernet, and N. Hubin, “Layer oriented wavefront sensor for MAD on sky operations,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70155P (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, E. Vernet, J. Farinato, E. Marchetti, and C. Arcidiacono, “Arbitrarily Small Pupils in Layer-Oriented Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics,” PASP 117, 860–869 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. N. Hubin, J. Kolb, M. Le Louarn, J.-L. Lizon, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, J. Santos, S. Tordo, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, and E. Vernet-Viard, “MAD status report,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 236–247 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, T. M. Herbst, W. Gaessler, D. Andersen, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, E. Diolaiti, S. Esposito, J. Farinato, H. W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, A. Riccardi, P. Salinari, R. Soci, E. Vernet-Viard, and W. Xu, “A visible MCAO channel for NIRVANA at the LBT,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 536–543 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Arcidiacono, D.

Ragazzoni, R. Herbst, T. M. Gaessler, W. Andersen, D. Arcidiacono, C. Baruffolo, A. Baumeister, H. Bizenberger, P. Diolaiti, E. Esposito, S. Farinato, J. Rix, H. W. Rohloff, R.-R. Riccardi, A. Salinari, P. Soci, R. Vernet-Viard, and E. Xu, “A visible MCAO channel for NIRVANA at the LBT,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 536–543 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Arsenault, R.

S. Oberti, F. Quirós-Pacheco, S. Esposito, R. Muradore, R. Arsenault, E. Fedrigo, M. Kasper, J. Kolb, E. Marchetti, A. Riccardi, C. Soenke, and S. Stroebele, “Large DM AO systems: synthetic IM or calibration on sky?” Proc. SPIE 6272, 627220 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bagnara, P.

C. Arcidiacono, M. Lombini, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, E. Diolaiti, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, G. Gentile, L. Schreiber, E. Marchetti, J. Kolb, S. Tordo, R. Donaldson, C. Soenke, S. Oberti, E. Fedrigo, E. Vernet, and N. Hubin, “Layer oriented wavefront sensor for MAD on sky operations,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70155P (2008).
[CrossRef]

Baruffolo, A.

C. Arcidiacono, M. Lombini, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, E. Diolaiti, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, G. Gentile, L. Schreiber, E. Marchetti, J. Kolb, S. Tordo, R. Donaldson, C. Soenke, S. Oberti, E. Fedrigo, E. Vernet, and N. Hubin, “Layer oriented wavefront sensor for MAD on sky operations,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70155P (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. N. Hubin, J. Kolb, M. Le Louarn, J.-L. Lizon, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, J. Santos, S. Tordo, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, and E. Vernet-Viard, “MAD status report,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 236–247 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, T. M. Herbst, W. Gaessler, D. Andersen, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, E. Diolaiti, S. Esposito, J. Farinato, H. W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, A. Riccardi, P. Salinari, R. Soci, E. Vernet-Viard, and W. Xu, “A visible MCAO channel for NIRVANA at the LBT,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 536–543 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Baruffolo, C.

Ragazzoni, R. Herbst, T. M. Gaessler, W. Andersen, D. Arcidiacono, C. Baruffolo, A. Baumeister, H. Bizenberger, P. Diolaiti, E. Esposito, S. Farinato, J. Rix, H. W. Rohloff, R.-R. Riccardi, A. Salinari, P. Soci, R. Vernet-Viard, and E. Xu, “A visible MCAO channel for NIRVANA at the LBT,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 536–543 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Baumeister, A.

Ragazzoni, R. Herbst, T. M. Gaessler, W. Andersen, D. Arcidiacono, C. Baruffolo, A. Baumeister, H. Bizenberger, P. Diolaiti, E. Esposito, S. Farinato, J. Rix, H. W. Rohloff, R.-R. Riccardi, A. Salinari, P. Soci, R. Vernet-Viard, and E. Xu, “A visible MCAO channel for NIRVANA at the LBT,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 536–543 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Baumeister, H.

D. Meschke, P. Bizenberger, W. Gaessler, X. Zhang, L. Mohr, H. Baumeister, and E. Diolaiti, “An atmospheric turbulence generator for dynamic tests with LINC-NIRVANA’s adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773646 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, T. M. Herbst, W. Gaessler, D. Andersen, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, E. Diolaiti, S. Esposito, J. Farinato, H. W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, A. Riccardi, P. Salinari, R. Soci, E. Vernet-Viard, and W. Xu, “A visible MCAO channel for NIRVANA at the LBT,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 536–543 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Beckmann, U.

T. Bertram, A. Eckart, B. Lindhorst, S. Rost, C. Straubmeier, E. Tremou, Y. Wang, I. Wank, G. Witzel, U. Beckmann, M. Brix, S. Egner, and T. Herbst, “The LINC-NIRVANA fringe and flexure tracking system,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 701327 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bertram, T.

X. Zhang, W. Gaessler, A. R. Conrad, T. Bertram, C. Arcidiacono, T. M. Herbst, M. Kuerster, P. Bizenberger, D. Meschke, H.-W. Rix, C. Rao, L. Mohr, F. Briegel, F. Kittmann, J. Berwein, J. Trowitzsch, L. Schreiber, R. Ragazzoni, and E. Diolaiti, “First laboratory results with the linc-nirvana high layer wavefront sensor,” Opt. Express 19, 16087–16095 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Lorenzetti, F. D’Alessio, G. Li Causi, F. Vitali, M. Centrone, R. Speziali, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, R. Ragazzoni, T. Bertram, F. Briegel, F. de Bonis, W. Gässler, T. Herbst, M. Kürster, and R.-R. Rohloff, “Feeding the wavefront sensors of LINC-NIRVANA: the dedicated Patrol Camera,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 77343S (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Bertram, A. Eckart, B. Lindhorst, S. Rost, C. Straubmeier, E. Tremou, Y. Wang, I. Wank, G. Witzel, U. Beckmann, M. Brix, S. Egner, and T. Herbst, “The LINC-NIRVANA fringe and flexure tracking system,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 701327 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Berwein, J.

Biasi, R.

A. Riccardi, G. Brusa, P. Salinari, S. Busoni, O. Lardiere, P. Ranfagni, D. Gallieni, R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, S. Miller, and P. Mantegazza, “Adaptive secondary mirrors for the Large binocular telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5169, 159–168 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bindi, N.

A. Riccardi, N. Bindi, R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, and P. Stefanini, “Laboratory characterization of a Foucault-like wavefront sensor for adaptive optics,“ Proc. SPIE 3353, 941–951 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Riccardi, N. Bindi, R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, and P. Stefanini, “Laboratory characterization of a Foucault-like wavefront sensor for adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 3353, 941–951 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bizenberger, H.

Ragazzoni, R. Herbst, T. M. Gaessler, W. Andersen, D. Arcidiacono, C. Baruffolo, A. Baumeister, H. Bizenberger, P. Diolaiti, E. Esposito, S. Farinato, J. Rix, H. W. Rohloff, R.-R. Riccardi, A. Salinari, P. Soci, R. Vernet-Viard, and E. Xu, “A visible MCAO channel for NIRVANA at the LBT,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 536–543 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bizenberger, P.

X. Zhang, W. Gaessler, A. R. Conrad, T. Bertram, C. Arcidiacono, T. M. Herbst, M. Kuerster, P. Bizenberger, D. Meschke, H.-W. Rix, C. Rao, L. Mohr, F. Briegel, F. Kittmann, J. Berwein, J. Trowitzsch, L. Schreiber, R. Ragazzoni, and E. Diolaiti, “First laboratory results with the linc-nirvana high layer wavefront sensor,” Opt. Express 19, 16087–16095 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Meschke, P. Bizenberger, W. Gaessler, X. Zhang, L. Mohr, H. Baumeister, and E. Diolaiti, “An atmospheric turbulence generator for dynamic tests with LINC-NIRVANA’s adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773646 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Schreiber, M. Lombini, I. Foppiani, D. Meschke, F. De Bonis, P. Bizenberger, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, E. Diolaiti, S. Egner, J. Farinato, W. Gaessler, T. Herbst, G. Innocenti, F. Kittmann, L. Mohr, R. Ragazzoni, and R.-R. Rohloff, “Integration of the mid-high wavefront sensor to the LINC-NIRVANA post-focal relay,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70155A (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, T. M. Herbst, W. Gaessler, D. Andersen, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, E. Diolaiti, S. Esposito, J. Farinato, H. W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, A. Riccardi, P. Salinari, R. Soci, E. Vernet-Viard, and W. Xu, “A visible MCAO channel for NIRVANA at the LBT,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 536–543 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bonnet, H.

Brast, R.

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. N. Hubin, J. Kolb, M. Le Louarn, J.-L. Lizon, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, J. Santos, S. Tordo, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, and E. Vernet-Viard, “MAD status report,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 236–247 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bregoli, G.

L. Schreiber, M. Lombini, I. Foppiani, D. Meschke, F. De Bonis, P. Bizenberger, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, E. Diolaiti, S. Egner, J. Farinato, W. Gaessler, T. Herbst, G. Innocenti, F. Kittmann, L. Mohr, R. Ragazzoni, and R.-R. Rohloff, “Integration of the mid-high wavefront sensor to the LINC-NIRVANA post-focal relay,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70155A (2008).
[CrossRef]

Briegel, F.

X. Zhang, W. Gaessler, A. R. Conrad, T. Bertram, C. Arcidiacono, T. M. Herbst, M. Kuerster, P. Bizenberger, D. Meschke, H.-W. Rix, C. Rao, L. Mohr, F. Briegel, F. Kittmann, J. Berwein, J. Trowitzsch, L. Schreiber, R. Ragazzoni, and E. Diolaiti, “First laboratory results with the linc-nirvana high layer wavefront sensor,” Opt. Express 19, 16087–16095 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Lorenzetti, F. D’Alessio, G. Li Causi, F. Vitali, M. Centrone, R. Speziali, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, R. Ragazzoni, T. Bertram, F. Briegel, F. de Bonis, W. Gässler, T. Herbst, M. Kürster, and R.-R. Rohloff, “Feeding the wavefront sensors of LINC-NIRVANA: the dedicated Patrol Camera,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 77343S (2010).
[CrossRef]

Briguglio, R.

S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, L. Fini, A. T. Puglisi, E. Pinna, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, F. Quirós-Pacheco, P. Stefanini, J. C. Guerra, L. Busoni, A. Tozzi, F. Pieralli, G. Agapito, G. Brusa-Zappellini, R. Demers, J. Brynnel, C. Arcidiacono, and P. Salinari, “First light AO (FLAO) system for LBT: final integration, acceptance test in Europe, and preliminary on-sky commissioning results,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773609 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, F. Quirós-Pacheco, E. Pinna, A. Puglisi, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, L. Busoni, L. Fini, P. Stefanini, G. Brusa, A. Tozzi, P. Ranfagni, F. Pieralli, J. C. Guerra, C. Arcidiacono, and P. Salinari, “Laboratory characterization and performance of the high-order adaptive optics system for the large binocular telescope,” Appl. Opt. 49, G174–G189 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brix, M.

