Abstract

This paper describes the radiative transfer model (RTM) MOCRA (MOnte Carlo Radiance Analysis), developed in the frame of DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) to correctly interpret remote sensing measurements of trace gas amounts in the atmosphere through the calculation of the Air Mass Factor. Besides the DOAS-related quantities, the MOCRA code yields: 1- the atmospheric transmittance in the vertical and sun directions, 2- the direct and global irradiance, 3- the single- and multiple- scattered radiance for a detector with assigned position, line of sight and field of view. Sample calculations of the main radiometric quantities calculated with MOCRA are presented and compared with the output of another RTM (MODTRAN4). A further comparison is presented between the NO2 slant column densities (SCDs) measured with DOAS at Evora (Portugal) and the ones simulated with MOCRA. Both comparisons (MOCRA-MODTRAN4 and MOCRA-observations) gave more than satisfactory results, and overall make MOCRA a versatile tool for atmospheric radiative transfer simulations and interpretation of remote sensing measurements.

© 2012 OSA

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2011 (1)

M. Premuda, S. Masieri, D. Bortoli, I. Kostadinov, A. Petritoli, and G. Giovanelli, “Evaluation of vessel emissions in a lagoon area with ground based Multi axis DOAS measurements,” Atmos. Environ. 45(29), 5212–5219 (2011), doi:, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.05.067 .
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

B. Mayer, S. W. Hoch, and C. D. Whiteman, “Validating the MYSTIC three-dimensional radiative transfer model with observations from the complex topography of Arizona's Meteor Crater,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 10(5), 13373–13405 (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

M. Premuda, S. Masieri, D. Bortoli, F. Margelli, F. Ravegnani, A. Petritoli, I. Kostadinov, G. Giovanelli, and E. Cupini, “A Monte Carlo simulation of radiative transfer in the atmosphere applied to ToTaL-DOAS,” Proc. SPIE 7475, 74751A, 74751A-12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

D. Nowak, L. Vuilleumier, C. N. Long, and A. Ohmura, “Solar irradiance computations compared with observations at the Baseline Surface Radiation Network Payerne site,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(D14), D14206 (2008), doi:.
[CrossRef]

S. Kühl, J. Puķīte, T. Deutschmann, U. Platt, and T. Wagner, “SCIAMACHY Limb Measurements of NO2, BrO and OClO, Retrieval of vertical profiles: Algorithm, first results, sensitivity and comparison studies,” Adv. Space Res. 42(10), 1747–1764 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Puķīte, S. Kühl, T. Deutschmann, U. Platt, and T. Wagner, “Accounting for the effect of horizontal gradients in limb measurements of scattered sunlight,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(12), 3045–3060 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

T. Wagner, J. P. Burrows, T. Deutschmann, B. Dix, C. von Friedeburg, U. Frieß, F. Hendrick, K.-P. Heue, H. Irie, H. Iwabuchi, Y. Kanaya, J. Keller, C. A. McLinden, H. Oetjen, E. Palazzi, A. Petritoli, U. Platt, O. Postylyakov, J. Pukite, A. Richter, M. van Roozendael, A. Rozanov, V. Rozanov, R. Sinreich, S. Sanghavi, and F. Wittrock, “Comparison of box-air-mass-factors and radiances for Multiple-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) geometries calculated from different UV/visible radiative transfer models,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7(7), 1809–1833 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

G. Giovanelli, E. Palazzi, A. Petritoli, D. Bortoli, I. Kostadinov, F. Margelli, S. Pagnutti, M. Premuda, F. Ravegnani, and G. Trivellone, “Perspectives of 2D and 3D mapping of Atmospheric Pollutants over Urban Areas by means of airborne DOAS Spectrometer,” Ann. Geophys. 49(1), 133–142 (2006).

2005 (1)

E. Palazzi, A. Petritoli, G. Giovanelli, I. Kostadinov, D. Bortoli, F. Ravegnani, and S. S. Sackey, “PROMSAR: A backward Monte Carlo spherical RTM for the analysis of DOAS remote sensing measurements,” Adv. Space Res. 36(5), 1007–1014 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

G. Hönninger, C. von Friedeburg, and U. Platt, “Multi axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS),” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4(1), 231–254 (2004), http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/4/231/2004/acp-4-231-2004.pdf .
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

A. Petritoli, F. Ravegnani, G. Giovanelli, D. Bortoli, U. Bonafè, I. Kostadinov, and A. Oulanovsky, “Off-axis measurements of atmospheric trace gases by use of an airborne ultraviolet-visible spectrometer,” Appl. Opt. 41(27), 5593–5599 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Petritoli, G. Giovanelli, I. Kostadinov, F. Ravegnani, D. Bortoli, P. Bonasoni, F. Evangelisti, U. Bonafe, and F. Calzolari, “Tropospheric and stratospheric NO2 amount deduced by slant column measurements at Mt. Cimone Station,” Adv. Space Res. 29(11), 1691–1695 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. Van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D’Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant column measurements of O3 and NO2 during NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometer in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).

S. Chatigny, M. Morin, D. Asselin, Y. Painchaud, and P. Beaudry, “Hybrid Monte Carlo for photon transport through optically thick scattering media,” Appl. Opt. 38(28), 6075–6086 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

1995 (2)

A. De Matteis and S. Pagnutti, “Controlling correlations in parallel Monte Carlo,” Parallel Comput. 21(1), 73–84 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Sarkissian, H. K. Roscoe, and D. J. Fish, “Ozone Measurement by Zenith-Sky Spectrometers: an Evaluation of Errors in Air-Mass Factors calculated by Radiative Transfer Models,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 54(3), 471–480 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

A. De Matteis and S. Pagnutti, “Long-range Correlation-analysis of the Wichmann-Hill random number generator,” Stat. Comput. 3(2), 67–70 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Perliski and S. Solomon, “On the Evaluation of Air Mass Factors for Atmospheric Near-Ultraviolet and Visible Absorptiion Spectroscopy,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10363–10374 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1987 (1)

S. Solomon, A. Schmeltekopf, and R. W. Sanders, “On the interpretation of zenith sky absorption measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 92(D7), 8311–8319 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

U. Platt and D. Perner, “Direct measurement of atmospheric CH2O, HNO2, O3, NO2, and SO2 by differential optical absorption in the near UV,” J. Geophys. Res. 85(C12), 7453–7458 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

U. Platt, D. Perner, and H. W. Patz, “Simultaneous measurement of atmospheric CH2O, O3 e NO2 by differential optical absorption,” J. Geophys. Res. 84(C10), 6329–6335 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (2)

A. De Matteis and R. Simonini, “A New Monte Carlo Approach to the Adjoint Boltzmann Equation,” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 65, 93–105 (1978).

A. De Matteis and R. Simonini, “A Monte Carlo Biasing Scheme for the Adjoint Photon Transport,” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 67, 309–316 (1978).

1975 (1)

J. F. Noxon, “Nitrogen dioxide in the stratosphere and troposphere measured by ground-based absorption spectroscopy,” Science 189(4202), 547–549 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1974 (1)

1972 (1)

1969 (1)

1968 (1)

Aliwell, S. R.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. Van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D’Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant column measurements of O3 and NO2 during NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometer in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).

Arlander, D. W.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. Van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D’Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant column measurements of O3 and NO2 during NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometer in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).

Asselin, D.

Avrillier, S.

Bartlett, L. M.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. Van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D’Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant column measurements of O3 and NO2 during NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometer in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).

Beaudry, P.

Blättner, W. G.

Bonafe, U.

A. Petritoli, G. Giovanelli, I. Kostadinov, F. Ravegnani, D. Bortoli, P. Bonasoni, F. Evangelisti, U. Bonafe, and F. Calzolari, “Tropospheric and stratospheric NO2 amount deduced by slant column measurements at Mt. Cimone Station,” Adv. Space Res. 29(11), 1691–1695 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bonafè, U.

Bonasoni, P.

A. Petritoli, G. Giovanelli, I. Kostadinov, F. Ravegnani, D. Bortoli, P. Bonasoni, F. Evangelisti, U. Bonafe, and F. Calzolari, “Tropospheric and stratospheric NO2 amount deduced by slant column measurements at Mt. Cimone Station,” Adv. Space Res. 29(11), 1691–1695 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bortoli, D.

