Abstract

We report on the fabrication and characterization of straight dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polaritons waveguides doped with lead-sulfide quantum dots as a near infra-red gain medium. A loss compensation of ~33% (an optical gain of ~143 cm−1) was observed in the guided mode. The mode propagation, coupling efficiency and stimulated emission were characterized using leakage radiation microscopy. The guided mode signature was separated using spatial filters in the Fourier plane of the microscope for quantitative measurements of stimulated emission.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. González, and R. Quidant, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: Figures of merit and mode characterization by image and Fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 78(24), 245419 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H.-J. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science 290(5490), 314–317 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2935–2939 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. P. M. Bolger, W. Dickson, A. V. Krasavin, L. Liebscher, S. G. Hickey, D. V. Skryabin, and A. V. Zayats, “Amplified spontaneous emission of surface plasmon polaritons and limitations on the increase of their propagation length,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1197–1199 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. P. Berini and I. De Leon, “Surface plasmon-polariton amplifiers and lasers,” Nat. Photonics 6(1), 16–24 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  24. I. P. Radko, M. G. Nielsen, O. Albrektsen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Stimulated emission of surface plasmon polaritons by lead-sulphide quantum dots at near infra-red wavelengths,” Opt. Express 18(18), 18633–18641 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (5)

2010 (3)

2009 (3)

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, and A. V. Zayats, “Wavelength selection by dielectric-loaded plasmonic components,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(5), 051111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Coello and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface plasmon polariton excitation and manipulation by nanoparticle arrays,” Opt. Commun. 282(14), 3032–3036 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (5)

I. P. Radko, A. B. Evlyukhin, A. Boltasseva, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Refracting surface plasmon polaritons with nanoparticle arrays,” Opt. Express 16(6), 3924–3930 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. González, and R. Quidant, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: Figures of merit and mode characterization by image and Fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 78(24), 245419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Noginov, V. A. Podolskiy, G. Zhu, M. Mayy, M. Bahoura, J. A. Adegoke, B. A. Ritzo, and K. Reynolds, “Compensation of loss in propagating surface plasmon polariton by gain in adjacent dielectric medium,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1385–1392 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, M. Mayy, B. A. Ritzo, N. Noginova, and V. A. Podolskiy, “Stimulated emission of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(22), 226806 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ambati, S. H. Nam, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Observation of stimulated emission of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3998–4001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

T. Holmgaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Theoretical analysis of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 75(24), 245405 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

J. Seidel, S. Grafström, and L. Eng, “Stimulated emission of surface plasmons at the interface between a silver film and an optically pumped dye solution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(17), 177401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

V. Coello, T. Søndergaard, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Modeling of a surface plasmon polariton interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 240(4-6), 345–350 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Søndergaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Vectorial model for multiple scattering by surface nanoparticles via surface polariton-to-polariton interactions,” Phys. Rev. B 67(16), 165405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Bergman and M. I. Stockman, “Surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation: quantum generation of coherent surface plasmons in nanosystems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(2), 027402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H.-J. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science 290(5490), 314–317 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adegoke, J. A.

Albrektsen, O.

Ambati, M.

M. Ambati, S. H. Nam, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Observation of stimulated emission of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3998–4001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andersen, T. B.

Bahoura, M.

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartal, G.

M. Ambati, S. H. Nam, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Observation of stimulated emission of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3998–4001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bawendi, M. G.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H.-J. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science 290(5490), 314–317 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergman, D. J.

D. J. Bergman and M. I. Stockman, “Surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation: quantum generation of coherent surface plasmons in nanosystems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(2), 027402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berini, P.

P. Berini and I. De Leon, “Surface plasmon-polariton amplifiers and lasers,” Nat. Photonics 6(1), 16–24 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. De Leon and P. Berini, “Amplification of long-range surface plasmons by a dipolar gain medium,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 382–387 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bolger, P. M.

Boltasseva, A.

Bouhelier, A.

