Abstract

A novel technique for the localization of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) interaction is proposed, analyzed and demonstrated experimentally. The method relies on the phase modulation of two counter-propagating optical waves by a common pseudo-random bit sequence (PRBS), these waves being spectrally detuned by the Brillouin frequency shift. The PRBS symbol duration is much shorter than the acoustic lifetime. The interference between the two modulated waves gives rise to an acoustic grating that is confined to narrow correlation peaks, as short as 1.7 cm. The separation between neighboring peaks, which is governed by the PRBS length, can be made arbitrarily long. The method is demonstrated in the generation and applications of dynamic gratings in polarization maintaining (PM) fibers. Localized and stationary acoustic gratings are induced by two phase modulated pumps that are polarized along one principal axis of the PM fiber, and interrogated by a third, readout wave which is polarized along the orthogonal axis. Using the proposed technique, we demonstrate the variable delay of 1 ns-long readout pulses by as much as 770 ns. Noise due to reflections from residual off-peak gratings and its implications on the potential variable delay of optical communication data are discussed. The method is equally applicable to the modulation of pump and probe waves in SBS over standard fibers.

© 2012 OSA

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References

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  1. R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 3rd edition, (Academic Press, 2008).
  2. T. Kurashima, T. Horiguchi, and M. Tateda, “Distributed-temperature sensing using stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical silica fibers,” Opt. Lett. 15(18), 1038–1040 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. K. Y. Song, W. Zou, Z. He, and K. Hotate, “All-optical dynamic grating generation based on Brillouin scattering in polarization-maintaining fiber,” Opt. Lett. 33(9), 926–928 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Y. Dong, X. Bao, and L. Chen, “Distributed temperature sensing based on birefringence effect on transient Brillouin grating in a polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 34(17), 2590–2592 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Y. Dong, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “Truly distributed birefringence measurement of polarization-maintaining fibers based on transient Brillouin grating,” Opt. Lett. 35(2), 193–195 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. K. Y. Song, S. Chin, N. Primerov, and L. Thevenaz, “Time-domain distributed fiber sensor with 1 cm spatial resolution based on Brillouin dynamic grating,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(14), 2062–2067 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. K. Y. Song and H. J. Yoon, “Observation of narrowband intrinsic spectra of Brillouin dynamic gratings,” Opt. Lett. 35(17), 2958–2960 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. Y. Dong, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “Characterization of the Brillouin grating spectra in a polarization-maintaining fiber,” Opt. Express 18(18), 18960–18967 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. S. Chin, N. Primerov, and L. Thevenaz, “Sub-centimeter spatial resolution in distributed fiber sensing based on dynamic Brillouin grating in optical fibers,” IEEE Sens. J. 12(1), 189–194 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  25. S. Chin, N. Primerov, and L. Thevenaz, “Photonic delay line for broadband optical signals, based on dynamic grating reflectors in fibers,” 2010 36th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication - (ECOC 2010), Torino, Italy, (2010).
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  29. J. B. Khurgin, “Performance limits of delay lines based on optical amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 31(7), 948–950 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. R. W. Boyd and P. Narum, “Slow- and fast-light: fundamental limitations,” J. Mod. Opt. 54(16-17), 2403–2411 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  31. M. Santagiustina, and L. Ursini, “Localized Dynamic Brillouin Gratings Permanently Induced by Chaotic Signals,” in Signal Processing in Photonic Communications, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper JTuB6.
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

S. Chin, N. Primerov, and L. Thevenaz, “Sub-centimeter spatial resolution in distributed fiber sensing based on dynamic Brillouin grating in optical fibers,” IEEE Sens. J. 12(1), 189–194 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

2010 (7)

2009 (4)

2008 (2)

2007 (1)

R. W. Boyd and P. Narum, “Slow- and fast-light: fundamental limitations,” J. Mod. Opt. 54(16-17), 2403–2411 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

2002 (1)

K. Hotate and M. Tanaka, “Distributed fiber Brillouin strain Sensing with 1-cm spatial resolution by correlation-based continuous-wave technique,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(2), 179–181 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

K. Hotate and T. Hasegawa, “Measurement of Brillouin gain spectrum distribution along an optical fiber using a correlation-based technique – proposal, experiment and simulation,” IEICE Trans. Electron, E 83-C, 405–412 (2000).