M. Premuda, S. Masieri, D. Bortoli, I. Kostadinov, A. Petritoli, and G. Giovanelli, “Evaluation of vessel emissions in a lagoon area with ground based Multi axis DOAS measurements,” Atmos. Environ. 45(29), 5212–5219 (2011), doi:, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.05.067 .
[CrossRef]

M. Premuda, S. Masieri, D. Bortoli, F. Margelli, F. Ravegnani, A. Petritoli, I. Kostadinov, G. Giovanelli, and E. Cupini, “A Monte Carlo simulation of radiative transfer in the atmosphere applied to ToTaL-DOAS,” Proc. SPIE 7475, 74751A, 74751A-12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Giovanelli, E. Palazzi, A. Petritoli, D. Bortoli, I. Kostadinov, F. Margelli, S. Pagnutti, M. Premuda, F. Ravegnani, and G. Trivellone, “Perspectives of 2D and 3D mapping of Atmospheric Pollutants over Urban Areas by means of airborne DOAS Spectrometer,” Ann. Geophys. 49(1), 133–142 (2006).

E. Palazzi, A. Petritoli, G. Giovanelli, I. Kostadinov, D. Bortoli, F. Ravegnani, and S. S. Sackey, “PROMSAR: A backward Monte Carlo spherical RTM for the analysis of DOAS remote sensing measurements,” Adv. Space Res. 36(5), 1007–1014 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Petritoli, F. Ravegnani, G. Giovanelli, D. Bortoli, U. Bonafè, I. Kostadinov, and A. Oulanovsky, “Off-axis measurements of atmospheric trace gases by use of an airborne ultraviolet-visible spectrometer,” Appl. Opt. 41(27), 5593–5599 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Petritoli, G. Giovanelli, I. Kostadinov, F. Ravegnani, D. Bortoli, P. Bonasoni, F. Evangelisti, U. Bonafe, and F. Calzolari, “Tropospheric and stratospheric NO2 amount deduced by slant column measurements at Mt. Cimone Station,” Adv. Space Res. 29(11), 1691–1695 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, J.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. Van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D’Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant column measurements of O3 and NO2 during NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometer in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).

Burrows, J. P.

T. Wagner, J. P. Burrows, T. Deutschmann, B. Dix, C. von Friedeburg, U. Frieß, F. Hendrick, K.-P. Heue, H. Irie, H. Iwabuchi, Y. Kanaya, J. Keller, C. A. McLinden, H. Oetjen, E. Palazzi, A. Petritoli, U. Platt, O. Postylyakov, J. Pukite, A. Richter, M. van Roozendael, A. Rozanov, V. Rozanov, R. Sinreich, S. Sanghavi, and F. Wittrock, “Comparison of box-air-mass-factors and radiances for Multiple-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) geometries calculated from different UV/visible radiative transfer models,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7(7), 1809–1833 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Calzolari, F.

A. Petritoli, G. Giovanelli, I. Kostadinov, F. Ravegnani, D. Bortoli, P. Bonasoni, F. Evangelisti, U. Bonafe, and F. Calzolari, “Tropospheric and stratospheric NO2 amount deduced by slant column measurements at Mt. Cimone Station,” Adv. Space Res. 29(11), 1691–1695 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chatigny, S.

Collins, D. G.

Coureul, C.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. Van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D’Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant column measurements of O3 and NO2 during NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometer in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).

Cupini, E.

M. Premuda, S. Masieri, D. Bortoli, F. Margelli, F. Ravegnani, A. Petritoli, I. Kostadinov, G. Giovanelli, and E. Cupini, “A Monte Carlo simulation of radiative transfer in the atmosphere applied to ToTaL-DOAS,” Proc. SPIE 7475, 74751A, 74751A-12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D’Almeida, E.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. Van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D’Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant column measurements of O3 and NO2 during NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometer in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).

De Matteis, A.

A. De Matteis and S. Pagnutti, “Controlling correlations in parallel Monte Carlo,” Parallel Comput. 21(1), 73–84 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. De Matteis and S. Pagnutti, “Long-range Correlation-analysis of the Wichmann-Hill random number generator,” Stat. Comput. 3(2), 67–70 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. De Matteis and R. Simonini, “A Monte Carlo Biasing Scheme for the Adjoint Photon Transport,” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 67, 309–316 (1978).

A. De Matteis and R. Simonini, “A New Monte Carlo Approach to the Adjoint Boltzmann Equation,” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 65, 93–105 (1978).

DeCuyper, W.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. Van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D’Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant column measurements of O3 and NO2 during NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometer in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).

Deutschmann, T.

S. Kühl, J. Puķīte, T. Deutschmann, U. Platt, and T. Wagner, “SCIAMACHY Limb Measurements of NO2, BrO and OClO, Retrieval of vertical profiles: Algorithm, first results, sensitivity and comparison studies,” Adv. Space Res. 42(10), 1747–1764 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Puķīte, S. Kühl, T. Deutschmann, U. Platt, and T. Wagner, “Accounting for the effect of horizontal gradients in limb measurements of scattered sunlight,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(12), 3045–3060 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Wagner, J. P. Burrows, T. Deutschmann, B. Dix, C. von Friedeburg, U. Frieß, F. Hendrick, K.-P. Heue, H. Irie, H. Iwabuchi, Y. Kanaya, J. Keller, C. A. McLinden, H. Oetjen, E. Palazzi, A. Petritoli, U. Platt, O. Postylyakov, J. Pukite, A. Richter, M. van Roozendael, A. Rozanov, V. Rozanov, R. Sinreich, S. Sanghavi, and F. Wittrock, “Comparison of box-air-mass-factors and radiances for Multiple-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) geometries calculated from different UV/visible radiative transfer models,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7(7), 1809–1833 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Didier, R.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. Van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D’Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant column measurements of O3 and NO2 during NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometer in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).

Dix, B.

T. Wagner, J. P. Burrows, T. Deutschmann, B. Dix, C. von Friedeburg, U. Frieß, F. Hendrick, K.-P. Heue, H. Irie, H. Iwabuchi, Y. Kanaya, J. Keller, C. A. McLinden, H. Oetjen, E. Palazzi, A. Petritoli, U. Platt, O. Postylyakov, J. Pukite, A. Richter, M. van Roozendael, A. Rozanov, V. Rozanov, R. Sinreich, S. Sanghavi, and F. Wittrock, “Comparison of box-air-mass-factors and radiances for Multiple-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) geometries calculated from different UV/visible radiative transfer models,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7(7), 1809–1833 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dzienus, S.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. Van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D’Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant column measurements of O3 and NO2 during NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometer in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).

Elokhov, A.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. Van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D’Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant column measurements of O3 and NO2 during NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometer in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).

Erle, F.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. Van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D’Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant column measurements of O3 and NO2 during NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometer in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).

Evangelisti, F.

A. Petritoli, G. Giovanelli, I. Kostadinov, F. Ravegnani, D. Bortoli, P. Bonasoni, F. Evangelisti, U. Bonafe, and F. Calzolari, “Tropospheric and stratospheric NO2 amount deduced by slant column measurements at Mt. Cimone Station,” Adv. Space Res. 29(11), 1691–1695 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fish, D. J.

A. Sarkissian, H. K. Roscoe, and D. J. Fish, “Ozone Measurement by Zenith-Sky Spectrometers: an Evaluation of Errors in Air-Mass Factors calculated by Radiative Transfer Models,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 54(3), 471–480 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Freshwater, R. A.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. Van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D’Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant column measurements of O3 and NO2 during NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometer in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).

Frieß, U.

T. Wagner, J. P. Burrows, T. Deutschmann, B. Dix, C. von Friedeburg, U. Frieß, F. Hendrick, K.-P. Heue, H. Irie, H. Iwabuchi, Y. Kanaya, J. Keller, C. A. McLinden, H. Oetjen, E. Palazzi, A. Petritoli, U. Platt, O. Postylyakov, J. Pukite, A. Richter, M. van Roozendael, A. Rozanov, V. Rozanov, R. Sinreich, S. Sanghavi, and F. Wittrock, “Comparison of box-air-mass-factors and radiances for Multiple-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) geometries calculated from different UV/visible radiative transfer models,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7(7), 1809–1833 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gil, M.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. Van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D’Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant column measurements of O3 and NO2 during NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometer in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).

Giovanelli, G.