T. Bertram, A. Eckart, B. Lindhorst, S. Rost, C. Straubmeier, E. Tremou, Y. Wang, I. Wank, G. Witzel, U. Beckmann, M. Brix, S. Egner, and T. Herbst, “The LINC-NIRVANA fringe and flexure tracking system,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 701327 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brusa, G.

Brusa-Zappellini, G.

S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, L. Fini, A. T. Puglisi, E. Pinna, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, F. Quirós-Pacheco, P. Stefanini, J. C. Guerra, L. Busoni, A. Tozzi, F. Pieralli, G. Agapito, G. Brusa-Zappellini, R. Demers, J. Brynnel, C. Arcidiacono, and P. Salinari, “First light AO (FLAO) system for LBT: final integration, acceptance test in Europe, and preliminary on-sky commissioning results,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773609 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brynnel, J.

S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, L. Fini, A. T. Puglisi, E. Pinna, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, F. Quirós-Pacheco, P. Stefanini, J. C. Guerra, L. Busoni, A. Tozzi, F. Pieralli, G. Agapito, G. Brusa-Zappellini, R. Demers, J. Brynnel, C. Arcidiacono, and P. Salinari, “First light AO (FLAO) system for LBT: final integration, acceptance test in Europe, and preliminary on-sky commissioning results,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773609 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Busoni, L.

S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, L. Fini, A. T. Puglisi, E. Pinna, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, F. Quirós-Pacheco, P. Stefanini, J. C. Guerra, L. Busoni, A. Tozzi, F. Pieralli, G. Agapito, G. Brusa-Zappellini, R. Demers, J. Brynnel, C. Arcidiacono, and P. Salinari, “First light AO (FLAO) system for LBT: final integration, acceptance test in Europe, and preliminary on-sky commissioning results,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773609 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, F. Quirós-Pacheco, E. Pinna, A. Puglisi, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, L. Busoni, L. Fini, P. Stefanini, G. Brusa, A. Tozzi, P. Ranfagni, F. Pieralli, J. C. Guerra, C. Arcidiacono, and P. Salinari, “Laboratory characterization and performance of the high-order adaptive optics system for the large binocular telescope,” Appl. Opt. 49, G174–G189 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Busoni, S.

A. Riccardi, G. Brusa, P. Salinari, S. Busoni, O. Lardiere, P. Ranfagni, D. Gallieni, R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, S. Miller, and P. Mantegazza, “Adaptive secondary mirrors for the Large binocular telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5169, 159–168 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Centrone, M.

D. Lorenzetti, F. D’Alessio, G. Li Causi, F. Vitali, M. Centrone, R. Speziali, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, R. Ragazzoni, T. Bertram, F. Briegel, F. de Bonis, W. Gässler, T. Herbst, M. Kürster, and R.-R. Rohloff, “Feeding the wavefront sensors of LINC-NIRVANA: the dedicated Patrol Camera,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 77343S (2010).
[CrossRef]

Conrad, A. R.

Cosentino, G.

L. Schreiber, M. Lombini, I. Foppiani, D. Meschke, F. De Bonis, P. Bizenberger, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, E. Diolaiti, S. Egner, J. Farinato, W. Gaessler, T. Herbst, G. Innocenti, F. Kittmann, L. Mohr, R. Ragazzoni, and R.-R. Rohloff, “Integration of the mid-high wavefront sensor to the LINC-NIRVANA post-focal relay,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70155A (2008).
[CrossRef]

Costa, J. B.

D’Alessio, F.

D. Lorenzetti, F. D’Alessio, G. Li Causi, F. Vitali, M. Centrone, R. Speziali, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, R. Ragazzoni, T. Bertram, F. Briegel, F. de Bonis, W. Gässler, T. Herbst, M. Kürster, and R.-R. Rohloff, “Feeding the wavefront sensors of LINC-NIRVANA: the dedicated Patrol Camera,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 77343S (2010).
[CrossRef]

de Bonis, F.

D. Lorenzetti, F. D’Alessio, G. Li Causi, F. Vitali, M. Centrone, R. Speziali, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, R. Ragazzoni, T. Bertram, F. Briegel, F. de Bonis, W. Gässler, T. Herbst, M. Kürster, and R.-R. Rohloff, “Feeding the wavefront sensors of LINC-NIRVANA: the dedicated Patrol Camera,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 77343S (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Schreiber, M. Lombini, I. Foppiani, D. Meschke, F. De Bonis, P. Bizenberger, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, E. Diolaiti, S. Egner, J. Farinato, W. Gaessler, T. Herbst, G. Innocenti, F. Kittmann, L. Mohr, R. Ragazzoni, and R.-R. Rohloff, “Integration of the mid-high wavefront sensor to the LINC-NIRVANA post-focal relay,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70155A (2008).
[CrossRef]

Delabre, B.

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. N. Hubin, J. Kolb, M. Le Louarn, J.-L. Lizon, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, J. Santos, S. Tordo, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, and E. Vernet-Viard, “MAD status report,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 236–247 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Demers, R.

S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, L. Fini, A. T. Puglisi, E. Pinna, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, F. Quirós-Pacheco, P. Stefanini, J. C. Guerra, L. Busoni, A. Tozzi, F. Pieralli, G. Agapito, G. Brusa-Zappellini, R. Demers, J. Brynnel, C. Arcidiacono, and P. Salinari, “First light AO (FLAO) system for LBT: final integration, acceptance test in Europe, and preliminary on-sky commissioning results,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773609 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Diolaiti, E.

X. Zhang, W. Gaessler, A. R. Conrad, T. Bertram, C. Arcidiacono, T. M. Herbst, M. Kuerster, P. Bizenberger, D. Meschke, H.-W. Rix, C. Rao, L. Mohr, F. Briegel, F. Kittmann, J. Berwein, J. Trowitzsch, L. Schreiber, R. Ragazzoni, and E. Diolaiti, “First laboratory results with the linc-nirvana high layer wavefront sensor,” Opt. Express 19, 16087–16095 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Lorenzetti, F. D’Alessio, G. Li Causi, F. Vitali, M. Centrone, R. Speziali, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, R. Ragazzoni, T. Bertram, F. Briegel, F. de Bonis, W. Gässler, T. Herbst, M. Kürster, and R.-R. Rohloff, “Feeding the wavefront sensors of LINC-NIRVANA: the dedicated Patrol Camera,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 77343S (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Meschke, P. Bizenberger, W. Gaessler, X. Zhang, L. Mohr, H. Baumeister, and E. Diolaiti, “An atmospheric turbulence generator for dynamic tests with LINC-NIRVANA’s adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773646 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Schreiber, M. Lombini, I. Foppiani, D. Meschke, F. De Bonis, P. Bizenberger, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, E. Diolaiti, S. Egner, J. Farinato, W. Gaessler, T. Herbst, G. Innocenti, F. Kittmann, L. Mohr, R. Ragazzoni, and R.-R. Rohloff, “Integration of the mid-high wavefront sensor to the LINC-NIRVANA post-focal relay,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70155A (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Arcidiacono, M. Lombini, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, E. Diolaiti, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, G. Gentile, L. Schreiber, E. Marchetti, J. Kolb, S. Tordo, R. Donaldson, C. Soenke, S. Oberti, E. Fedrigo, E. Vernet, and N. Hubin, “Layer oriented wavefront sensor for MAD on sky operations,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70155P (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, E. Vernet, J. Farinato, E. Marchetti, and C. Arcidiacono, “Arbitrarily Small Pupils in Layer-Oriented Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics,” PASP 117, 860–869 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. N. Hubin, J. Kolb, M. Le Louarn, J.-L. Lizon, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, J. Santos, S. Tordo, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, and E. Vernet-Viard, “MAD status report,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 236–247 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, T. M. Herbst, W. Gaessler, D. Andersen, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, E. Diolaiti, S. Esposito, J. Farinato, H. W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, A. Riccardi, P. Salinari, R. Soci, E. Vernet-Viard, and W. Xu, “A visible MCAO channel for NIRVANA at the LBT,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 536–543 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, E. Fedrigo, E. Marchetti, M. Tordi, and D. Kirkman, “Multiple field of view layer-oriented adaptive optics. Nearly whole sky coverage on 8 m class telescopes and beyond,” A&A 396, 731–744 (2002).

Diolaiti, P.

Ragazzoni, R. Herbst, T. M. Gaessler, W. Andersen, D. Arcidiacono, C. Baruffolo, A. Baumeister, H. Bizenberger, P. Diolaiti, E. Esposito, S. Farinato, J. Rix, H. W. Rohloff, R.-R. Riccardi, A. Salinari, P. Soci, R. Vernet-Viard, and E. Xu, “A visible MCAO channel for NIRVANA at the LBT,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 536–543 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Donaldson, R.

C. Arcidiacono, M. Lombini, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, E. Diolaiti, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, G. Gentile, L. Schreiber, E. Marchetti, J. Kolb, S. Tordo, R. Donaldson, C. Soenke, S. Oberti, E. Fedrigo, E. Vernet, and N. Hubin, “Layer oriented wavefront sensor for MAD on sky operations,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70155P (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. N. Hubin, J. Kolb, M. Le Louarn, J.-L. Lizon, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, J. Santos, S. Tordo, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, and E. Vernet-Viard, “MAD status report,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 236–247 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dorner, B.

D. Peter, M. Feldt, B. Dorner, T. Henning, S. Hippler, and J. Aceituno, “PYRAMIR: Calibration and Operation of a Pyramid Near-Infrared Wavefront Sensor,” PASP 120, 872–886 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Eckart, A.

T. M. Herbst, R. Ragazzoni, A. Eckart, and G. Weigelt, “Imaging beyond the fringe: an update on the LINC-NIRVANA Fizeau interferometer for the LBT,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 773407 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Bertram, A. Eckart, B. Lindhorst, S. Rost, C. Straubmeier, E. Tremou, Y. Wang, I. Wank, G. Witzel, U. Beckmann, M. Brix, S. Egner, and T. Herbst, “The LINC-NIRVANA fringe and flexure tracking system,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 701327 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Egner, S.

T. Bertram, A. Eckart, B. Lindhorst, S. Rost, C. Straubmeier, E. Tremou, Y. Wang, I. Wank, G. Witzel, U. Beckmann, M. Brix, S. Egner, and T. Herbst, “The LINC-NIRVANA fringe and flexure tracking system,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 701327 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Schreiber, M. Lombini, I. Foppiani, D. Meschke, F. De Bonis, P. Bizenberger, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, E. Diolaiti, S. Egner, J. Farinato, W. Gaessler, T. Herbst, G. Innocenti, F. Kittmann, L. Mohr, R. Ragazzoni, and R.-R. Rohloff, “Integration of the mid-high wavefront sensor to the LINC-NIRVANA post-focal relay,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70155A (2008).
[CrossRef]

Esposito, E.