1997 (1)

T. Erdogan, “Fiber grating spectra,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1277–1294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1993 (1)

1990 (2)

T. Kurashima, T. Horiguchi, and M. Tateda, “Distributed-temperature sensing using stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical silica fibers,” Opt. Lett. 15(18), 1038–1040 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Horiguchi, T. Kurashima, and M. Tateda, “A technique to measure distributed strain in optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2(5), 352–354 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

Bao, X.

Beugnot, J.-C.

Boyd, R. W.

Capmany, J.

Chen, L.

Chen, L. A.

X. Bao and L. A. Chen, “Recent progress in brillouin scattering based fiber sensors,” Sensors (Basel) 11(4), 4152–4187 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chin, S.

S. Chin, N. Primerov, and L. Thevenaz, “Sub-centimeter spatial resolution in distributed fiber sensing based on dynamic Brillouin grating in optical fibers,” IEEE Sens. J. 12(1), 189–194 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Song, S. Chin, N. Primerov, and L. Thevenaz, “Time-domain distributed fiber sensor with 1 cm spatial resolution based on Brillouin dynamic grating,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(14), 2062–2067 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dong, Y.

Erdogan, T.

T. Erdogan, “Fiber grating spectra,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1277–1294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Eyal, A.

Gaeta, A. L.

Gauthier, D. J.

Hasegawa, T.

K. Hotate and T. Hasegawa, “Measurement of Brillouin gain spectrum distribution along an optical fiber using a correlation-based technique – proposal, experiment and simulation,” IEICE Trans. Electron, E 83-C, 405–412 (2000).

He, Z.

Horiguchi, T.

Hotate, K.

Jackson, D. A.

Khurgin, J. B.

Kurashima, T.

T. Horiguchi, T. Kurashima, and M. Tateda, “A technique to measure distributed strain in optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2(5), 352–354 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. Kurashima, T. Horiguchi, and M. Tateda, “Distributed-temperature sensing using stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical silica fibers,” Opt. Lett. 15(18), 1038–1040 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, K.

Lee, S. B.

Mafang, S. F.

Narum, P.

R. W. Boyd and P. Narum, “Slow- and fast-light: fundamental limitations,” J. Mod. Opt. 54(16-17), 2403–2411 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Niklès, M.

Okawachi, Y.

Ortega, B.

Pastor, D.

Primerov, N.

S. Chin, N. Primerov, and L. Thevenaz, “Sub-centimeter spatial resolution in distributed fiber sensing based on dynamic Brillouin grating in optical fibers,” IEEE Sens. J. 12(1), 189–194 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Song, S. Chin, N. Primerov, and L. Thevenaz, “Time-domain distributed fiber sensor with 1 cm spatial resolution based on Brillouin dynamic grating,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(14), 2062–2067 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Robert, P. A.

Sales, S.

Sharping, J. E.

Song, K. Y.

Tanaka, M.

K. Hotate and M. Tanaka, “Distributed fiber Brillouin strain Sensing with 1-cm spatial resolution by correlation-based continuous-wave technique,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(2), 179–181 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tateda, M.

Thevenaz, L.

S. Chin, N. Primerov, and L. Thevenaz, “Sub-centimeter spatial resolution in distributed fiber sensing based on dynamic Brillouin grating in optical fibers,” IEEE Sens. J. 12(1), 189–194 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Song, S. Chin, N. Primerov, and L. Thevenaz, “Time-domain distributed fiber sensor with 1 cm spatial resolution based on Brillouin dynamic grating,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(14), 2062–2067 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Thevenaz, “Slow and fast light in optical fibers,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 474–481 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thévenaz, L.

Tur, M.

Webb, D. J.

Willner, A. E.

Yoon, H. J.

Zadok, A.

Zhu, Z.