M. Premuda, S. Masieri, D. Bortoli, I. Kostadinov, A. Petritoli, and G. Giovanelli, “Evaluation of vessel emissions in a lagoon area with ground based Multi axis DOAS measurements,” Atmos. Environ. 45(29), 5212–5219 (2011), doi:, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.05.067 .
[CrossRef]

M. Premuda, S. Masieri, D. Bortoli, F. Margelli, F. Ravegnani, A. Petritoli, I. Kostadinov, G. Giovanelli, and E. Cupini, “A Monte Carlo simulation of radiative transfer in the atmosphere applied to ToTaL-DOAS,” Proc. SPIE 7475, 74751A, 74751A-12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Giovanelli, E. Palazzi, A. Petritoli, D. Bortoli, I. Kostadinov, F. Margelli, S. Pagnutti, M. Premuda, F. Ravegnani, and G. Trivellone, “Perspectives of 2D and 3D mapping of Atmospheric Pollutants over Urban Areas by means of airborne DOAS Spectrometer,” Ann. Geophys. 49(1), 133–142 (2006).

E. Palazzi, A. Petritoli, G. Giovanelli, I. Kostadinov, D. Bortoli, F. Ravegnani, and S. S. Sackey, “PROMSAR: A backward Monte Carlo spherical RTM for the analysis of DOAS remote sensing measurements,” Adv. Space Res. 36(5), 1007–1014 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Petritoli, G. Giovanelli, I. Kostadinov, F. Ravegnani, D. Bortoli, P. Bonasoni, F. Evangelisti, U. Bonafe, and F. Calzolari, “Tropospheric and stratospheric NO2 amount deduced by slant column measurements at Mt. Cimone Station,” Adv. Space Res. 29(11), 1691–1695 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Petritoli, F. Ravegnani, G. Giovanelli, D. Bortoli, U. Bonafè, I. Kostadinov, and A. Oulanovsky, “Off-axis measurements of atmospheric trace gases by use of an airborne ultraviolet-visible spectrometer,” Appl. Opt. 41(27), 5593–5599 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. Van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D’Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant column measurements of O3 and NO2 during NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometer in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).

Goutail, F.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. Van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D’Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant column measurements of O3 and NO2 during NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometer in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).

Heese, B.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. Van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D’Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant column measurements of O3 and NO2 during NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometer in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).

Hendrick, F.

T. Wagner, J. P. Burrows, T. Deutschmann, B. Dix, C. von Friedeburg, U. Frieß, F. Hendrick, K.-P. Heue, H. Irie, H. Iwabuchi, Y. Kanaya, J. Keller, C. A. McLinden, H. Oetjen, E. Palazzi, A. Petritoli, U. Platt, O. Postylyakov, J. Pukite, A. Richter, M. van Roozendael, A. Rozanov, V. Rozanov, R. Sinreich, S. Sanghavi, and F. Wittrock, “Comparison of box-air-mass-factors and radiances for Multiple-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) geometries calculated from different UV/visible radiative transfer models,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7(7), 1809–1833 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hermans, C.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. Van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D’Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant column measurements of O3 and NO2 during NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometer in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).

Heue, K.-P.

T. Wagner, J. P. Burrows, T. Deutschmann, B. Dix, C. von Friedeburg, U. Frieß, F. Hendrick, K.-P. Heue, H. Irie, H. Iwabuchi, Y. Kanaya, J. Keller, C. A. McLinden, H. Oetjen, E. Palazzi, A. Petritoli, U. Platt, O. Postylyakov, J. Pukite, A. Richter, M. van Roozendael, A. Rozanov, V. Rozanov, R. Sinreich, S. Sanghavi, and F. Wittrock, “Comparison of box-air-mass-factors and radiances for Multiple-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) geometries calculated from different UV/visible radiative transfer models,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7(7), 1809–1833 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hoch, S. W.

B. Mayer, S. W. Hoch, and C. D. Whiteman, “Validating the MYSTIC three-dimensional radiative transfer model with observations from the complex topography of Arizona's Meteor Crater,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 10(5), 13373–13405 (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Hönninger, G.

G. Hönninger, C. von Friedeburg, and U. Platt, “Multi axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS),” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4(1), 231–254 (2004), http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/4/231/2004/acp-4-231-2004.pdf .
[CrossRef]

Horak, H. G.

Hottier, J.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. Van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D’Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant column measurements of O3 and NO2 during NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometer in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).

Irie, H.

T. Wagner, J. P. Burrows, T. Deutschmann, B. Dix, C. von Friedeburg, U. Frieß, F. Hendrick, K.-P. Heue, H. Irie, H. Iwabuchi, Y. Kanaya, J. Keller, C. A. McLinden, H. Oetjen, E. Palazzi, A. Petritoli, U. Platt, O. Postylyakov, J. Pukite, A. Richter, M. van Roozendael, A. Rozanov, V. Rozanov, R. Sinreich, S. Sanghavi, and F. Wittrock, “Comparison of box-air-mass-factors and radiances for Multiple-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) geometries calculated from different UV/visible radiative transfer models,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7(7), 1809–1833 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Iwabuchi, H.

T. Wagner, J. P. Burrows, T. Deutschmann, B. Dix, C. von Friedeburg, U. Frieß, F. Hendrick, K.-P. Heue, H. Irie, H. Iwabuchi, Y. Kanaya, J. Keller, C. A. McLinden, H. Oetjen, E. Palazzi, A. Petritoli, U. Platt, O. Postylyakov, J. Pukite, A. Richter, M. van Roozendael, A. Rozanov, V. Rozanov, R. Sinreich, S. Sanghavi, and F. Wittrock, “Comparison of box-air-mass-factors and radiances for Multiple-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) geometries calculated from different UV/visible radiative transfer models,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7(7), 1809–1833 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jayaweera, K.

Johnston, P. V.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. Van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D’Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant column measurements of O3 and NO2 during NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometer in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).

Jones, R. L.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. Van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D’Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant column measurements of O3 and NO2 during NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometer in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).

Kanaya, Y.

T. Wagner, J. P. Burrows, T. Deutschmann, B. Dix, C. von Friedeburg, U. Frieß, F. Hendrick, K.-P. Heue, H. Irie, H. Iwabuchi, Y. Kanaya, J. Keller, C. A. McLinden, H. Oetjen, E. Palazzi, A. Petritoli, U. Platt, O. Postylyakov, J. Pukite, A. Richter, M. van Roozendael, A. Rozanov, V. Rozanov, R. Sinreich, S. Sanghavi, and F. Wittrock, “Comparison of box-air-mass-factors and radiances for Multiple-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) geometries calculated from different UV/visible radiative transfer models,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7(7), 1809–1833 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Karlsen Tornkvist, K.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. Van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D’Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant column measurements of O3 and NO2 during NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometer in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).

Kastad Hoiskar, B. A.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. Van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D’Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant column measurements of O3 and NO2 during NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometer in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).

Kattawar, G. W.

Keller, J.

T. Wagner, J. P. Burrows, T. Deutschmann, B. Dix, C. von Friedeburg, U. Frieß, F. Hendrick, K.-P. Heue, H. Irie, H. Iwabuchi, Y. Kanaya, J. Keller, C. A. McLinden, H. Oetjen, E. Palazzi, A. Petritoli, U. Platt, O. Postylyakov, J. Pukite, A. Richter, M. van Roozendael, A. Rozanov, V. Rozanov, R. Sinreich, S. Sanghavi, and F. Wittrock, “Comparison of box-air-mass-factors and radiances for Multiple-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) geometries calculated from different UV/visible radiative transfer models,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7(7), 1809–1833 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kenntner, M.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. Van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D’Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant column measurements of O3 and NO2 during NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometer in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).

Kerr, J. E.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. Van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D’Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant column measurements of O3 and NO2 during NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometer in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).

Kostadinov, I.

M. Premuda, S. Masieri, D. Bortoli, I. Kostadinov, A. Petritoli, and G. Giovanelli, “Evaluation of vessel emissions in a lagoon area with ground based Multi axis DOAS measurements,” Atmos. Environ. 45(29), 5212–5219 (2011), doi:, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.05.067 .
[CrossRef]

M. Premuda, S. Masieri, D. Bortoli, F. Margelli, F. Ravegnani, A. Petritoli, I. Kostadinov, G. Giovanelli, and E. Cupini, “A Monte Carlo simulation of radiative transfer in the atmosphere applied to ToTaL-DOAS,” Proc. SPIE 7475, 74751A, 74751A-12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Giovanelli, E. Palazzi, A. Petritoli, D. Bortoli, I. Kostadinov, F. Margelli, S. Pagnutti, M. Premuda, F. Ravegnani, and G. Trivellone, “Perspectives of 2D and 3D mapping of Atmospheric Pollutants over Urban Areas by means of airborne DOAS Spectrometer,” Ann. Geophys. 49(1), 133–142 (2006).