Ragazzoni, R. Herbst, T. M. Gaessler, W. Andersen, D. Arcidiacono, C. Baruffolo, A. Baumeister, H. Bizenberger, P. Diolaiti, E. Esposito, S. Farinato, J. Rix, H. W. Rohloff, R.-R. Riccardi, A. Salinari, P. Soci, R. Vernet-Viard, and E. Xu, “A visible MCAO channel for NIRVANA at the LBT,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 536–543 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Esposito, S.

S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, F. Quirós-Pacheco, E. Pinna, A. Puglisi, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, L. Busoni, L. Fini, P. Stefanini, G. Brusa, A. Tozzi, P. Ranfagni, F. Pieralli, J. C. Guerra, C. Arcidiacono, and P. Salinari, “Laboratory characterization and performance of the high-order adaptive optics system for the large binocular telescope,” Appl. Opt. 49, G174–G189 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, L. Fini, A. T. Puglisi, E. Pinna, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, F. Quirós-Pacheco, P. Stefanini, J. C. Guerra, L. Busoni, A. Tozzi, F. Pieralli, G. Agapito, G. Brusa-Zappellini, R. Demers, J. Brynnel, C. Arcidiacono, and P. Salinari, “First light AO (FLAO) system for LBT: final integration, acceptance test in Europe, and preliminary on-sky commissioning results,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773609 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Oberti, F. Quirós-Pacheco, S. Esposito, R. Muradore, R. Arsenault, E. Fedrigo, M. Kasper, J. Kolb, E. Marchetti, A. Riccardi, C. Soenke, and S. Stroebele, “Large DM AO systems: synthetic IM or calibration on sky?” Proc. SPIE 6272, 627220 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, T. M. Herbst, W. Gaessler, D. Andersen, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, E. Diolaiti, S. Esposito, J. Farinato, H. W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, A. Riccardi, P. Salinari, R. Soci, E. Vernet-Viard, and W. Xu, “A visible MCAO channel for NIRVANA at the LBT,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 536–543 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Riccardi, N. Bindi, R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, and P. Stefanini, “Laboratory characterization of a Foucault-like wavefront sensor for adaptive optics,“ Proc. SPIE 3353, 941–951 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Riccardi, N. Bindi, R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, and P. Stefanini, “Laboratory characterization of a Foucault-like wavefront sensor for adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 3353, 941–951 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Farinato, J.

D. Lorenzetti, F. D’Alessio, G. Li Causi, F. Vitali, M. Centrone, R. Speziali, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, R. Ragazzoni, T. Bertram, F. Briegel, F. de Bonis, W. Gässler, T. Herbst, M. Kürster, and R.-R. Rohloff, “Feeding the wavefront sensors of LINC-NIRVANA: the dedicated Patrol Camera,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 77343S (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Schreiber, M. Lombini, I. Foppiani, D. Meschke, F. De Bonis, P. Bizenberger, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, E. Diolaiti, S. Egner, J. Farinato, W. Gaessler, T. Herbst, G. Innocenti, F. Kittmann, L. Mohr, R. Ragazzoni, and R.-R. Rohloff, “Integration of the mid-high wavefront sensor to the LINC-NIRVANA post-focal relay,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70155A (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Arcidiacono, M. Lombini, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, E. Diolaiti, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, G. Gentile, L. Schreiber, E. Marchetti, J. Kolb, S. Tordo, R. Donaldson, C. Soenke, S. Oberti, E. Fedrigo, E. Vernet, and N. Hubin, “Layer oriented wavefront sensor for MAD on sky operations,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70155P (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, E. Vernet, J. Farinato, E. Marchetti, and C. Arcidiacono, “Arbitrarily Small Pupils in Layer-Oriented Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics,” PASP 117, 860–869 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. N. Hubin, J. Kolb, M. Le Louarn, J.-L. Lizon, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, J. Santos, S. Tordo, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, and E. Vernet-Viard, “MAD status report,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 236–247 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, T. M. Herbst, W. Gaessler, D. Andersen, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, E. Diolaiti, S. Esposito, J. Farinato, H. W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, A. Riccardi, P. Salinari, R. Soci, E. Vernet-Viard, and W. Xu, “A visible MCAO channel for NIRVANA at the LBT,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 536–543 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, E. Fedrigo, E. Marchetti, M. Tordi, and D. Kirkman, “Multiple field of view layer-oriented adaptive optics. Nearly whole sky coverage on 8 m class telescopes and beyond,” A&A 396, 731–744 (2002).

R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, and E. Marchetti, “Adaptive optics for 100-m-class telescopes: new challenges require new solutions,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 1076–1087 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Farinato, S.

Ragazzoni, R. Herbst, T. M. Gaessler, W. Andersen, D. Arcidiacono, C. Baruffolo, A. Baumeister, H. Bizenberger, P. Diolaiti, E. Esposito, S. Farinato, J. Rix, H. W. Rohloff, R.-R. Riccardi, A. Salinari, P. Soci, R. Vernet-Viard, and E. Xu, “A visible MCAO channel for NIRVANA at the LBT,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 536–543 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fedrigo, E.

C. Arcidiacono, M. Lombini, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, E. Diolaiti, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, G. Gentile, L. Schreiber, E. Marchetti, J. Kolb, S. Tordo, R. Donaldson, C. Soenke, S. Oberti, E. Fedrigo, E. Vernet, and N. Hubin, “Layer oriented wavefront sensor for MAD on sky operations,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70155P (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Oberti, F. Quirós-Pacheco, S. Esposito, R. Muradore, R. Arsenault, E. Fedrigo, M. Kasper, J. Kolb, E. Marchetti, A. Riccardi, C. Soenke, and S. Stroebele, “Large DM AO systems: synthetic IM or calibration on sky?” Proc. SPIE 6272, 627220 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. N. Hubin, J. Kolb, M. Le Louarn, J.-L. Lizon, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, J. Santos, S. Tordo, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, and E. Vernet-Viard, “MAD status report,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 236–247 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Kasper, E. Fedrigo, D. P. Looze, H. Bonnet, L. Ivanescu, and S. Oberti, “Fast calibration of high-order adaptive optics systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 1004–1008 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, E. Fedrigo, E. Marchetti, M. Tordi, and D. Kirkman, “Multiple field of view layer-oriented adaptive optics. Nearly whole sky coverage on 8 m class telescopes and beyond,” A&A 396, 731–744 (2002).

Feldt, M.

D. Peter, M. Feldt, B. Dorner, T. Henning, S. Hippler, and J. Aceituno, “PYRAMIR: Calibration and Operation of a Pyramid Near-Infrared Wavefront Sensor,” PASP 120, 872–886 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fini, L.

S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, L. Fini, A. T. Puglisi, E. Pinna, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, F. Quirós-Pacheco, P. Stefanini, J. C. Guerra, L. Busoni, A. Tozzi, F. Pieralli, G. Agapito, G. Brusa-Zappellini, R. Demers, J. Brynnel, C. Arcidiacono, and P. Salinari, “First light AO (FLAO) system for LBT: final integration, acceptance test in Europe, and preliminary on-sky commissioning results,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773609 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, F. Quirós-Pacheco, E. Pinna, A. Puglisi, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, L. Busoni, L. Fini, P. Stefanini, G. Brusa, A. Tozzi, P. Ranfagni, F. Pieralli, J. C. Guerra, C. Arcidiacono, and P. Salinari, “Laboratory characterization and performance of the high-order adaptive optics system for the large binocular telescope,” Appl. Opt. 49, G174–G189 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Foppiani, I.

L. Schreiber, M. Lombini, I. Foppiani, D. Meschke, F. De Bonis, P. Bizenberger, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, E. Diolaiti, S. Egner, J. Farinato, W. Gaessler, T. Herbst, G. Innocenti, F. Kittmann, L. Mohr, R. Ragazzoni, and R.-R. Rohloff, “Integration of the mid-high wavefront sensor to the LINC-NIRVANA post-focal relay,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70155A (2008).
[CrossRef]

Frank, C.

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. N. Hubin, J. Kolb, M. Le Louarn, J.-L. Lizon, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, J. Santos, S. Tordo, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, and E. Vernet-Viard, “MAD status report,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 236–247 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gaessler, T. M.

Ragazzoni, R. Herbst, T. M. Gaessler, W. Andersen, D. Arcidiacono, C. Baruffolo, A. Baumeister, H. Bizenberger, P. Diolaiti, E. Esposito, S. Farinato, J. Rix, H. W. Rohloff, R.-R. Riccardi, A. Salinari, P. Soci, R. Vernet-Viard, and E. Xu, “A visible MCAO channel for NIRVANA at the LBT,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 536–543 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gaessler, W.

X. Zhang, W. Gaessler, A. R. Conrad, T. Bertram, C. Arcidiacono, T. M. Herbst, M. Kuerster, P. Bizenberger, D. Meschke, H.-W. Rix, C. Rao, L. Mohr, F. Briegel, F. Kittmann, J. Berwein, J. Trowitzsch, L. Schreiber, R. Ragazzoni, and E. Diolaiti, “First laboratory results with the linc-nirvana high layer wavefront sensor,” Opt. Express 19, 16087–16095 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Meschke, P. Bizenberger, W. Gaessler, X. Zhang, L. Mohr, H. Baumeister, and E. Diolaiti, “An atmospheric turbulence generator for dynamic tests with LINC-NIRVANA’s adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773646 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Schreiber, M. Lombini, I. Foppiani, D. Meschke, F. De Bonis, P. Bizenberger, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, E. Diolaiti, S. Egner, J. Farinato, W. Gaessler, T. Herbst, G. Innocenti, F. Kittmann, L. Mohr, R. Ragazzoni, and R.-R. Rohloff, “Integration of the mid-high wavefront sensor to the LINC-NIRVANA post-focal relay,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70155A (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, T. M. Herbst, W. Gaessler, D. Andersen, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, E. Diolaiti, S. Esposito, J. Farinato, H. W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, A. Riccardi, P. Salinari, R. Soci, E. Vernet-Viard, and W. Xu, “A visible MCAO channel for NIRVANA at the LBT,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 536–543 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gallieni, D.

A. Riccardi, G. Brusa, P. Salinari, S. Busoni, O. Lardiere, P. Ranfagni, D. Gallieni, R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, S. Miller, and P. Mantegazza, “Adaptive secondary mirrors for the Large binocular telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5169, 159–168 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gässler, W.

D. Lorenzetti, F. D’Alessio, G. Li Causi, F. Vitali, M. Centrone, R. Speziali, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, R. Ragazzoni, T. Bertram, F. Briegel, F. de Bonis, W. Gässler, T. Herbst, M. Kürster, and R.-R. Rohloff, “Feeding the wavefront sensors of LINC-NIRVANA: the dedicated Patrol Camera,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 77343S (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gentile, G.