Zou, W.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Front. Optoelectron. China (1)

L. Thévenaz, “Brillouin distributed time-domain sensing in optical fibers: state of the art and perspectives,” Front. Optoelectron. China 3(1), 13–21 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

T. Horiguchi, T. Kurashima, and M. Tateda, “A technique to measure distributed strain in optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2(5), 352–354 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. Hotate and M. Tanaka, “Distributed fiber Brillouin strain Sensing with 1-cm spatial resolution by correlation-based continuous-wave technique,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(2), 179–181 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Dong, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “High-spatial-resolution simultaneous strain and temperature sensor using Brillouin scattering and birefringence in a polarization-maintaining fibre,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1364–1366 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

S. Chin, N. Primerov, and L. Thevenaz, “Sub-centimeter spatial resolution in distributed fiber sensing based on dynamic Brillouin grating in optical fibers,” IEEE Sens. J. 12(1), 189–194 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Trans. Electron, E (1)

K. Hotate and T. Hasegawa, “Measurement of Brillouin gain spectrum distribution along an optical fiber using a correlation-based technique – proposal, experiment and simulation,” IEICE Trans. Electron, E 83-C, 405–412 (2000).

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

R. W. Boyd and P. Narum, “Slow- and fast-light: fundamental limitations,” J. Mod. Opt. 54(16-17), 2403–2411 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nat. Photonics (1)

L. Thevenaz, “Slow and fast light in optical fibers,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 474–481 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (11)

W. Zou, Z. He, K. Y. Song, and K. Hotate, “Correlation-based distributed measurement of a dynamic grating spectrum generated in stimulated Brillouin scattering in a polarization-maintaining optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 1126–1128 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Y. Song and H. J. Yoon, “Observation of narrowband intrinsic spectra of Brillouin dynamic gratings,” Opt. Lett. 35(17), 2958–2960 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Dong, X. Bao, and L. Chen, “Distributed temperature sensing based on birefringence effect on transient Brillouin grating in a polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 34(17), 2590–2592 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Y. Song and H. J. Yoon, “High-resolution Brillouin optical time domain analysis based on Brillouin dynamic grating,” Opt. Lett. 35(1), 52–54 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Dong, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “Truly distributed birefringence measurement of polarization-maintaining fibers based on transient Brillouin grating,” Opt. Lett. 35(2), 193–195 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Khurgin, “Performance limits of delay lines based on optical amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 31(7), 948–950 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Y. Song, W. Zou, Z. He, and K. Hotate, “All-optical dynamic grating generation based on Brillouin scattering in polarization-maintaining fiber,” Opt. Lett. 33(9), 926–928 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Horiguchi and M. Tateda, “Optical-fiber-attenuation investigation using stimulated Brillouin scattering between a pulse and a continuous wave,” Opt. Lett. 14(8), 408–410 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kurashima, T. Horiguchi, and M. Tateda, “Distributed-temperature sensing using stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical silica fibers,” Opt. Lett. 15(18), 1038–1040 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Bao, D. J. Webb, and D. A. Jackson, “22-km distributed temperature sensor using Brillouin gain in an optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 18(7), 552–554 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Niklès, L. Thévenaz, and P. A. Robert, “Simple distributed fiber sensor based on Brillouin gain spectrum analysis,” Opt. Lett. 21(10), 758–760 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sensors (Basel) (1)

X. Bao and L. A. Chen, “Recent progress in brillouin scattering based fiber sensors,” Sensors (Basel) 11(4), 4152–4187 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

S. Chin, N. Primerov, and L. Thevenaz, “Photonic delay line for broadband optical signals, based on dynamic grating reflectors in fibers,” 2010 36th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication - (ECOC 2010), Torino, Italy, (2010).

A. Fellay, L. Thevenaz, M. Facchini, M. Nikles, and P. Robert, “Distributing sensing using stimulated Brillouin scattering: Toward ultimate resolution,” in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Sensors Conference (OFS-12), 324–327 (1997).

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 3rd edition, (Academic Press, 2008).