E. Palazzi, A. Petritoli, G. Giovanelli, I. Kostadinov, D. Bortoli, F. Ravegnani, and S. S. Sackey, “PROMSAR: A backward Monte Carlo spherical RTM for the analysis of DOAS remote sensing measurements,” Adv. Space Res. 36(5), 1007–1014 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Petritoli, G. Giovanelli, I. Kostadinov, F. Ravegnani, D. Bortoli, P. Bonasoni, F. Evangelisti, U. Bonafe, and F. Calzolari, “Tropospheric and stratospheric NO2 amount deduced by slant column measurements at Mt. Cimone Station,” Adv. Space Res. 29(11), 1691–1695 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Petritoli, F. Ravegnani, G. Giovanelli, D. Bortoli, U. Bonafè, I. Kostadinov, and A. Oulanovsky, “Off-axis measurements of atmospheric trace gases by use of an airborne ultraviolet-visible spectrometer,” Appl. Opt. 41(27), 5593–5599 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. Van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D’Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant column measurements of O3 and NO2 during NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometer in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).

Kühl, S.

J. Puķīte, S. Kühl, T. Deutschmann, U. Platt, and T. Wagner, “Accounting for the effect of horizontal gradients in limb measurements of scattered sunlight,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(12), 3045–3060 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Kühl, J. Puķīte, T. Deutschmann, U. Platt, and T. Wagner, “SCIAMACHY Limb Measurements of NO2, BrO and OClO, Retrieval of vertical profiles: Algorithm, first results, sensitivity and comparison studies,” Adv. Space Res. 42(10), 1747–1764 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lambert, J.-C.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. Van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D’Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant column measurements of O3 and NO2 during NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometer in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).

Long, C. N.

D. Nowak, L. Vuilleumier, C. N. Long, and A. Ohmura, “Solar irradiance computations compared with observations at the Baseline Surface Radiation Network Payerne site,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(D14), D14206 (2008), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Margelli, F.

M. Premuda, S. Masieri, D. Bortoli, F. Margelli, F. Ravegnani, A. Petritoli, I. Kostadinov, G. Giovanelli, and E. Cupini, “A Monte Carlo simulation of radiative transfer in the atmosphere applied to ToTaL-DOAS,” Proc. SPIE 7475, 74751A, 74751A-12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Giovanelli, E. Palazzi, A. Petritoli, D. Bortoli, I. Kostadinov, F. Margelli, S. Pagnutti, M. Premuda, F. Ravegnani, and G. Trivellone, “Perspectives of 2D and 3D mapping of Atmospheric Pollutants over Urban Areas by means of airborne DOAS Spectrometer,” Ann. Geophys. 49(1), 133–142 (2006).

Marquard, L. C.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. Van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D’Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant column measurements of O3 and NO2 during NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometer in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).

Masieri, S.

M. Premuda, S. Masieri, D. Bortoli, I. Kostadinov, A. Petritoli, and G. Giovanelli, “Evaluation of vessel emissions in a lagoon area with ground based Multi axis DOAS measurements,” Atmos. Environ. 45(29), 5212–5219 (2011), doi:, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.05.067 .
[CrossRef]

M. Premuda, S. Masieri, D. Bortoli, F. Margelli, F. Ravegnani, A. Petritoli, I. Kostadinov, G. Giovanelli, and E. Cupini, “A Monte Carlo simulation of radiative transfer in the atmosphere applied to ToTaL-DOAS,” Proc. SPIE 7475, 74751A, 74751A-12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mayer, B.

B. Mayer, S. W. Hoch, and C. D. Whiteman, “Validating the MYSTIC three-dimensional radiative transfer model with observations from the complex topography of Arizona's Meteor Crater,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 10(5), 13373–13405 (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef]

McElroy, C. T.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. Van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D’Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant column measurements of O3 and NO2 during NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometer in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).

McLinden, C. A.

T. Wagner, J. P. Burrows, T. Deutschmann, B. Dix, C. von Friedeburg, U. Frieß, F. Hendrick, K.-P. Heue, H. Irie, H. Iwabuchi, Y. Kanaya, J. Keller, C. A. McLinden, H. Oetjen, E. Palazzi, A. Petritoli, U. Platt, O. Postylyakov, J. Pukite, A. Richter, M. van Roozendael, A. Rozanov, V. Rozanov, R. Sinreich, S. Sanghavi, and F. Wittrock, “Comparison of box-air-mass-factors and radiances for Multiple-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) geometries calculated from different UV/visible radiative transfer models,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7(7), 1809–1833 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Morin, M.

Nowak, D.

D. Nowak, L. Vuilleumier, C. N. Long, and A. Ohmura, “Solar irradiance computations compared with observations at the Baseline Surface Radiation Network Payerne site,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(D14), D14206 (2008), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Noxon, J. F.

J. F. Noxon, “Nitrogen dioxide in the stratosphere and troposphere measured by ground-based absorption spectroscopy,” Science 189(4202), 547–549 (1975).
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Oetjen, H.

T. Wagner, J. P. Burrows, T. Deutschmann, B. Dix, C. von Friedeburg, U. Frieß, F. Hendrick, K.-P. Heue, H. Irie, H. Iwabuchi, Y. Kanaya, J. Keller, C. A. McLinden, H. Oetjen, E. Palazzi, A. Petritoli, U. Platt, O. Postylyakov, J. Pukite, A. Richter, M. van Roozendael, A. Rozanov, V. Rozanov, R. Sinreich, S. Sanghavi, and F. Wittrock, “Comparison of box-air-mass-factors and radiances for Multiple-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) geometries calculated from different UV/visible radiative transfer models,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7(7), 1809–1833 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ohmura, A.

D. Nowak, L. Vuilleumier, C. N. Long, and A. Ohmura, “Solar irradiance computations compared with observations at the Baseline Surface Radiation Network Payerne site,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(D14), D14206 (2008), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Oulanovsky, A.

Pagnutti, S.

G. Giovanelli, E. Palazzi, A. Petritoli, D. Bortoli, I. Kostadinov, F. Margelli, S. Pagnutti, M. Premuda, F. Ravegnani, and G. Trivellone, “Perspectives of 2D and 3D mapping of Atmospheric Pollutants over Urban Areas by means of airborne DOAS Spectrometer,” Ann. Geophys. 49(1), 133–142 (2006).

A. De Matteis and S. Pagnutti, “Controlling correlations in parallel Monte Carlo,” Parallel Comput. 21(1), 73–84 (1995).
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A. De Matteis and S. Pagnutti, “Long-range Correlation-analysis of the Wichmann-Hill random number generator,” Stat. Comput. 3(2), 67–70 (1993).
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Painchaud, Y.

Palazzi, E.

T. Wagner, J. P. Burrows, T. Deutschmann, B. Dix, C. von Friedeburg, U. Frieß, F. Hendrick, K.-P. Heue, H. Irie, H. Iwabuchi, Y. Kanaya, J. Keller, C. A. McLinden, H. Oetjen, E. Palazzi, A. Petritoli, U. Platt, O. Postylyakov, J. Pukite, A. Richter, M. van Roozendael, A. Rozanov, V. Rozanov, R. Sinreich, S. Sanghavi, and F. Wittrock, “Comparison of box-air-mass-factors and radiances for Multiple-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) geometries calculated from different UV/visible radiative transfer models,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7(7), 1809–1833 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Giovanelli, E. Palazzi, A. Petritoli, D. Bortoli, I. Kostadinov, F. Margelli, S. Pagnutti, M. Premuda, F. Ravegnani, and G. Trivellone, “Perspectives of 2D and 3D mapping of Atmospheric Pollutants over Urban Areas by means of airborne DOAS Spectrometer,” Ann. Geophys. 49(1), 133–142 (2006).

E. Palazzi, A. Petritoli, G. Giovanelli, I. Kostadinov, D. Bortoli, F. Ravegnani, and S. S. Sackey, “PROMSAR: A backward Monte Carlo spherical RTM for the analysis of DOAS remote sensing measurements,” Adv. Space Res. 36(5), 1007–1014 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Patz, H. W.

U. Platt, D. Perner, and H. W. Patz, “Simultaneous measurement of atmospheric CH2O, O3 e NO2 by differential optical absorption,” J. Geophys. Res. 84(C10), 6329–6335 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Perliski, L. M.

L. M. Perliski and S. Solomon, “On the Evaluation of Air Mass Factors for Atmospheric Near-Ultraviolet and Visible Absorptiion Spectroscopy,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10363–10374 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Perner, D.