C. Arcidiacono, M. Lombini, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, E. Diolaiti, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, G. Gentile, L. Schreiber, E. Marchetti, J. Kolb, S. Tordo, R. Donaldson, C. Soenke, S. Oberti, E. Fedrigo, E. Vernet, and N. Hubin, “Layer oriented wavefront sensor for MAD on sky operations,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70155P (2008).
[CrossRef]

Guerra, J. C.

S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, L. Fini, A. T. Puglisi, E. Pinna, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, F. Quirós-Pacheco, P. Stefanini, J. C. Guerra, L. Busoni, A. Tozzi, F. Pieralli, G. Agapito, G. Brusa-Zappellini, R. Demers, J. Brynnel, C. Arcidiacono, and P. Salinari, “First light AO (FLAO) system for LBT: final integration, acceptance test in Europe, and preliminary on-sky commissioning results,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773609 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, F. Quirós-Pacheco, E. Pinna, A. Puglisi, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, L. Busoni, L. Fini, P. Stefanini, G. Brusa, A. Tozzi, P. Ranfagni, F. Pieralli, J. C. Guerra, C. Arcidiacono, and P. Salinari, “Laboratory characterization and performance of the high-order adaptive optics system for the large binocular telescope,” Appl. Opt. 49, G174–G189 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Henning, T.

D. Peter, M. Feldt, B. Dorner, T. Henning, S. Hippler, and J. Aceituno, “PYRAMIR: Calibration and Operation of a Pyramid Near-Infrared Wavefront Sensor,” PASP 120, 872–886 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Herbst, R.

Ragazzoni, R. Herbst, T. M. Gaessler, W. Andersen, D. Arcidiacono, C. Baruffolo, A. Baumeister, H. Bizenberger, P. Diolaiti, E. Esposito, S. Farinato, J. Rix, H. W. Rohloff, R.-R. Riccardi, A. Salinari, P. Soci, R. Vernet-Viard, and E. Xu, “A visible MCAO channel for NIRVANA at the LBT,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 536–543 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Herbst, T.

D. Lorenzetti, F. D’Alessio, G. Li Causi, F. Vitali, M. Centrone, R. Speziali, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, R. Ragazzoni, T. Bertram, F. Briegel, F. de Bonis, W. Gässler, T. Herbst, M. Kürster, and R.-R. Rohloff, “Feeding the wavefront sensors of LINC-NIRVANA: the dedicated Patrol Camera,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 77343S (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Schreiber, M. Lombini, I. Foppiani, D. Meschke, F. De Bonis, P. Bizenberger, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, E. Diolaiti, S. Egner, J. Farinato, W. Gaessler, T. Herbst, G. Innocenti, F. Kittmann, L. Mohr, R. Ragazzoni, and R.-R. Rohloff, “Integration of the mid-high wavefront sensor to the LINC-NIRVANA post-focal relay,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70155A (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Bertram, A. Eckart, B. Lindhorst, S. Rost, C. Straubmeier, E. Tremou, Y. Wang, I. Wank, G. Witzel, U. Beckmann, M. Brix, S. Egner, and T. Herbst, “The LINC-NIRVANA fringe and flexure tracking system,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 701327 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Herbst, T. M.

X. Zhang, W. Gaessler, A. R. Conrad, T. Bertram, C. Arcidiacono, T. M. Herbst, M. Kuerster, P. Bizenberger, D. Meschke, H.-W. Rix, C. Rao, L. Mohr, F. Briegel, F. Kittmann, J. Berwein, J. Trowitzsch, L. Schreiber, R. Ragazzoni, and E. Diolaiti, “First laboratory results with the linc-nirvana high layer wavefront sensor,” Opt. Express 19, 16087–16095 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Herbst, R. Ragazzoni, A. Eckart, and G. Weigelt, “Imaging beyond the fringe: an update on the LINC-NIRVANA Fizeau interferometer for the LBT,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 773407 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, T. M. Herbst, W. Gaessler, D. Andersen, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, E. Diolaiti, S. Esposito, J. Farinato, H. W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, A. Riccardi, P. Salinari, R. Soci, E. Vernet-Viard, and W. Xu, “A visible MCAO channel for NIRVANA at the LBT,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 536–543 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hippler, S.

D. Peter, M. Feldt, B. Dorner, T. Henning, S. Hippler, and J. Aceituno, “PYRAMIR: Calibration and Operation of a Pyramid Near-Infrared Wavefront Sensor,” PASP 120, 872–886 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hubin, N.

C. Arcidiacono, M. Lombini, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, E. Diolaiti, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, G. Gentile, L. Schreiber, E. Marchetti, J. Kolb, S. Tordo, R. Donaldson, C. Soenke, S. Oberti, E. Fedrigo, E. Vernet, and N. Hubin, “Layer oriented wavefront sensor for MAD on sky operations,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70155P (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hubin, N. N.

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. N. Hubin, J. Kolb, M. Le Louarn, J.-L. Lizon, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, J. Santos, S. Tordo, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, and E. Vernet-Viard, “MAD status report,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 236–247 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Innocenti, G.

L. Schreiber, M. Lombini, I. Foppiani, D. Meschke, F. De Bonis, P. Bizenberger, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, E. Diolaiti, S. Egner, J. Farinato, W. Gaessler, T. Herbst, G. Innocenti, F. Kittmann, L. Mohr, R. Ragazzoni, and R.-R. Rohloff, “Integration of the mid-high wavefront sensor to the LINC-NIRVANA post-focal relay,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70155A (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ivanescu, L.

Kasper, M.

S. Oberti, F. Quirós-Pacheco, S. Esposito, R. Muradore, R. Arsenault, E. Fedrigo, M. Kasper, J. Kolb, E. Marchetti, A. Riccardi, C. Soenke, and S. Stroebele, “Large DM AO systems: synthetic IM or calibration on sky?” Proc. SPIE 6272, 627220 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Kasper, E. Fedrigo, D. P. Looze, H. Bonnet, L. Ivanescu, and S. Oberti, “Fast calibration of high-order adaptive optics systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 1004–1008 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kirkman, D.

R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, E. Fedrigo, E. Marchetti, M. Tordi, and D. Kirkman, “Multiple field of view layer-oriented adaptive optics. Nearly whole sky coverage on 8 m class telescopes and beyond,” A&A 396, 731–744 (2002).

Kittmann, F.

X. Zhang, W. Gaessler, A. R. Conrad, T. Bertram, C. Arcidiacono, T. M. Herbst, M. Kuerster, P. Bizenberger, D. Meschke, H.-W. Rix, C. Rao, L. Mohr, F. Briegel, F. Kittmann, J. Berwein, J. Trowitzsch, L. Schreiber, R. Ragazzoni, and E. Diolaiti, “First laboratory results with the linc-nirvana high layer wavefront sensor,” Opt. Express 19, 16087–16095 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Schreiber, M. Lombini, I. Foppiani, D. Meschke, F. De Bonis, P. Bizenberger, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, E. Diolaiti, S. Egner, J. Farinato, W. Gaessler, T. Herbst, G. Innocenti, F. Kittmann, L. Mohr, R. Ragazzoni, and R.-R. Rohloff, “Integration of the mid-high wavefront sensor to the LINC-NIRVANA post-focal relay,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70155A (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kolb, J.

C. Arcidiacono, M. Lombini, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, E. Diolaiti, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, G. Gentile, L. Schreiber, E. Marchetti, J. Kolb, S. Tordo, R. Donaldson, C. Soenke, S. Oberti, E. Fedrigo, E. Vernet, and N. Hubin, “Layer oriented wavefront sensor for MAD on sky operations,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70155P (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Oberti, F. Quirós-Pacheco, S. Esposito, R. Muradore, R. Arsenault, E. Fedrigo, M. Kasper, J. Kolb, E. Marchetti, A. Riccardi, C. Soenke, and S. Stroebele, “Large DM AO systems: synthetic IM or calibration on sky?” Proc. SPIE 6272, 627220 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. N. Hubin, J. Kolb, M. Le Louarn, J.-L. Lizon, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, J. Santos, S. Tordo, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, and E. Vernet-Viard, “MAD status report,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 236–247 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Korkiakoski, V

Kuerster, M.

Kürster, M.

D. Lorenzetti, F. D’Alessio, G. Li Causi, F. Vitali, M. Centrone, R. Speziali, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, R. Ragazzoni, T. Bertram, F. Briegel, F. de Bonis, W. Gässler, T. Herbst, M. Kürster, and R.-R. Rohloff, “Feeding the wavefront sensors of LINC-NIRVANA: the dedicated Patrol Camera,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 77343S (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lardiere, O.

A. Riccardi, G. Brusa, P. Salinari, S. Busoni, O. Lardiere, P. Ranfagni, D. Gallieni, R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, S. Miller, and P. Mantegazza, “Adaptive secondary mirrors for the Large binocular telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5169, 159–168 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Le Louarn, M.

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. N. Hubin, J. Kolb, M. Le Louarn, J.-L. Lizon, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, J. Santos, S. Tordo, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, and E. Vernet-Viard, “MAD status report,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 236–247 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li Causi, G.

D. Lorenzetti, F. D’Alessio, G. Li Causi, F. Vitali, M. Centrone, R. Speziali, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, R. Ragazzoni, T. Bertram, F. Briegel, F. de Bonis, W. Gässler, T. Herbst, M. Kürster, and R.-R. Rohloff, “Feeding the wavefront sensors of LINC-NIRVANA: the dedicated Patrol Camera,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 77343S (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lindhorst, B.

T. Bertram, A. Eckart, B. Lindhorst, S. Rost, C. Straubmeier, E. Tremou, Y. Wang, I. Wank, G. Witzel, U. Beckmann, M. Brix, S. Egner, and T. Herbst, “The LINC-NIRVANA fringe and flexure tracking system,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 701327 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lizon, J.-L.

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. N. Hubin, J. Kolb, M. Le Louarn, J.-L. Lizon, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, J. Santos, S. Tordo, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, and E. Vernet-Viard, “MAD status report,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 236–247 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lombini, M.

L. Schreiber, M. Lombini, I. Foppiani, D. Meschke, F. De Bonis, P. Bizenberger, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, E. Diolaiti, S. Egner, J. Farinato, W. Gaessler, T. Herbst, G. Innocenti, F. Kittmann, L. Mohr, R. Ragazzoni, and R.-R. Rohloff, “Integration of the mid-high wavefront sensor to the LINC-NIRVANA post-focal relay,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70155A (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Arcidiacono, M. Lombini, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, E. Diolaiti, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, G. Gentile, L. Schreiber, E. Marchetti, J. Kolb, S. Tordo, R. Donaldson, C. Soenke, S. Oberti, E. Fedrigo, E. Vernet, and N. Hubin, “Layer oriented wavefront sensor for MAD on sky operations,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70155P (2008).
[CrossRef]

Looze, D. P.

Lorenzetti, D.