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. González, and R. Quidant, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: Figures of merit and mode characterization by image and Fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 78(24), 245419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

J. Gosciniak, T. Holmgaard, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Theoretical analysis of long-range dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(10), 1473–1481 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Kumar, J. Gosciniak, T. B. Andersen, L. Markey, A. Dereux, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Power monitoring in dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express 19(4), 2972–2978 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. S. Volkov, Z. Han, M. G. Nielsen, K. Leosson, H. Keshmiri, J. Gosciniak, O. Albrektsen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Long-range dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides operating at telecommunication wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 36(21), 4278–4280 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. P. Radko, J. Fiutowski, L. Tavares, H.-G. Rubahn, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Organic nanofiber-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15155–15161 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. P. Radko, M. G. Nielsen, O. Albrektsen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Stimulated emission of surface plasmon polaritons by lead-sulphide quantum dots at near infra-red wavelengths,” Opt. Express 18(18), 18633–18641 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Coello and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface plasmon polariton excitation and manipulation by nanoparticle arrays,” Opt. Commun. 282(14), 3032–3036 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, and A. V. Zayats, “Wavelength selection by dielectric-loaded plasmonic components,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(5), 051111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Radko, A. B. Evlyukhin, A. Boltasseva, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Refracting surface plasmon polaritons with nanoparticle arrays,” Opt. Express 16(6), 3924–3930 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Holmgaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Theoretical analysis of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 75(24), 245405 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Coello, T. Søndergaard, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Modeling of a surface plasmon polariton interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 240(4-6), 345–350 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Søndergaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Vectorial model for multiple scattering by surface nanoparticles via surface polariton-to-polariton interactions,” Phys. Rev. B 67(16), 165405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, and A. V. Zayats, “Wavelength selection by dielectric-loaded plasmonic components,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(5), 051111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Coello, V.

V. Coello and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface plasmon polariton excitation and manipulation by nanoparticle arrays,” Opt. Commun. 282(14), 3032–3036 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Coello, T. Søndergaard, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Modeling of a surface plasmon polariton interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 240(4-6), 345–350 (2004).
[CrossRef]

De Leon, I.

P. Berini and I. De Leon, “Surface plasmon-polariton amplifiers and lasers,” Nat. Photonics 6(1), 16–24 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. De Leon and P. Berini, “Amplification of long-range surface plasmons by a dipolar gain medium,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 382–387 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dereux, A.

A. Kumar, J. Gosciniak, T. B. Andersen, L. Markey, A. Dereux, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Power monitoring in dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express 19(4), 2972–2978 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, and A. V. Zayats, “Wavelength selection by dielectric-loaded plasmonic components,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(5), 051111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. González, and R. Quidant, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: Figures of merit and mode characterization by image and Fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 78(24), 245419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

des Francs, G.

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. González, and R. Quidant, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: Figures of merit and mode characterization by image and Fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 78(24), 245419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

des Francs, G. C.

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dickson, W.

Ebbesen, T. W.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eisler, H.-J.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H.-J. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science 290(5490), 314–317 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eng, L.

J. Seidel, S. Grafström, and L. Eng, “Stimulated emission of surface plasmons at the interface between a silver film and an optically pumped dye solution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(17), 177401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evlyukhin, A. B.

Finot, C.

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fiutowski, J.

Genov, D. A.

M. Ambati, S. H. Nam, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Observation of stimulated emission of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3998–4001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

González, M. U.

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. González, and R. Quidant, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: Figures of merit and mode characterization by image and Fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 78(24), 245419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gosciniak, J.

Grafström, S.

J. Seidel, S. Grafström, and L. Eng, “Stimulated emission of surface plasmons at the interface between a silver film and an optically pumped dye solution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(17), 177401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grandidier, J.

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. González, and R. Quidant, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: Figures of merit and mode characterization by image and Fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 78(24), 245419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Han, Z.

Hickey, S. G.

Hollingsworth, J. A.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H.-J. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science 290(5490), 314–317 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holmgaard, T.

J. Gosciniak, T. Holmgaard, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Theoretical analysis of long-range dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(10), 1473–1481 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, and A. V. Zayats, “Wavelength selection by dielectric-loaded plasmonic components,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(5), 051111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Holmgaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Theoretical analysis of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 75(24), 245405 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Keshmiri, H.