U. Platt and D. Perner, “Direct measurement of atmospheric CH2O, HNO2, O3, NO2, and SO2 by differential optical absorption in the near UV,” J. Geophys. Res. 85(C12), 7453–7458 (1980).
[CrossRef]

U. Platt, D. Perner, and H. W. Patz, “Simultaneous measurement of atmospheric CH2O, O3 e NO2 by differential optical absorption,” J. Geophys. Res. 84(C10), 6329–6335 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Petritoli, A.

M. Premuda, S. Masieri, D. Bortoli, I. Kostadinov, A. Petritoli, and G. Giovanelli, “Evaluation of vessel emissions in a lagoon area with ground based Multi axis DOAS measurements,” Atmos. Environ. 45(29), 5212–5219 (2011), doi:, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.05.067 .
[CrossRef]

M. Premuda, S. Masieri, D. Bortoli, F. Margelli, F. Ravegnani, A. Petritoli, I. Kostadinov, G. Giovanelli, and E. Cupini, “A Monte Carlo simulation of radiative transfer in the atmosphere applied to ToTaL-DOAS,” Proc. SPIE 7475, 74751A, 74751A-12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Wagner, J. P. Burrows, T. Deutschmann, B. Dix, C. von Friedeburg, U. Frieß, F. Hendrick, K.-P. Heue, H. Irie, H. Iwabuchi, Y. Kanaya, J. Keller, C. A. McLinden, H. Oetjen, E. Palazzi, A. Petritoli, U. Platt, O. Postylyakov, J. Pukite, A. Richter, M. van Roozendael, A. Rozanov, V. Rozanov, R. Sinreich, S. Sanghavi, and F. Wittrock, “Comparison of box-air-mass-factors and radiances for Multiple-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) geometries calculated from different UV/visible radiative transfer models,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7(7), 1809–1833 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Giovanelli, E. Palazzi, A. Petritoli, D. Bortoli, I. Kostadinov, F. Margelli, S. Pagnutti, M. Premuda, F. Ravegnani, and G. Trivellone, “Perspectives of 2D and 3D mapping of Atmospheric Pollutants over Urban Areas by means of airborne DOAS Spectrometer,” Ann. Geophys. 49(1), 133–142 (2006).

E. Palazzi, A. Petritoli, G. Giovanelli, I. Kostadinov, D. Bortoli, F. Ravegnani, and S. S. Sackey, “PROMSAR: A backward Monte Carlo spherical RTM for the analysis of DOAS remote sensing measurements,” Adv. Space Res. 36(5), 1007–1014 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Petritoli, G. Giovanelli, I. Kostadinov, F. Ravegnani, D. Bortoli, P. Bonasoni, F. Evangelisti, U. Bonafe, and F. Calzolari, “Tropospheric and stratospheric NO2 amount deduced by slant column measurements at Mt. Cimone Station,” Adv. Space Res. 29(11), 1691–1695 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Petritoli, F. Ravegnani, G. Giovanelli, D. Bortoli, U. Bonafè, I. Kostadinov, and A. Oulanovsky, “Off-axis measurements of atmospheric trace gases by use of an airborne ultraviolet-visible spectrometer,” Appl. Opt. 41(27), 5593–5599 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pfeilsticker, K.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. Van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D’Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant column measurements of O3 and NO2 during NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometer in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).

Plass, G. N.

Platt, U.

S. Kühl, J. Puķīte, T. Deutschmann, U. Platt, and T. Wagner, “SCIAMACHY Limb Measurements of NO2, BrO and OClO, Retrieval of vertical profiles: Algorithm, first results, sensitivity and comparison studies,” Adv. Space Res. 42(10), 1747–1764 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Puķīte, S. Kühl, T. Deutschmann, U. Platt, and T. Wagner, “Accounting for the effect of horizontal gradients in limb measurements of scattered sunlight,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(12), 3045–3060 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Wagner, J. P. Burrows, T. Deutschmann, B. Dix, C. von Friedeburg, U. Frieß, F. Hendrick, K.-P. Heue, H. Irie, H. Iwabuchi, Y. Kanaya, J. Keller, C. A. McLinden, H. Oetjen, E. Palazzi, A. Petritoli, U. Platt, O. Postylyakov, J. Pukite, A. Richter, M. van Roozendael, A. Rozanov, V. Rozanov, R. Sinreich, S. Sanghavi, and F. Wittrock, “Comparison of box-air-mass-factors and radiances for Multiple-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) geometries calculated from different UV/visible radiative transfer models,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7(7), 1809–1833 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Hönninger, C. von Friedeburg, and U. Platt, “Multi axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS),” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4(1), 231–254 (2004), http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/4/231/2004/acp-4-231-2004.pdf .
[CrossRef]

U. Platt and D. Perner, “Direct measurement of atmospheric CH2O, HNO2, O3, NO2, and SO2 by differential optical absorption in the near UV,” J. Geophys. Res. 85(C12), 7453–7458 (1980).
[CrossRef]

U. Platt, D. Perner, and H. W. Patz, “Simultaneous measurement of atmospheric CH2O, O3 e NO2 by differential optical absorption,” J. Geophys. Res. 84(C10), 6329–6335 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Pommereau, J.-P.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. Van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D’Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant column measurements of O3 and NO2 during NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometer in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).

Postylyakov, O.

T. Wagner, J. P. Burrows, T. Deutschmann, B. Dix, C. von Friedeburg, U. Frieß, F. Hendrick, K.-P. Heue, H. Irie, H. Iwabuchi, Y. Kanaya, J. Keller, C. A. McLinden, H. Oetjen, E. Palazzi, A. Petritoli, U. Platt, O. Postylyakov, J. Pukite, A. Richter, M. van Roozendael, A. Rozanov, V. Rozanov, R. Sinreich, S. Sanghavi, and F. Wittrock, “Comparison of box-air-mass-factors and radiances for Multiple-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) geometries calculated from different UV/visible radiative transfer models,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7(7), 1809–1833 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Premuda, M.

M. Premuda, S. Masieri, D. Bortoli, I. Kostadinov, A. Petritoli, and G. Giovanelli, “Evaluation of vessel emissions in a lagoon area with ground based Multi axis DOAS measurements,” Atmos. Environ. 45(29), 5212–5219 (2011), doi:, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.05.067 .
[CrossRef]

M. Premuda, S. Masieri, D. Bortoli, F. Margelli, F. Ravegnani, A. Petritoli, I. Kostadinov, G. Giovanelli, and E. Cupini, “A Monte Carlo simulation of radiative transfer in the atmosphere applied to ToTaL-DOAS,” Proc. SPIE 7475, 74751A, 74751A-12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Giovanelli, E. Palazzi, A. Petritoli, D. Bortoli, I. Kostadinov, F. Margelli, S. Pagnutti, M. Premuda, F. Ravegnani, and G. Trivellone, “Perspectives of 2D and 3D mapping of Atmospheric Pollutants over Urban Areas by means of airborne DOAS Spectrometer,” Ann. Geophys. 49(1), 133–142 (2006).

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. Van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D’Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant column measurements of O3 and NO2 during NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometer in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).

Preston, K. E.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. Van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D’Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant column measurements of O3 and NO2 during NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometer in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).

Puentedura, O.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. Van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D’Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant column measurements of O3 and NO2 during NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometer in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).

Pukite, J.

J. Puķīte, S. Kühl, T. Deutschmann, U. Platt, and T. Wagner, “Accounting for the effect of horizontal gradients in limb measurements of scattered sunlight,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(12), 3045–3060 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Kühl, J. Puķīte, T. Deutschmann, U. Platt, and T. Wagner, “SCIAMACHY Limb Measurements of NO2, BrO and OClO, Retrieval of vertical profiles: Algorithm, first results, sensitivity and comparison studies,” Adv. Space Res. 42(10), 1747–1764 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Wagner, J. P. Burrows, T. Deutschmann, B. Dix, C. von Friedeburg, U. Frieß, F. Hendrick, K.-P. Heue, H. Irie, H. Iwabuchi, Y. Kanaya, J. Keller, C. A. McLinden, H. Oetjen, E. Palazzi, A. Petritoli, U. Platt, O. Postylyakov, J. Pukite, A. Richter, M. van Roozendael, A. Rozanov, V. Rozanov, R. Sinreich, S. Sanghavi, and F. Wittrock, “Comparison of box-air-mass-factors and radiances for Multiple-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) geometries calculated from different UV/visible radiative transfer models,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7(7), 1809–1833 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pundt, I.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. Van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D’Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant column measurements of O3 and NO2 during NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometer in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).

Ravegnani, F.