D. Lorenzetti, F. D’Alessio, G. Li Causi, F. Vitali, M. Centrone, R. Speziali, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, R. Ragazzoni, T. Bertram, F. Briegel, F. de Bonis, W. Gässler, T. Herbst, M. Kürster, and R.-R. Rohloff, “Feeding the wavefront sensors of LINC-NIRVANA: the dedicated Patrol Camera,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 77343S (2010).
[CrossRef]

Louarn, M. L.

Mantegazza, P.

A. Riccardi, G. Brusa, P. Salinari, S. Busoni, O. Lardiere, P. Ranfagni, D. Gallieni, R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, S. Miller, and P. Mantegazza, “Adaptive secondary mirrors for the Large binocular telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5169, 159–168 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Marchetti, E.

C. Arcidiacono, M. Lombini, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, E. Diolaiti, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, G. Gentile, L. Schreiber, E. Marchetti, J. Kolb, S. Tordo, R. Donaldson, C. Soenke, S. Oberti, E. Fedrigo, E. Vernet, and N. Hubin, “Layer oriented wavefront sensor for MAD on sky operations,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70155P (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Oberti, F. Quirós-Pacheco, S. Esposito, R. Muradore, R. Arsenault, E. Fedrigo, M. Kasper, J. Kolb, E. Marchetti, A. Riccardi, C. Soenke, and S. Stroebele, “Large DM AO systems: synthetic IM or calibration on sky?” Proc. SPIE 6272, 627220 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, E. Vernet, J. Farinato, E. Marchetti, and C. Arcidiacono, “Arbitrarily Small Pupils in Layer-Oriented Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics,” PASP 117, 860–869 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. N. Hubin, J. Kolb, M. Le Louarn, J.-L. Lizon, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, J. Santos, S. Tordo, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, and E. Vernet-Viard, “MAD status report,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 236–247 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, E. Fedrigo, E. Marchetti, M. Tordi, and D. Kirkman, “Multiple field of view layer-oriented adaptive optics. Nearly whole sky coverage on 8 m class telescopes and beyond,” A&A 396, 731–744 (2002).

R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, and E. Marchetti, “Adaptive optics for 100-m-class telescopes: new challenges require new solutions,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 1076–1087 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Meschke, D.

X. Zhang, W. Gaessler, A. R. Conrad, T. Bertram, C. Arcidiacono, T. M. Herbst, M. Kuerster, P. Bizenberger, D. Meschke, H.-W. Rix, C. Rao, L. Mohr, F. Briegel, F. Kittmann, J. Berwein, J. Trowitzsch, L. Schreiber, R. Ragazzoni, and E. Diolaiti, “First laboratory results with the linc-nirvana high layer wavefront sensor,” Opt. Express 19, 16087–16095 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Meschke, P. Bizenberger, W. Gaessler, X. Zhang, L. Mohr, H. Baumeister, and E. Diolaiti, “An atmospheric turbulence generator for dynamic tests with LINC-NIRVANA’s adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773646 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Schreiber, M. Lombini, I. Foppiani, D. Meschke, F. De Bonis, P. Bizenberger, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, E. Diolaiti, S. Egner, J. Farinato, W. Gaessler, T. Herbst, G. Innocenti, F. Kittmann, L. Mohr, R. Ragazzoni, and R.-R. Rohloff, “Integration of the mid-high wavefront sensor to the LINC-NIRVANA post-focal relay,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70155A (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miller, S.

A. Riccardi, G. Brusa, P. Salinari, S. Busoni, O. Lardiere, P. Ranfagni, D. Gallieni, R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, S. Miller, and P. Mantegazza, “Adaptive secondary mirrors for the Large binocular telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5169, 159–168 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mohr, L.

X. Zhang, W. Gaessler, A. R. Conrad, T. Bertram, C. Arcidiacono, T. M. Herbst, M. Kuerster, P. Bizenberger, D. Meschke, H.-W. Rix, C. Rao, L. Mohr, F. Briegel, F. Kittmann, J. Berwein, J. Trowitzsch, L. Schreiber, R. Ragazzoni, and E. Diolaiti, “First laboratory results with the linc-nirvana high layer wavefront sensor,” Opt. Express 19, 16087–16095 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Meschke, P. Bizenberger, W. Gaessler, X. Zhang, L. Mohr, H. Baumeister, and E. Diolaiti, “An atmospheric turbulence generator for dynamic tests with LINC-NIRVANA’s adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773646 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Schreiber, M. Lombini, I. Foppiani, D. Meschke, F. De Bonis, P. Bizenberger, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, E. Diolaiti, S. Egner, J. Farinato, W. Gaessler, T. Herbst, G. Innocenti, F. Kittmann, L. Mohr, R. Ragazzoni, and R.-R. Rohloff, “Integration of the mid-high wavefront sensor to the LINC-NIRVANA post-focal relay,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70155A (2008).
[CrossRef]

Muradore, R.

S. Oberti, F. Quirós-Pacheco, S. Esposito, R. Muradore, R. Arsenault, E. Fedrigo, M. Kasper, J. Kolb, E. Marchetti, A. Riccardi, C. Soenke, and S. Stroebele, “Large DM AO systems: synthetic IM or calibration on sky?” Proc. SPIE 6272, 627220 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Noll, R. J.

Oberti, S.

C. Arcidiacono, M. Lombini, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, E. Diolaiti, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, G. Gentile, L. Schreiber, E. Marchetti, J. Kolb, S. Tordo, R. Donaldson, C. Soenke, S. Oberti, E. Fedrigo, E. Vernet, and N. Hubin, “Layer oriented wavefront sensor for MAD on sky operations,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70155P (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Oberti, F. Quirós-Pacheco, S. Esposito, R. Muradore, R. Arsenault, E. Fedrigo, M. Kasper, J. Kolb, E. Marchetti, A. Riccardi, C. Soenke, and S. Stroebele, “Large DM AO systems: synthetic IM or calibration on sky?” Proc. SPIE 6272, 627220 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Kasper, E. Fedrigo, D. P. Looze, H. Bonnet, L. Ivanescu, and S. Oberti, “Fast calibration of high-order adaptive optics systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 1004–1008 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. N. Hubin, J. Kolb, M. Le Louarn, J.-L. Lizon, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, J. Santos, S. Tordo, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, and E. Vernet-Viard, “MAD status report,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 236–247 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Oliker, M. D.

M. D. Oliker, “Alignment techniques for DM, Lenslet, and WFS camera at the SOR,” Proc. SPIE 3126, 595–604 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Peter, D.

D. Peter, M. Feldt, B. Dorner, T. Henning, S. Hippler, and J. Aceituno, “PYRAMIR: Calibration and Operation of a Pyramid Near-Infrared Wavefront Sensor,” PASP 120, 872–886 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pieralli, F.

S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, L. Fini, A. T. Puglisi, E. Pinna, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, F. Quirós-Pacheco, P. Stefanini, J. C. Guerra, L. Busoni, A. Tozzi, F. Pieralli, G. Agapito, G. Brusa-Zappellini, R. Demers, J. Brynnel, C. Arcidiacono, and P. Salinari, “First light AO (FLAO) system for LBT: final integration, acceptance test in Europe, and preliminary on-sky commissioning results,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773609 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, F. Quirós-Pacheco, E. Pinna, A. Puglisi, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, L. Busoni, L. Fini, P. Stefanini, G. Brusa, A. Tozzi, P. Ranfagni, F. Pieralli, J. C. Guerra, C. Arcidiacono, and P. Salinari, “Laboratory characterization and performance of the high-order adaptive optics system for the large binocular telescope,” Appl. Opt. 49, G174–G189 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pinna, E.

S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, F. Quirós-Pacheco, E. Pinna, A. Puglisi, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, L. Busoni, L. Fini, P. Stefanini, G. Brusa, A. Tozzi, P. Ranfagni, F. Pieralli, J. C. Guerra, C. Arcidiacono, and P. Salinari, “Laboratory characterization and performance of the high-order adaptive optics system for the large binocular telescope,” Appl. Opt. 49, G174–G189 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, L. Fini, A. T. Puglisi, E. Pinna, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, F. Quirós-Pacheco, P. Stefanini, J. C. Guerra, L. Busoni, A. Tozzi, F. Pieralli, G. Agapito, G. Brusa-Zappellini, R. Demers, J. Brynnel, C. Arcidiacono, and P. Salinari, “First light AO (FLAO) system for LBT: final integration, acceptance test in Europe, and preliminary on-sky commissioning results,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773609 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Puglisi, A.

Puglisi, A. T.

S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, L. Fini, A. T. Puglisi, E. Pinna, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, F. Quirós-Pacheco, P. Stefanini, J. C. Guerra, L. Busoni, A. Tozzi, F. Pieralli, G. Agapito, G. Brusa-Zappellini, R. Demers, J. Brynnel, C. Arcidiacono, and P. Salinari, “First light AO (FLAO) system for LBT: final integration, acceptance test in Europe, and preliminary on-sky commissioning results,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773609 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Quirós-Pacheco, F.

S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, L. Fini, A. T. Puglisi, E. Pinna, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, F. Quirós-Pacheco, P. Stefanini, J. C. Guerra, L. Busoni, A. Tozzi, F. Pieralli, G. Agapito, G. Brusa-Zappellini, R. Demers, J. Brynnel, C. Arcidiacono, and P. Salinari, “First light AO (FLAO) system for LBT: final integration, acceptance test in Europe, and preliminary on-sky commissioning results,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773609 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, F. Quirós-Pacheco, E. Pinna, A. Puglisi, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, L. Busoni, L. Fini, P. Stefanini, G. Brusa, A. Tozzi, P. Ranfagni, F. Pieralli, J. C. Guerra, C. Arcidiacono, and P. Salinari, “Laboratory characterization and performance of the high-order adaptive optics system for the large binocular telescope,” Appl. Opt. 49, G174–G189 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Oberti, F. Quirós-Pacheco, S. Esposito, R. Muradore, R. Arsenault, E. Fedrigo, M. Kasper, J. Kolb, E. Marchetti, A. Riccardi, C. Soenke, and S. Stroebele, “Large DM AO systems: synthetic IM or calibration on sky?” Proc. SPIE 6272, 627220 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ragazzoni,

Ragazzoni, R. Herbst, T. M. Gaessler, W. Andersen, D. Arcidiacono, C. Baruffolo, A. Baumeister, H. Bizenberger, P. Diolaiti, E. Esposito, S. Farinato, J. Rix, H. W. Rohloff, R.-R. Riccardi, A. Salinari, P. Soci, R. Vernet-Viard, and E. Xu, “A visible MCAO channel for NIRVANA at the LBT,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 536–543 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ragazzoni, R.