M. Santagiustina, and L. Ursini, “Localized Dynamic Brillouin Gratings Permanently Induced by Chaotic Signals,” in Signal Processing in Photonic Communications, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper JTuB6.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Simulated magnitude of the acoustic wave density fluctuations, (in kg/m3), that is generated by two pumps, which are phase-modulated by a common pseudo-random bit sequence, as a function of position z and time t within a 1 m-long fiber. The frequency separation between the two pumps was chosen to match the Brillouin frequency shift in the fiber. The modulation symbol rate T was 200 ps.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup for the generation and characterization of dynamic acoustic gratings, using SBS with phase-modulated pump waves. PC: polarization controller.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic illustration of the relative frequencies, states of polarization and directions of propagations for the two pump waves, readout signal and reflection in a dynamic acoustic grating measurement.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Reflected waveforms from dynamic acoustic gratings, interrogated with 260 ps long, isolated periodic readout pulses. a) – Grating written by continuous wave pumps. b) The phases of both pump waves was modulated by a PRBS, T = 1 ns. c) Same as b), T = 167 ps.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Temporal profile of the readout pulses at the input of the fiber under test, and following reflection from a dynamic grating generated by phase-modulated pumps, T = 167 ps.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Variable delay of reflected isolated and periodic readout pulses. The pulses were reflected from dynamic gratings, introduced by the 10th correlation peak of phase-modulated pump waves. The PRBS modulation clock rates 1/T were (left to right): 1.120 GHz, 1.108 GHz, 1.093 GHz, 1.078 GHz, 1.063 GHz, 1.048 GHz, 1.033 GHz. (The right-most peak, which is common to all PRBS rates, is due to a parasitic reflection.)

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Variable delay of reflected isolated and periodic readout pulses. The pulses were reflected from dynamic gratings, introduced by the 10th correlation peak of phase-modulated pump waves. The PRBS modulation clock rate 1/T for the right-most peak was 1.118670 GHz. The clock rate was raised by 100 kHz, 200 kHz, 300 kHz and 400 kHz for the second through fifth peaks from the right, respectively.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Vector network analyzer measurements of the power transfer function of the reflections from dynamic gratings. The gratings were generated with phase-modulated pumps, using PRBS with clock rates 1/T of 1 GHz. 2 GHz, 4 GHz and 6 GHz.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Simulated optical signal to noise ratios for the reflections of on-off keying data from PRBS-driven dynamic gratings. Calculations were made for various fiber lengths L and PRBS symbol durations T. The acoustic lifetime was taken to be 6 ns. In all simulations, the on-off-keying symbol duration was set to 2T, in order to remove the effects of the variable grating bandwidth (see Fig. 8). The results are compared with the optical signal to noise ratios that are predicted by a simplified analytic model.

Equations (8)

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E 1 ( t , z ) = A 1 ( t , z ) exp ( j ω 1 t ) + c . c . ,
E 2 ( t , z ) = A 2 ( t , z ) exp [ j ( ω 1 + Ω ) t ] + c . c .
A 1 ( t , z = 0 ) = A 2 ( t , z = L ) = A ( t ) = A 0 { n rect [ ( t n T ) / T ] exp ( j φ n ) } .
Q ( t , z ) t + j Ω B 2 ( z ) Ω 2 j Ω Γ B 2 Ω Q ( t , z ) = j g 1 A 1 ( t , z ) A 2 ( t , z ) .
Q ( t , z ) = j g 1 exp ( Γ A t ) 0 t exp ( Γ A t ' ) A ( t ' z v g ) A ( t ' L z v g ) d t ' = j g 1 0 t exp [ Γ A ( t t ' ) ] A ( t ' z v g ) A ( t ' L z v g ) d t ' = j g 1 0 t exp [ Γ A ( t t ' ) ] A ( t ' z v g ) A [ t ' z v g θ ( z ) ] d t ' .
ω s i g = ω 2 + Δ ω = ω 2 Δ n n y g + ( n y g n y ) Δ n n y g ω 2 ω 2 Δ n n y g ω 2 .
Q ˜ ( t , z ) j g 1 t 2 τ t A ( t ' ) A [ t ' θ ( z ) ] d t ' .
OSNR = 1 2 | S | 2 ( Δ z ) 2 1 2 N σ Δ z 2 ( Δ z ) 2 = 1 2 4 τ 2 g 1 2 | A 0 | 4 1 2 T D T 2 τ T g 1 2 | A 0 | 4 = 2 τ T D .

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