M. Premuda, S. Masieri, D. Bortoli, F. Margelli, F. Ravegnani, A. Petritoli, I. Kostadinov, G. Giovanelli, and E. Cupini, “A Monte Carlo simulation of radiative transfer in the atmosphere applied to ToTaL-DOAS,” Proc. SPIE 7475, 74751A, 74751A-12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Giovanelli, E. Palazzi, A. Petritoli, D. Bortoli, I. Kostadinov, F. Margelli, S. Pagnutti, M. Premuda, F. Ravegnani, and G. Trivellone, “Perspectives of 2D and 3D mapping of Atmospheric Pollutants over Urban Areas by means of airborne DOAS Spectrometer,” Ann. Geophys. 49(1), 133–142 (2006).

E. Palazzi, A. Petritoli, G. Giovanelli, I. Kostadinov, D. Bortoli, F. Ravegnani, and S. S. Sackey, “PROMSAR: A backward Monte Carlo spherical RTM for the analysis of DOAS remote sensing measurements,” Adv. Space Res. 36(5), 1007–1014 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Petritoli, F. Ravegnani, G. Giovanelli, D. Bortoli, U. Bonafè, I. Kostadinov, and A. Oulanovsky, “Off-axis measurements of atmospheric trace gases by use of an airborne ultraviolet-visible spectrometer,” Appl. Opt. 41(27), 5593–5599 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Petritoli, G. Giovanelli, I. Kostadinov, F. Ravegnani, D. Bortoli, P. Bonasoni, F. Evangelisti, U. Bonafe, and F. Calzolari, “Tropospheric and stratospheric NO2 amount deduced by slant column measurements at Mt. Cimone Station,” Adv. Space Res. 29(11), 1691–1695 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. Van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D’Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant column measurements of O3 and NO2 during NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometer in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).

Richter, A.

T. Wagner, J. P. Burrows, T. Deutschmann, B. Dix, C. von Friedeburg, U. Frieß, F. Hendrick, K.-P. Heue, H. Irie, H. Iwabuchi, Y. Kanaya, J. Keller, C. A. McLinden, H. Oetjen, E. Palazzi, A. Petritoli, U. Platt, O. Postylyakov, J. Pukite, A. Richter, M. van Roozendael, A. Rozanov, V. Rozanov, R. Sinreich, S. Sanghavi, and F. Wittrock, “Comparison of box-air-mass-factors and radiances for Multiple-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) geometries calculated from different UV/visible radiative transfer models,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7(7), 1809–1833 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. Van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D’Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant column measurements of O3 and NO2 during NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometer in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).

Roscoe, H. K.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. Van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D’Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant column measurements of O3 and NO2 during NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometer in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).

A. Sarkissian, H. K. Roscoe, and D. J. Fish, “Ozone Measurement by Zenith-Sky Spectrometers: an Evaluation of Errors in Air-Mass Factors calculated by Radiative Transfer Models,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 54(3), 471–480 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Roscoe, J.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. Van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D’Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant column measurements of O3 and NO2 during NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometer in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).

Rozanov, A.

T. Wagner, J. P. Burrows, T. Deutschmann, B. Dix, C. von Friedeburg, U. Frieß, F. Hendrick, K.-P. Heue, H. Irie, H. Iwabuchi, Y. Kanaya, J. Keller, C. A. McLinden, H. Oetjen, E. Palazzi, A. Petritoli, U. Platt, O. Postylyakov, J. Pukite, A. Richter, M. van Roozendael, A. Rozanov, V. Rozanov, R. Sinreich, S. Sanghavi, and F. Wittrock, “Comparison of box-air-mass-factors and radiances for Multiple-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) geometries calculated from different UV/visible radiative transfer models,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7(7), 1809–1833 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rozanov, V.

T. Wagner, J. P. Burrows, T. Deutschmann, B. Dix, C. von Friedeburg, U. Frieß, F. Hendrick, K.-P. Heue, H. Irie, H. Iwabuchi, Y. Kanaya, J. Keller, C. A. McLinden, H. Oetjen, E. Palazzi, A. Petritoli, U. Platt, O. Postylyakov, J. Pukite, A. Richter, M. van Roozendael, A. Rozanov, V. Rozanov, R. Sinreich, S. Sanghavi, and F. Wittrock, “Comparison of box-air-mass-factors and radiances for Multiple-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) geometries calculated from different UV/visible radiative transfer models,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7(7), 1809–1833 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sackey, S. S.

E. Palazzi, A. Petritoli, G. Giovanelli, I. Kostadinov, D. Bortoli, F. Ravegnani, and S. S. Sackey, “PROMSAR: A backward Monte Carlo spherical RTM for the analysis of DOAS remote sensing measurements,” Adv. Space Res. 36(5), 1007–1014 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sanders, R. W.

S. Solomon, A. Schmeltekopf, and R. W. Sanders, “On the interpretation of zenith sky absorption measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 92(D7), 8311–8319 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Sanghavi, S.

T. Wagner, J. P. Burrows, T. Deutschmann, B. Dix, C. von Friedeburg, U. Frieß, F. Hendrick, K.-P. Heue, H. Irie, H. Iwabuchi, Y. Kanaya, J. Keller, C. A. McLinden, H. Oetjen, E. Palazzi, A. Petritoli, U. Platt, O. Postylyakov, J. Pukite, A. Richter, M. van Roozendael, A. Rozanov, V. Rozanov, R. Sinreich, S. Sanghavi, and F. Wittrock, “Comparison of box-air-mass-factors and radiances for Multiple-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) geometries calculated from different UV/visible radiative transfer models,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7(7), 1809–1833 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sarkissian, A.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. Van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D’Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant column measurements of O3 and NO2 during NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometer in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).

A. Sarkissian, H. K. Roscoe, and D. J. Fish, “Ozone Measurement by Zenith-Sky Spectrometers: an Evaluation of Errors in Air-Mass Factors calculated by Radiative Transfer Models,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 54(3), 471–480 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schmeltekopf, A.

S. Solomon, A. Schmeltekopf, and R. W. Sanders, “On the interpretation of zenith sky absorption measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 92(D7), 8311–8319 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Simonini, R.

A. De Matteis and R. Simonini, “A New Monte Carlo Approach to the Adjoint Boltzmann Equation,” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 65, 93–105 (1978).

A. De Matteis and R. Simonini, “A Monte Carlo Biasing Scheme for the Adjoint Photon Transport,” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 67, 309–316 (1978).

Sinreich, R.

T. Wagner, J. P. Burrows, T. Deutschmann, B. Dix, C. von Friedeburg, U. Frieß, F. Hendrick, K.-P. Heue, H. Irie, H. Iwabuchi, Y. Kanaya, J. Keller, C. A. McLinden, H. Oetjen, E. Palazzi, A. Petritoli, U. Platt, O. Postylyakov, J. Pukite, A. Richter, M. van Roozendael, A. Rozanov, V. Rozanov, R. Sinreich, S. Sanghavi, and F. Wittrock, “Comparison of box-air-mass-factors and radiances for Multiple-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) geometries calculated from different UV/visible radiative transfer models,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7(7), 1809–1833 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Solomon, S.

L. M. Perliski and S. Solomon, “On the Evaluation of Air Mass Factors for Atmospheric Near-Ultraviolet and Visible Absorptiion Spectroscopy,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10363–10374 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Solomon, A. Schmeltekopf, and R. W. Sanders, “On the interpretation of zenith sky absorption measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 92(D7), 8311–8319 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Stamnes, K.

Tellefsen, C. W.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. Van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D’Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant column measurements of O3 and NO2 during NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometer in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).

Tinet, E.

Trivellone, G.

G. Giovanelli, E. Palazzi, A. Petritoli, D. Bortoli, I. Kostadinov, F. Margelli, S. Pagnutti, M. Premuda, F. Ravegnani, and G. Trivellone, “Perspectives of 2D and 3D mapping of Atmospheric Pollutants over Urban Areas by means of airborne DOAS Spectrometer,” Ann. Geophys. 49(1), 133–142 (2006).

Tsay, S.-C.

Tualle, J. M.

van Roozendael, M.

T. Wagner, J. P. Burrows, T. Deutschmann, B. Dix, C. von Friedeburg, U. Frieß, F. Hendrick, K.-P. Heue, H. Irie, H. Iwabuchi, Y. Kanaya, J. Keller, C. A. McLinden, H. Oetjen, E. Palazzi, A. Petritoli, U. Platt, O. Postylyakov, J. Pukite, A. Richter, M. van Roozendael, A. Rozanov, V. Rozanov, R. Sinreich, S. Sanghavi, and F. Wittrock, “Comparison of box-air-mass-factors and radiances for Multiple-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) geometries calculated from different UV/visible radiative transfer models,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7(7), 1809–1833 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. Van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D’Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant column measurements of O3 and NO2 during NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometer in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).

von Friedeburg, C.