X. Zhang, W. Gaessler, A. R. Conrad, T. Bertram, C. Arcidiacono, T. M. Herbst, M. Kuerster, P. Bizenberger, D. Meschke, H.-W. Rix, C. Rao, L. Mohr, F. Briegel, F. Kittmann, J. Berwein, J. Trowitzsch, L. Schreiber, R. Ragazzoni, and E. Diolaiti, “First laboratory results with the linc-nirvana high layer wavefront sensor,” Opt. Express 19, 16087–16095 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Lorenzetti, F. D’Alessio, G. Li Causi, F. Vitali, M. Centrone, R. Speziali, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, R. Ragazzoni, T. Bertram, F. Briegel, F. de Bonis, W. Gässler, T. Herbst, M. Kürster, and R.-R. Rohloff, “Feeding the wavefront sensors of LINC-NIRVANA: the dedicated Patrol Camera,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 77343S (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Herbst, R. Ragazzoni, A. Eckart, and G. Weigelt, “Imaging beyond the fringe: an update on the LINC-NIRVANA Fizeau interferometer for the LBT,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 773407 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Schreiber, M. Lombini, I. Foppiani, D. Meschke, F. De Bonis, P. Bizenberger, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, E. Diolaiti, S. Egner, J. Farinato, W. Gaessler, T. Herbst, G. Innocenti, F. Kittmann, L. Mohr, R. Ragazzoni, and R.-R. Rohloff, “Integration of the mid-high wavefront sensor to the LINC-NIRVANA post-focal relay,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70155A (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Arcidiacono, M. Lombini, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, E. Diolaiti, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, G. Gentile, L. Schreiber, E. Marchetti, J. Kolb, S. Tordo, R. Donaldson, C. Soenke, S. Oberti, E. Fedrigo, E. Vernet, and N. Hubin, “Layer oriented wavefront sensor for MAD on sky operations,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70155P (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, E. Vernet, J. Farinato, E. Marchetti, and C. Arcidiacono, “Arbitrarily Small Pupils in Layer-Oriented Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics,” PASP 117, 860–869 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. N. Hubin, J. Kolb, M. Le Louarn, J.-L. Lizon, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, J. Santos, S. Tordo, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, and E. Vernet-Viard, “MAD status report,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 236–247 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, T. M. Herbst, W. Gaessler, D. Andersen, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, E. Diolaiti, S. Esposito, J. Farinato, H. W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, A. Riccardi, P. Salinari, R. Soci, E. Vernet-Viard, and W. Xu, “A visible MCAO channel for NIRVANA at the LBT,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 536–543 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, E. Fedrigo, E. Marchetti, M. Tordi, and D. Kirkman, “Multiple field of view layer-oriented adaptive optics. Nearly whole sky coverage on 8 m class telescopes and beyond,” A&A 396, 731–744 (2002).

R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, and E. Marchetti, “Adaptive optics for 100-m-class telescopes: new challenges require new solutions,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 1076–1087 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Riccardi, N. Bindi, R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, and P. Stefanini, “Laboratory characterization of a Foucault-like wavefront sensor for adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 3353, 941–951 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Riccardi, N. Bindi, R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, and P. Stefanini, “Laboratory characterization of a Foucault-like wavefront sensor for adaptive optics,“ Proc. SPIE 3353, 941–951 (1998).
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R. Ragazzoni, “Pupil plane wavefront sensing with an oscillating prism,” J. Mod. Opt. 43, 289–293 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, “Adaptive optics for giant telescopes: NGS vs. LGS,” in Proceedings of the Backaskog workshop on extremely large telescopes, Vol. 57 of 2000 ESO conference and workshop proceedings, p.175.

Ranfagni, P.

Rao, C.

Reiss, R.

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. N. Hubin, J. Kolb, M. Le Louarn, J.-L. Lizon, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, J. Santos, S. Tordo, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, and E. Vernet-Viard, “MAD status report,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 236–247 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Riccardi, A.

S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, F. Quirós-Pacheco, E. Pinna, A. Puglisi, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, L. Busoni, L. Fini, P. Stefanini, G. Brusa, A. Tozzi, P. Ranfagni, F. Pieralli, J. C. Guerra, C. Arcidiacono, and P. Salinari, “Laboratory characterization and performance of the high-order adaptive optics system for the large binocular telescope,” Appl. Opt. 49, G174–G189 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, L. Fini, A. T. Puglisi, E. Pinna, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, F. Quirós-Pacheco, P. Stefanini, J. C. Guerra, L. Busoni, A. Tozzi, F. Pieralli, G. Agapito, G. Brusa-Zappellini, R. Demers, J. Brynnel, C. Arcidiacono, and P. Salinari, “First light AO (FLAO) system for LBT: final integration, acceptance test in Europe, and preliminary on-sky commissioning results,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773609 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Oberti, F. Quirós-Pacheco, S. Esposito, R. Muradore, R. Arsenault, E. Fedrigo, M. Kasper, J. Kolb, E. Marchetti, A. Riccardi, C. Soenke, and S. Stroebele, “Large DM AO systems: synthetic IM or calibration on sky?” Proc. SPIE 6272, 627220 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Riccardi, G. Brusa, P. Salinari, S. Busoni, O. Lardiere, P. Ranfagni, D. Gallieni, R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, S. Miller, and P. Mantegazza, “Adaptive secondary mirrors for the Large binocular telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5169, 159–168 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, T. M. Herbst, W. Gaessler, D. Andersen, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, E. Diolaiti, S. Esposito, J. Farinato, H. W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, A. Riccardi, P. Salinari, R. Soci, E. Vernet-Viard, and W. Xu, “A visible MCAO channel for NIRVANA at the LBT,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 536–543 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Riccardi, N. Bindi, R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, and P. Stefanini, “Laboratory characterization of a Foucault-like wavefront sensor for adaptive optics,“ Proc. SPIE 3353, 941–951 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Riccardi, N. Bindi, R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, and P. Stefanini, “Laboratory characterization of a Foucault-like wavefront sensor for adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 3353, 941–951 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Riccardi, R.-R.

Ragazzoni, R. Herbst, T. M. Gaessler, W. Andersen, D. Arcidiacono, C. Baruffolo, A. Baumeister, H. Bizenberger, P. Diolaiti, E. Esposito, S. Farinato, J. Rix, H. W. Rohloff, R.-R. Riccardi, A. Salinari, P. Soci, R. Vernet-Viard, and E. Xu, “A visible MCAO channel for NIRVANA at the LBT,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 536–543 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rix, H. W.

R. Ragazzoni, T. M. Herbst, W. Gaessler, D. Andersen, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, E. Diolaiti, S. Esposito, J. Farinato, H. W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, A. Riccardi, P. Salinari, R. Soci, E. Vernet-Viard, and W. Xu, “A visible MCAO channel for NIRVANA at the LBT,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 536–543 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rix, H.-W.

Rix, J.

Ragazzoni, R. Herbst, T. M. Gaessler, W. Andersen, D. Arcidiacono, C. Baruffolo, A. Baumeister, H. Bizenberger, P. Diolaiti, E. Esposito, S. Farinato, J. Rix, H. W. Rohloff, R.-R. Riccardi, A. Salinari, P. Soci, R. Vernet-Viard, and E. Xu, “A visible MCAO channel for NIRVANA at the LBT,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 536–543 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rohloff, H. W.

Ragazzoni, R. Herbst, T. M. Gaessler, W. Andersen, D. Arcidiacono, C. Baruffolo, A. Baumeister, H. Bizenberger, P. Diolaiti, E. Esposito, S. Farinato, J. Rix, H. W. Rohloff, R.-R. Riccardi, A. Salinari, P. Soci, R. Vernet-Viard, and E. Xu, “A visible MCAO channel for NIRVANA at the LBT,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 536–543 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rohloff, R.-R.

D. Lorenzetti, F. D’Alessio, G. Li Causi, F. Vitali, M. Centrone, R. Speziali, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, R. Ragazzoni, T. Bertram, F. Briegel, F. de Bonis, W. Gässler, T. Herbst, M. Kürster, and R.-R. Rohloff, “Feeding the wavefront sensors of LINC-NIRVANA: the dedicated Patrol Camera,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 77343S (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Schreiber, M. Lombini, I. Foppiani, D. Meschke, F. De Bonis, P. Bizenberger, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, E. Diolaiti, S. Egner, J. Farinato, W. Gaessler, T. Herbst, G. Innocenti, F. Kittmann, L. Mohr, R. Ragazzoni, and R.-R. Rohloff, “Integration of the mid-high wavefront sensor to the LINC-NIRVANA post-focal relay,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70155A (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, T. M. Herbst, W. Gaessler, D. Andersen, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, E. Diolaiti, S. Esposito, J. Farinato, H. W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, A. Riccardi, P. Salinari, R. Soci, E. Vernet-Viard, and W. Xu, “A visible MCAO channel for NIRVANA at the LBT,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 536–543 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rost, S.

T. Bertram, A. Eckart, B. Lindhorst, S. Rost, C. Straubmeier, E. Tremou, Y. Wang, I. Wank, G. Witzel, U. Beckmann, M. Brix, S. Egner, and T. Herbst, “The LINC-NIRVANA fringe and flexure tracking system,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 701327 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Salinari, A.

Ragazzoni, R. Herbst, T. M. Gaessler, W. Andersen, D. Arcidiacono, C. Baruffolo, A. Baumeister, H. Bizenberger, P. Diolaiti, E. Esposito, S. Farinato, J. Rix, H. W. Rohloff, R.-R. Riccardi, A. Salinari, P. Soci, R. Vernet-Viard, and E. Xu, “A visible MCAO channel for NIRVANA at the LBT,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 536–543 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Salinari, P.

S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, F. Quirós-Pacheco, E. Pinna, A. Puglisi, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, L. Busoni, L. Fini, P. Stefanini, G. Brusa, A. Tozzi, P. Ranfagni, F. Pieralli, J. C. Guerra, C. Arcidiacono, and P. Salinari, “Laboratory characterization and performance of the high-order adaptive optics system for the large binocular telescope,” Appl. Opt. 49, G174–G189 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, L. Fini, A. T. Puglisi, E. Pinna, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, F. Quirós-Pacheco, P. Stefanini, J. C. Guerra, L. Busoni, A. Tozzi, F. Pieralli, G. Agapito, G. Brusa-Zappellini, R. Demers, J. Brynnel, C. Arcidiacono, and P. Salinari, “First light AO (FLAO) system for LBT: final integration, acceptance test in Europe, and preliminary on-sky commissioning results,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773609 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Riccardi, G. Brusa, P. Salinari, S. Busoni, O. Lardiere, P. Ranfagni, D. Gallieni, R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, S. Miller, and P. Mantegazza, “Adaptive secondary mirrors for the Large binocular telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5169, 159–168 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, T. M. Herbst, W. Gaessler, D. Andersen, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, E. Diolaiti, S. Esposito, J. Farinato, H. W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, A. Riccardi, P. Salinari, R. Soci, E. Vernet-Viard, and W. Xu, “A visible MCAO channel for NIRVANA at the LBT,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 536–543 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Santos, J.

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. N. Hubin, J. Kolb, M. Le Louarn, J.-L. Lizon, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, J. Santos, S. Tordo, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, and E. Vernet-Viard, “MAD status report,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 236–247 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schreiber, L.