T. Wagner, J. P. Burrows, T. Deutschmann, B. Dix, C. von Friedeburg, U. Frieß, F. Hendrick, K.-P. Heue, H. Irie, H. Iwabuchi, Y. Kanaya, J. Keller, C. A. McLinden, H. Oetjen, E. Palazzi, A. Petritoli, U. Platt, O. Postylyakov, J. Pukite, A. Richter, M. van Roozendael, A. Rozanov, V. Rozanov, R. Sinreich, S. Sanghavi, and F. Wittrock, “Comparison of box-air-mass-factors and radiances for Multiple-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) geometries calculated from different UV/visible radiative transfer models,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7(7), 1809–1833 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Hönninger, C. von Friedeburg, and U. Platt, “Multi axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS),” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4(1), 231–254 (2004), http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/4/231/2004/acp-4-231-2004.pdf .
[CrossRef]

Vuilleumier, L.

D. Nowak, L. Vuilleumier, C. N. Long, and A. Ohmura, “Solar irradiance computations compared with observations at the Baseline Surface Radiation Network Payerne site,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(D14), D14206 (2008), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Wagner, T.

S. Kühl, J. Puķīte, T. Deutschmann, U. Platt, and T. Wagner, “SCIAMACHY Limb Measurements of NO2, BrO and OClO, Retrieval of vertical profiles: Algorithm, first results, sensitivity and comparison studies,” Adv. Space Res. 42(10), 1747–1764 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Puķīte, S. Kühl, T. Deutschmann, U. Platt, and T. Wagner, “Accounting for the effect of horizontal gradients in limb measurements of scattered sunlight,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(12), 3045–3060 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Wagner, J. P. Burrows, T. Deutschmann, B. Dix, C. von Friedeburg, U. Frieß, F. Hendrick, K.-P. Heue, H. Irie, H. Iwabuchi, Y. Kanaya, J. Keller, C. A. McLinden, H. Oetjen, E. Palazzi, A. Petritoli, U. Platt, O. Postylyakov, J. Pukite, A. Richter, M. van Roozendael, A. Rozanov, V. Rozanov, R. Sinreich, S. Sanghavi, and F. Wittrock, “Comparison of box-air-mass-factors and radiances for Multiple-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) geometries calculated from different UV/visible radiative transfer models,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7(7), 1809–1833 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. Van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D’Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant column measurements of O3 and NO2 during NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometer in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).

Wells, M. B.

Whiteman, C. D.

B. Mayer, S. W. Hoch, and C. D. Whiteman, “Validating the MYSTIC three-dimensional radiative transfer model with observations from the complex topography of Arizona's Meteor Crater,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 10(5), 13373–13405 (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Winterrath, T.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. Van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D’Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant column measurements of O3 and NO2 during NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometer in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).

Wiscombe, W.

Wittrock, F.

T. Wagner, J. P. Burrows, T. Deutschmann, B. Dix, C. von Friedeburg, U. Frieß, F. Hendrick, K.-P. Heue, H. Irie, H. Iwabuchi, Y. Kanaya, J. Keller, C. A. McLinden, H. Oetjen, E. Palazzi, A. Petritoli, U. Platt, O. Postylyakov, J. Pukite, A. Richter, M. van Roozendael, A. Rozanov, V. Rozanov, R. Sinreich, S. Sanghavi, and F. Wittrock, “Comparison of box-air-mass-factors and radiances for Multiple-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) geometries calculated from different UV/visible radiative transfer models,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7(7), 1809–1833 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yela, M.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. Van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D’Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant column measurements of O3 and NO2 during NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometer in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).

Adv. Space Res. (3)

A. Petritoli, G. Giovanelli, I. Kostadinov, F. Ravegnani, D. Bortoli, P. Bonasoni, F. Evangelisti, U. Bonafe, and F. Calzolari, “Tropospheric and stratospheric NO2 amount deduced by slant column measurements at Mt. Cimone Station,” Adv. Space Res. 29(11), 1691–1695 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Palazzi, A. Petritoli, G. Giovanelli, I. Kostadinov, D. Bortoli, F. Ravegnani, and S. S. Sackey, “PROMSAR: A backward Monte Carlo spherical RTM for the analysis of DOAS remote sensing measurements,” Adv. Space Res. 36(5), 1007–1014 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Kühl, J. Puķīte, T. Deutschmann, U. Platt, and T. Wagner, “SCIAMACHY Limb Measurements of NO2, BrO and OClO, Retrieval of vertical profiles: Algorithm, first results, sensitivity and comparison studies,” Adv. Space Res. 42(10), 1747–1764 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Geophys. (1)

G. Giovanelli, E. Palazzi, A. Petritoli, D. Bortoli, I. Kostadinov, F. Margelli, S. Pagnutti, M. Premuda, F. Ravegnani, and G. Trivellone, “Perspectives of 2D and 3D mapping of Atmospheric Pollutants over Urban Areas by means of airborne DOAS Spectrometer,” Ann. Geophys. 49(1), 133–142 (2006).

Appl. Opt. (7)

Atmos. Chem. Phys. (3)

J. Puķīte, S. Kühl, T. Deutschmann, U. Platt, and T. Wagner, “Accounting for the effect of horizontal gradients in limb measurements of scattered sunlight,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(12), 3045–3060 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Hönninger, C. von Friedeburg, and U. Platt, “Multi axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS),” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4(1), 231–254 (2004), http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/4/231/2004/acp-4-231-2004.pdf .
[CrossRef]

T. Wagner, J. P. Burrows, T. Deutschmann, B. Dix, C. von Friedeburg, U. Frieß, F. Hendrick, K.-P. Heue, H. Irie, H. Iwabuchi, Y. Kanaya, J. Keller, C. A. McLinden, H. Oetjen, E. Palazzi, A. Petritoli, U. Platt, O. Postylyakov, J. Pukite, A. Richter, M. van Roozendael, A. Rozanov, V. Rozanov, R. Sinreich, S. Sanghavi, and F. Wittrock, “Comparison of box-air-mass-factors and radiances for Multiple-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) geometries calculated from different UV/visible radiative transfer models,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7(7), 1809–1833 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. (1)

B. Mayer, S. W. Hoch, and C. D. Whiteman, “Validating the MYSTIC three-dimensional radiative transfer model with observations from the complex topography of Arizona's Meteor Crater,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 10(5), 13373–13405 (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Atmos. Environ. (1)

M. Premuda, S. Masieri, D. Bortoli, I. Kostadinov, A. Petritoli, and G. Giovanelli, “Evaluation of vessel emissions in a lagoon area with ground based Multi axis DOAS measurements,” Atmos. Environ. 45(29), 5212–5219 (2011), doi:, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.05.067 .
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Chem. (1)

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. Van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D’Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant column measurements of O3 and NO2 during NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometer in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).

J. Geophys. Res. (5)

D. Nowak, L. Vuilleumier, C. N. Long, and A. Ohmura, “Solar irradiance computations compared with observations at the Baseline Surface Radiation Network Payerne site,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(D14), D14206 (2008), doi:.
[CrossRef]

L. M. Perliski and S. Solomon, “On the Evaluation of Air Mass Factors for Atmospheric Near-Ultraviolet and Visible Absorptiion Spectroscopy,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10363–10374 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Solomon, A. Schmeltekopf, and R. W. Sanders, “On the interpretation of zenith sky absorption measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 92(D7), 8311–8319 (1987).
[CrossRef]

U. Platt, D. Perner, and H. W. Patz, “Simultaneous measurement of atmospheric CH2O, O3 e NO2 by differential optical absorption,” J. Geophys. Res. 84(C10), 6329–6335 (1979).
[CrossRef]

U. Platt and D. Perner, “Direct measurement of atmospheric CH2O, HNO2, O3, NO2, and SO2 by differential optical absorption in the near UV,” J. Geophys. Res. 85(C12), 7453–7458 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. (1)

A. Sarkissian, H. K. Roscoe, and D. J. Fish, “Ozone Measurement by Zenith-Sky Spectrometers: an Evaluation of Errors in Air-Mass Factors calculated by Radiative Transfer Models,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 54(3), 471–480 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Sci. Eng. (2)

A. De Matteis and R. Simonini, “A New Monte Carlo Approach to the Adjoint Boltzmann Equation,” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 65, 93–105 (1978).

A. De Matteis and R. Simonini, “A Monte Carlo Biasing Scheme for the Adjoint Photon Transport,” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 67, 309–316 (1978).

Parallel Comput. (1)

A. De Matteis and S. Pagnutti, “Controlling correlations in parallel Monte Carlo,” Parallel Comput. 21(1), 73–84 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. Premuda, S. Masieri, D. Bortoli, F. Margelli, F. Ravegnani, A. Petritoli, I. Kostadinov, G. Giovanelli, and E. Cupini, “A Monte Carlo simulation of radiative transfer in the atmosphere applied to ToTaL-DOAS,” Proc. SPIE 7475, 74751A, 74751A-12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

J. F. Noxon, “Nitrogen dioxide in the stratosphere and troposphere measured by ground-based absorption spectroscopy,” Science 189(4202), 547–549 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stat. Comput. (1)

A. De Matteis and S. Pagnutti, “Long-range Correlation-analysis of the Wichmann-Hill random number generator,” Stat. Comput. 3(2), 67–70 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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J. C. Chai, H. S. Lee, and S. V. Patankar, “Ray Effect and False Scattering in Discrete Ordinates Method,” Numer. Heat Transfer, Part B 24(4), 373- 389 (1993), http://www.informaworld.com/10.1080/10407799308955899

E. Papandrea, E. Arnone, E. Castelli, and M. Premuda, “Sounding the Upper Troposphere-Lower Stratosphere, with Satellite measurements,” Proc. “ESA Living Planet Symposium,” Bergen, Norway, 28 June- 2 July 2010 (ESA-SP-686, December 2010).

K. Y. Kondratyev, Radiation in the Atmosphere (Academic Press, 1969).

F. X. Kneizys, S. A. Clough, E. P. Shettle, L. S. Rothmann and R. W. Fenn, “Linear Absorption and Scattering of Laser Beams,” Air Force Geophysical Laboratory, AFGL-TR-84 0265 (1984).

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, W. O. Gallery, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, J. E. A. Selby, S. A. Clough and R. W. Fenn, “Atmospheric Transmittance/Radiance: Computer Code LOWTRAN6,” AFGL-TR-83–0187, (1983).

E. Palazzi, “Retrieval of trace gases vertical profile in the lower atmosphere combining Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy with radiative transfer models,” PhD thesis (Bologna University, Italy, 2008), http://amsdottorato.cib.unibo.it/983/1/Tesi_Palazzi_Elisa.pdf

E. Cupini, PREMAR-2 A Monte Carlo code for radiative transport simulation in atmospheric environments. (RT/INN/98/20. 1998).

M. Premuda, “Montecarlo simulation of Radiative transfer in Atmospheric environments for problems arising from remote sensing measurements,” in Theory and Applications of Monte Carlo Simulations, S. Mordechai, ed. (INTECH, 2011).

M. H. Kalos and P. A. Whitlock, Monte Carlo Methods. Volume I: Basics (John Wiley & Sons, 1986).

M. Iqbal, An Introduction to Solar Radiation (Academic Press, 1983).

C. P. Robert and G. Casella, Monte Carlo Statistical Methods (Springer, 2004).

J. Lenoble, ed., “Standard Procedures to Compute Atmospheric Radiative Transfer in a Scattering Atmosphere - Volume I, International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics (IAMAP), ” Boulder, Colorado, USA (1977).

Y. Fouquart, W. M. Irvine, and J. Lenoble, eds., “Standard Procedures to Compute Atmospheric Radiative Transfer in a Scattering Atmosphere - Volume II, International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics (IAMAP),” Boulder, Colorado, USA (1980).

J. Pukıte, S. Kühl, T. Deutschmann, W. Wilms-Grabe, C. Friedeburg, U. Platt, and T. Wagner, “Retrieval of stratospheric trace gases from SCIAMACHY limb measurements,” Proceedings of the First Atmospheric Science Conference, 8–12 May, ESA/ESRIN, Frascati, Italy, ESA SP-628, (2006). http://earth.esa.int/workshops/atmos2006/participants/1148/paper proc Frasc 2.pdf

G. C. Pomraning, Radiation Hydrodynamics, Los Alamos National Laboratory Radiation Hydrodynamics Short Course Attendees, (1982), http://www.osti.gov/energycitations/servlets/purl/656708-zO5SF0/webviewable/656708.pdf

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S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer, (Dover Publications, Inc., 1960).

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F. Kneizys, D. Robertson, L. W. Abreu, P. Acharya, G. P. Anderson, L. S. Rothman, J. H. Chetwynd, J. E. A. Selby, E. P. Shettle, W. O. Gallery, A. Berk, S. A. Clough, and L. S. Bernstein, “The MODTRAN 2/3 Report and LOWTRAN7 MODEL,” Phillips Laboratory, Geophysics Directorate, Hanscom AFB, MA (1996).

P. Acharya, S. M. Adler-Golden, G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, et al., “Modtran version 3.7/4.0 user’s manual,” Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate, Air Force MATERIEL Command, Hanscom AFB, MA (1998).

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, J. H. Chetwynd, L. Bernstein, and E. P. Shettle, “MODTRAN4 user’s manual,” Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate, Air Force Materiel Command, Hanscom AFB, MA (1999).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Multi-region 3D spherical geometry: a) a set of three cones with the vertex at the Erth centre; b) vertical half planes having the z axis as intersection line with azimuth angle ψi and ψj defined in (x,y) plane; c) a horizontal section of a possible geometry with three cones and 5, 7 half planes for the second and third cone, respectively; d) a vertical section with three cones of aperture θ1, θ2, θ3 and ground heights h1, h2 and h3.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

AMFs for O3 (left) and for NO2 (right) calculated as in Eq. (13) (AMFSA, red line) and Eq. (14) (AMFWA, blue line). The red line for NO2 has been shifted upward of 0.5 to make it distinguishable from the blue line.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

AMFs computed for ozone and nitrogen dioxide at three different wavelengths: 310 nm (blue), 435 nm (green), 550 nm (red). The atmospheric model used was that of MODTRAN4 for mid latitude winter, with urban aerosol extinction, visibility = 35 Km.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Absolute absorption cross sections for O3 and NO2 in the 250-650 nm spectral range at a 273 °K temperature.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison between simulated (blue) and measured (cyan) NO2 slant column densities. The measurements were carried out on 22 august 2009 at Evora (38°33′36”N, 7°54′ W), Portugal.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Point Detector: MOCRA - MODTRAN-4 Comparison for vis = 5 Km (for wavelength and atmospheric conditions see text)*

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Table 2 Point Detector: MOCRA - MODTRAN-4 Comparison for vis = 23 Km a

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Table 3 Horizontal Looking Point Detector Radiance, MOCRA-MODTRAN 4 Comparison, Mid Latitude Winter Model, Urban Extinction. Units: watt/ (cm2-ster-cm−1)

Equations (16)

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I ( r , Ω ) = Γ ( r s , Ω ) exp [ 0 | r r s | d s k ( r s Ω ) ] + 0 | r r s | d s Q ( r s Ω , Ω ) exp [ 0 s d s k ( r s Ω ) ]
Q ( r , Ω ) = S ( r ) + 4 π d Ω k s ( r , Ω Ω ) I ( r , Ω ) l .
k a = k a [ 1 exp ( h ν / K T ) ]
τ ( r , r s ) = 0 | r r s | d s k ( r s Ω )
I T = I ( z ) d z
I T = i Δ z i Δ z i I ( z ) ( d z / Δ z i )
I T = Δ Ω I ( Ω ) d Ω = Δ Ω Δ Ω I ( Ω ) d Ω / Δ Ω
k M s ( λ ) = 24 π 3 N λ 4 [ n 2 1 n 2 + 2 ] 2 6 + 3 δ 6 7 δ
p ( θ ) = 3 16 π 2 ( 2 + δ ) [ ( 1 + δ ) + ( 1 δ ) cos 2 θ ]
p ( θ ) = 1 4 π 1 g 2 ( 1 + g 2 + 2 g cos θ ) 3 2
g = 4 π p ( θ ) cos θ d Ω
F O M = 1 t σ μ 2
A M F = ln ( I I * ) δ a
A M F W A = δ O P T δ a
δ O P T = i D i I i * i I i *
A M F b = d S C D g d V C D b = 1 h b σ b d ln I g d n b = 1 h b d ln I g d β b .

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