X. Zhang, W. Gaessler, A. R. Conrad, T. Bertram, C. Arcidiacono, T. M. Herbst, M. Kuerster, P. Bizenberger, D. Meschke, H.-W. Rix, C. Rao, L. Mohr, F. Briegel, F. Kittmann, J. Berwein, J. Trowitzsch, L. Schreiber, R. Ragazzoni, and E. Diolaiti, “First laboratory results with the linc-nirvana high layer wavefront sensor,” Opt. Express 19, 16087–16095 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Schreiber, M. Lombini, I. Foppiani, D. Meschke, F. De Bonis, P. Bizenberger, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, E. Diolaiti, S. Egner, J. Farinato, W. Gaessler, T. Herbst, G. Innocenti, F. Kittmann, L. Mohr, R. Ragazzoni, and R.-R. Rohloff, “Integration of the mid-high wavefront sensor to the LINC-NIRVANA post-focal relay,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70155A (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Arcidiacono, M. Lombini, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, E. Diolaiti, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, G. Gentile, L. Schreiber, E. Marchetti, J. Kolb, S. Tordo, R. Donaldson, C. Soenke, S. Oberti, E. Fedrigo, E. Vernet, and N. Hubin, “Layer oriented wavefront sensor for MAD on sky operations,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70155P (2008).
[CrossRef]

Soci, P.

Ragazzoni, R. Herbst, T. M. Gaessler, W. Andersen, D. Arcidiacono, C. Baruffolo, A. Baumeister, H. Bizenberger, P. Diolaiti, E. Esposito, S. Farinato, J. Rix, H. W. Rohloff, R.-R. Riccardi, A. Salinari, P. Soci, R. Vernet-Viard, and E. Xu, “A visible MCAO channel for NIRVANA at the LBT,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 536–543 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Soci, R.

R. Ragazzoni, T. M. Herbst, W. Gaessler, D. Andersen, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, E. Diolaiti, S. Esposito, J. Farinato, H. W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, A. Riccardi, P. Salinari, R. Soci, E. Vernet-Viard, and W. Xu, “A visible MCAO channel for NIRVANA at the LBT,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 536–543 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Soenke, C.

C. Arcidiacono, M. Lombini, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, E. Diolaiti, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, G. Gentile, L. Schreiber, E. Marchetti, J. Kolb, S. Tordo, R. Donaldson, C. Soenke, S. Oberti, E. Fedrigo, E. Vernet, and N. Hubin, “Layer oriented wavefront sensor for MAD on sky operations,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70155P (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Oberti, F. Quirós-Pacheco, S. Esposito, R. Muradore, R. Arsenault, E. Fedrigo, M. Kasper, J. Kolb, E. Marchetti, A. Riccardi, C. Soenke, and S. Stroebele, “Large DM AO systems: synthetic IM or calibration on sky?” Proc. SPIE 6272, 627220 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Speziali, R.

D. Lorenzetti, F. D’Alessio, G. Li Causi, F. Vitali, M. Centrone, R. Speziali, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, R. Ragazzoni, T. Bertram, F. Briegel, F. de Bonis, W. Gässler, T. Herbst, M. Kürster, and R.-R. Rohloff, “Feeding the wavefront sensors of LINC-NIRVANA: the dedicated Patrol Camera,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 77343S (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stefanini, P.

S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, L. Fini, A. T. Puglisi, E. Pinna, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, F. Quirós-Pacheco, P. Stefanini, J. C. Guerra, L. Busoni, A. Tozzi, F. Pieralli, G. Agapito, G. Brusa-Zappellini, R. Demers, J. Brynnel, C. Arcidiacono, and P. Salinari, “First light AO (FLAO) system for LBT: final integration, acceptance test in Europe, and preliminary on-sky commissioning results,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773609 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, F. Quirós-Pacheco, E. Pinna, A. Puglisi, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, L. Busoni, L. Fini, P. Stefanini, G. Brusa, A. Tozzi, P. Ranfagni, F. Pieralli, J. C. Guerra, C. Arcidiacono, and P. Salinari, “Laboratory characterization and performance of the high-order adaptive optics system for the large binocular telescope,” Appl. Opt. 49, G174–G189 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Riccardi, N. Bindi, R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, and P. Stefanini, “Laboratory characterization of a Foucault-like wavefront sensor for adaptive optics,“ Proc. SPIE 3353, 941–951 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Riccardi, N. Bindi, R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, and P. Stefanini, “Laboratory characterization of a Foucault-like wavefront sensor for adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 3353, 941–951 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Straubmeier, C.

T. Bertram, A. Eckart, B. Lindhorst, S. Rost, C. Straubmeier, E. Tremou, Y. Wang, I. Wank, G. Witzel, U. Beckmann, M. Brix, S. Egner, and T. Herbst, “The LINC-NIRVANA fringe and flexure tracking system,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 701327 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stroebele, S.

S. Oberti, F. Quirós-Pacheco, S. Esposito, R. Muradore, R. Arsenault, E. Fedrigo, M. Kasper, J. Kolb, E. Marchetti, A. Riccardi, C. Soenke, and S. Stroebele, “Large DM AO systems: synthetic IM or calibration on sky?” Proc. SPIE 6272, 627220 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tordi, M.

R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, E. Fedrigo, E. Marchetti, M. Tordi, and D. Kirkman, “Multiple field of view layer-oriented adaptive optics. Nearly whole sky coverage on 8 m class telescopes and beyond,” A&A 396, 731–744 (2002).

Tordo, S.

C. Arcidiacono, M. Lombini, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, E. Diolaiti, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, G. Gentile, L. Schreiber, E. Marchetti, J. Kolb, S. Tordo, R. Donaldson, C. Soenke, S. Oberti, E. Fedrigo, E. Vernet, and N. Hubin, “Layer oriented wavefront sensor for MAD on sky operations,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70155P (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. N. Hubin, J. Kolb, M. Le Louarn, J.-L. Lizon, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, J. Santos, S. Tordo, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, and E. Vernet-Viard, “MAD status report,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 236–247 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tozzi, A.

S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, F. Quirós-Pacheco, E. Pinna, A. Puglisi, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, L. Busoni, L. Fini, P. Stefanini, G. Brusa, A. Tozzi, P. Ranfagni, F. Pieralli, J. C. Guerra, C. Arcidiacono, and P. Salinari, “Laboratory characterization and performance of the high-order adaptive optics system for the large binocular telescope,” Appl. Opt. 49, G174–G189 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, L. Fini, A. T. Puglisi, E. Pinna, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, F. Quirós-Pacheco, P. Stefanini, J. C. Guerra, L. Busoni, A. Tozzi, F. Pieralli, G. Agapito, G. Brusa-Zappellini, R. Demers, J. Brynnel, C. Arcidiacono, and P. Salinari, “First light AO (FLAO) system for LBT: final integration, acceptance test in Europe, and preliminary on-sky commissioning results,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773609 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tremou, E.

T. Bertram, A. Eckart, B. Lindhorst, S. Rost, C. Straubmeier, E. Tremou, Y. Wang, I. Wank, G. Witzel, U. Beckmann, M. Brix, S. Egner, and T. Herbst, “The LINC-NIRVANA fringe and flexure tracking system,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 701327 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Trowitzsch, J.

Vérinaud, C

Vérinaud, C.

C. Vérinaud, “On the nature of the measurements provided by a pyramid wave-front sensor,” Opt. Commun. 233, 27–38 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vernet, E.

C. Arcidiacono, M. Lombini, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, E. Diolaiti, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, G. Gentile, L. Schreiber, E. Marchetti, J. Kolb, S. Tordo, R. Donaldson, C. Soenke, S. Oberti, E. Fedrigo, E. Vernet, and N. Hubin, “Layer oriented wavefront sensor for MAD on sky operations,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70155P (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, E. Vernet, J. Farinato, E. Marchetti, and C. Arcidiacono, “Arbitrarily Small Pupils in Layer-Oriented Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics,” PASP 117, 860–869 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vernet-Viard, E.

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. N. Hubin, J. Kolb, M. Le Louarn, J.-L. Lizon, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, J. Santos, S. Tordo, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, and E. Vernet-Viard, “MAD status report,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 236–247 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, T. M. Herbst, W. Gaessler, D. Andersen, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, E. Diolaiti, S. Esposito, J. Farinato, H. W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, A. Riccardi, P. Salinari, R. Soci, E. Vernet-Viard, and W. Xu, “A visible MCAO channel for NIRVANA at the LBT,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 536–543 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vernet-Viard, R.

Ragazzoni, R. Herbst, T. M. Gaessler, W. Andersen, D. Arcidiacono, C. Baruffolo, A. Baumeister, H. Bizenberger, P. Diolaiti, E. Esposito, S. Farinato, J. Rix, H. W. Rohloff, R.-R. Riccardi, A. Salinari, P. Soci, R. Vernet-Viard, and E. Xu, “A visible MCAO channel for NIRVANA at the LBT,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 536–543 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vitali, F.

D. Lorenzetti, F. D’Alessio, G. Li Causi, F. Vitali, M. Centrone, R. Speziali, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, R. Ragazzoni, T. Bertram, F. Briegel, F. de Bonis, W. Gässler, T. Herbst, M. Kürster, and R.-R. Rohloff, “Feeding the wavefront sensors of LINC-NIRVANA: the dedicated Patrol Camera,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 77343S (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

T. Bertram, A. Eckart, B. Lindhorst, S. Rost, C. Straubmeier, E. Tremou, Y. Wang, I. Wank, G. Witzel, U. Beckmann, M. Brix, S. Egner, and T. Herbst, “The LINC-NIRVANA fringe and flexure tracking system,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 701327 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wank, I.

T. Bertram, A. Eckart, B. Lindhorst, S. Rost, C. Straubmeier, E. Tremou, Y. Wang, I. Wank, G. Witzel, U. Beckmann, M. Brix, S. Egner, and T. Herbst, “The LINC-NIRVANA fringe and flexure tracking system,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 701327 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Weigelt, G.

T. M. Herbst, R. Ragazzoni, A. Eckart, and G. Weigelt, “Imaging beyond the fringe: an update on the LINC-NIRVANA Fizeau interferometer for the LBT,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 773407 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Witzel, G.

T. Bertram, A. Eckart, B. Lindhorst, S. Rost, C. Straubmeier, E. Tremou, Y. Wang, I. Wank, G. Witzel, U. Beckmann, M. Brix, S. Egner, and T. Herbst, “The LINC-NIRVANA fringe and flexure tracking system,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 701327 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xompero, M.

S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, F. Quirós-Pacheco, E. Pinna, A. Puglisi, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, L. Busoni, L. Fini, P. Stefanini, G. Brusa, A. Tozzi, P. Ranfagni, F. Pieralli, J. C. Guerra, C. Arcidiacono, and P. Salinari, “Laboratory characterization and performance of the high-order adaptive optics system for the large binocular telescope,” Appl. Opt. 49, G174–G189 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, L. Fini, A. T. Puglisi, E. Pinna, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, F. Quirós-Pacheco, P. Stefanini, J. C. Guerra, L. Busoni, A. Tozzi, F. Pieralli, G. Agapito, G. Brusa-Zappellini, R. Demers, J. Brynnel, C. Arcidiacono, and P. Salinari, “First light AO (FLAO) system for LBT: final integration, acceptance test in Europe, and preliminary on-sky commissioning results,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773609 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xu, E.

Ragazzoni, R. Herbst, T. M. Gaessler, W. Andersen, D. Arcidiacono, C. Baruffolo, A. Baumeister, H. Bizenberger, P. Diolaiti, E. Esposito, S. Farinato, J. Rix, H. W. Rohloff, R.-R. Riccardi, A. Salinari, P. Soci, R. Vernet-Viard, and E. Xu, “A visible MCAO channel for NIRVANA at the LBT,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 536–543 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xu, W.

R. Ragazzoni, T. M. Herbst, W. Gaessler, D. Andersen, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, E. Diolaiti, S. Esposito, J. Farinato, H. W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, A. Riccardi, P. Salinari, R. Soci, E. Vernet-Viard, and W. Xu, “A visible MCAO channel for NIRVANA at the LBT,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 536–543 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

A&A (1)

R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, E. Fedrigo, E. Marchetti, M. Tordi, and D. Kirkman, “Multiple field of view layer-oriented adaptive optics. Nearly whole sky coverage on 8 m class telescopes and beyond,” A&A 396, 731–744 (2002).

Appl. Opt. (3)

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

R. Ragazzoni, “Pupil plane wavefront sensing with an oscillating prism,” J. Mod. Opt. 43, 289–293 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

C. Vérinaud, “On the nature of the measurements provided by a pyramid wave-front sensor,” Opt. Commun. 233, 27–38 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

PASP (2)

R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, E. Vernet, J. Farinato, E. Marchetti, and C. Arcidiacono, “Arbitrarily Small Pupils in Layer-Oriented Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics,” PASP 117, 860–869 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Peter, M. Feldt, B. Dorner, T. Henning, S. Hippler, and J. Aceituno, “PYRAMIR: Calibration and Operation of a Pyramid Near-Infrared Wavefront Sensor,” PASP 120, 872–886 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (16)

A. Riccardi, N. Bindi, R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, and P. Stefanini, “Laboratory characterization of a Foucault-like wavefront sensor for adaptive optics,“ Proc. SPIE 3353, 941–951 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Oliker, “Alignment techniques for DM, Lenslet, and WFS camera at the SOR,” Proc. SPIE 3126, 595–604 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ragazzoni, R. Herbst, T. M. Gaessler, W. Andersen, D. Arcidiacono, C. Baruffolo, A. Baumeister, H. Bizenberger, P. Diolaiti, E. Esposito, S. Farinato, J. Rix, H. W. Rohloff, R.-R. Riccardi, A. Salinari, P. Soci, R. Vernet-Viard, and E. Xu, “A visible MCAO channel for NIRVANA at the LBT,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 536–543 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Oberti, F. Quirós-Pacheco, S. Esposito, R. Muradore, R. Arsenault, E. Fedrigo, M. Kasper, J. Kolb, E. Marchetti, A. Riccardi, C. Soenke, and S. Stroebele, “Large DM AO systems: synthetic IM or calibration on sky?” Proc. SPIE 6272, 627220 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Riccardi, N. Bindi, R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, and P. Stefanini, “Laboratory characterization of a Foucault-like wavefront sensor for adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 3353, 941–951 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, L. Fini, A. T. Puglisi, E. Pinna, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, F. Quirós-Pacheco, P. Stefanini, J. C. Guerra, L. Busoni, A. Tozzi, F. Pieralli, G. Agapito, G. Brusa-Zappellini, R. Demers, J. Brynnel, C. Arcidiacono, and P. Salinari, “First light AO (FLAO) system for LBT: final integration, acceptance test in Europe, and preliminary on-sky commissioning results,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773609 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Schreiber, M. Lombini, I. Foppiani, D. Meschke, F. De Bonis, P. Bizenberger, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, E. Diolaiti, S. Egner, J. Farinato, W. Gaessler, T. Herbst, G. Innocenti, F. Kittmann, L. Mohr, R. Ragazzoni, and R.-R. Rohloff, “Integration of the mid-high wavefront sensor to the LINC-NIRVANA post-focal relay,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70155A (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Meschke, P. Bizenberger, W. Gaessler, X. Zhang, L. Mohr, H. Baumeister, and E. Diolaiti, “An atmospheric turbulence generator for dynamic tests with LINC-NIRVANA’s adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773646 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Lorenzetti, F. D’Alessio, G. Li Causi, F. Vitali, M. Centrone, R. Speziali, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, R. Ragazzoni, T. Bertram, F. Briegel, F. de Bonis, W. Gässler, T. Herbst, M. Kürster, and R.-R. Rohloff, “Feeding the wavefront sensors of LINC-NIRVANA: the dedicated Patrol Camera,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 77343S (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, and E. Marchetti, “Adaptive optics for 100-m-class telescopes: new challenges require new solutions,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 1076–1087 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Herbst, R. Ragazzoni, A. Eckart, and G. Weigelt, “Imaging beyond the fringe: an update on the LINC-NIRVANA Fizeau interferometer for the LBT,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 773407 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. N. Hubin, J. Kolb, M. Le Louarn, J.-L. Lizon, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, J. Santos, S. Tordo, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, and E. Vernet-Viard, “MAD status report,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 236–247 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Arcidiacono, M. Lombini, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, E. Diolaiti, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, G. Gentile, L. Schreiber, E. Marchetti, J. Kolb, S. Tordo, R. Donaldson, C. Soenke, S. Oberti, E. Fedrigo, E. Vernet, and N. Hubin, “Layer oriented wavefront sensor for MAD on sky operations,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70155P (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Riccardi, G. Brusa, P. Salinari, S. Busoni, O. Lardiere, P. Ranfagni, D. Gallieni, R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, S. Miller, and P. Mantegazza, “Adaptive secondary mirrors for the Large binocular telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5169, 159–168 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, T. M. Herbst, W. Gaessler, D. Andersen, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, E. Diolaiti, S. Esposito, J. Farinato, H. W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, A. Riccardi, P. Salinari, R. Soci, E. Vernet-Viard, and W. Xu, “A visible MCAO channel for NIRVANA at the LBT,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 536–543 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Bertram, A. Eckart, B. Lindhorst, S. Rost, C. Straubmeier, E. Tremou, Y. Wang, I. Wank, G. Witzel, U. Beckmann, M. Brix, S. Egner, and T. Herbst, “The LINC-NIRVANA fringe and flexure tracking system,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 701327 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

R. Ragazzoni, “Adaptive optics for giant telescopes: NGS vs. LGS,” in Proceedings of the Backaskog workshop on extremely large telescopes, Vol. 57 of 2000 ESO conference and workshop proceedings, p.175.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of LINC-NIRVANA multiple field of view and layer oriented multi-conjugate adaptive optics system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The laboratory setup of LINC-NIRVANA high layer wavefront sensor [18].

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The optical path of the laboratory setup of LINC-NIRVANA. The corresponding components appear in Fig. 2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The optical co-added pupil image of guide stars on the wavefront sensor (CCD39). Here, four guide stars are used. For each guide star, the corresponding four quadrant pupil images are marked by the same colored circle, while the big circle encompasses the meta-pupil, as seen in the left figure. For clarity, the right figure only shows the circles. The meta-pupil shown here appears smaller than that in Fig. 5, since the lab experiment has the WFS conjugated at 4 km and Fig. 5 shows the meta-pupil for 15 km conjugation. The quasi-collimator optical design [28] causes the meta-pupil size to be a function of conjugation altitude. The final instrument configuration will place the high layer DM at 7.1 km, thereby producing a larger metapupil than shown here and taking advantage of more of the CCD area.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The EEV39 detector format on the HWS. The circle shows a meta-pupil in the wavefront sensor. Each detector quadrant is filled by a meta-pupil (Fig. 4), leaving at least a nominal 1 pixel thick margin around each. With this solution, the meta-pupil is mapped onto 38 × 38 CCD pixels, corresponding to 19 × 19 sub-apertures for binning factor 2 and approximately 10 × 10 sub-apertures for binning factor 4.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The location of the four guide stars in the fiber plate.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Improvement in var and condition number with the push-pull method. Each trial was initiated with a different starting wavefront condition. For each initial condition, the interaction matrix was calibrated 8 times: 4 with push-pull and 4 with push-only. We then computed the var and condition number for these two sets of 4 interaction matrices (the condition number was computed from the average of the 4). The ratios for both are plotted here. For example, for trial number 2, the condition number of the average of the interaction matrices calibrated with push-pull is approximately 8 times smaller than the matrices calibrated with push-only, for the same initial conditions. And for this case, the var is approximately 50 times smaller.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The var of the interaction matrix changes with different number of frames per push-pull and total push-pulls taken during calibration.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

The var decreases with increasing number of images. (The number of images equals the number of push-pulls times the number of frames per push-pull.) The data is the same as shown in Fig. 8.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

The var decreases with the number of push-pulls (For each push-pull shape, only one frame was taken from the WFS).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

The power, p, of the interaction matrix as a function of mis-conjugation between the DM and the WFS. The mis-conjugation unit used here is the corresponding km distance in the atmosphere once the instrument will be installed on the LBT telescope. The zero position refers to the starting point of the calibration. The curve is a simple Gaussian fit and the dotted line indicates the maximum value.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

The power of the interaction matrix with CCD stage x direction. The optimal X position is 0.03 pixel. The zero position refers to the starting point of the calibration. The curve is a simple Gaussian fit and the dotted line indicates the maximum value.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

The power of the interaction matrix with CCD stage y direction. The optimal Y position is 0.29 pixel. The zero position refers to the starting point of the calibration. The curve is a simple Gaussian fit and the dotted line indicates the maximum value.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Basic requirements and constraints on the HWS design.

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Table 2 Same data as shown in Fig. 8.

Equations (5)

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var = i = 1 I j = 1 J ( σ i j 2 )
p = i = 1 I j = 1 J ( A i j 2 ) ,
κ = | λ max | | λ min |
S x ( x , y ) = I 1 ( x , y ) + I 3 ( x , y ) [ I 2 ( x , y ) + I 4 ( x , y ) ] I 1 ( x , y ) + I 2 ( x , y ) + I 3 ( x , y ) + I 4 ( x , y )
S y ( x , y ) = I 1 ( x , y ) + I 2 ( x , y ) [ I 3 ( x , y ) + I 4 ( x , y ) ] I 1 ( x , y ) + I 2 ( x , y ) + I 3 ( x , y ) + I 4 ( x , y )

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