Klimov, V. I.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H.-J. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science 290(5490), 314–317 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krasavin, A. V.

P. M. Bolger, W. Dickson, A. V. Krasavin, L. Liebscher, S. G. Hickey, D. V. Skryabin, and A. V. Zayats, “Amplified spontaneous emission of surface plasmon polaritons and limitations on the increase of their propagation length,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1197–1199 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, and A. V. Zayats, “Wavelength selection by dielectric-loaded plasmonic components,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(5), 051111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, A.

Leatherdale, C. A.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H.-J. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science 290(5490), 314–317 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leosson, K.

Liebscher, L.

Malko, A.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H.-J. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science 290(5490), 314–317 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Markey, L.

A. Kumar, J. Gosciniak, T. B. Andersen, L. Markey, A. Dereux, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Power monitoring in dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express 19(4), 2972–2978 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, and A. V. Zayats, “Wavelength selection by dielectric-loaded plasmonic components,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(5), 051111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. González, and R. Quidant, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: Figures of merit and mode characterization by image and Fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 78(24), 245419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Massenot, S.

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. González, and R. Quidant, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: Figures of merit and mode characterization by image and Fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 78(24), 245419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mayy, M.

Mikhailovsky, A. A.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H.-J. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science 290(5490), 314–317 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nam, S. H.

M. Ambati, S. H. Nam, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Observation of stimulated emission of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3998–4001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nielsen, M. G.

Noginov, M. A.

Noginova, N.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, M. Mayy, B. A. Ritzo, N. Noginova, and V. A. Podolskiy, “Stimulated emission of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(22), 226806 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Podolskiy, V. A.

Quidant, R.

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. González, and R. Quidant, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: Figures of merit and mode characterization by image and Fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 78(24), 245419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Radko, I. P.

Renger, J.

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. González, and R. Quidant, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: Figures of merit and mode characterization by image and Fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 78(24), 245419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Reynolds, K.

Ritzo, B. A.

Rubahn, H.-G.

Seidel, J.

J. Seidel, S. Grafström, and L. Eng, “Stimulated emission of surface plasmons at the interface between a silver film and an optically pumped dye solution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(17), 177401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skryabin, D. V.

Søndergaard, T.

V. Coello, T. Søndergaard, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Modeling of a surface plasmon polariton interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 240(4-6), 345–350 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Søndergaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Vectorial model for multiple scattering by surface nanoparticles via surface polariton-to-polariton interactions,” Phys. Rev. B 67(16), 165405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stockman, M. I.

D. J. Bergman and M. I. Stockman, “Surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation: quantum generation of coherent surface plasmons in nanosystems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(2), 027402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tavares, L.

Ulin-Avila, E.

M. Ambati, S. H. Nam, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Observation of stimulated emission of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3998–4001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Volkov, V. S.

Weeber, J.-C.

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. González, and R. Quidant, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: Figures of merit and mode characterization by image and Fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 78(24), 245419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, S.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H.-J. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science 290(5490), 314–317 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zayats, A. V.

P. M. Bolger, W. Dickson, A. V. Krasavin, L. Liebscher, S. G. Hickey, D. V. Skryabin, and A. V. Zayats, “Amplified spontaneous emission of surface plasmon polaritons and limitations on the increase of their propagation length,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1197–1199 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, and A. V. Zayats, “Wavelength selection by dielectric-loaded plasmonic components,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(5), 051111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

M. Ambati, S. H. Nam, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Observation of stimulated emission of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3998–4001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, G.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, and A. V. Zayats, “Wavelength selection by dielectric-loaded plasmonic components,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(5), 051111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Nano Lett. (2)

M. Ambati, S. H. Nam, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Observation of stimulated emission of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3998–4001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

P. Berini and I. De Leon, “Surface plasmon-polariton amplifiers and lasers,” Nat. Photonics 6(1), 16–24 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. De Leon and P. Berini, “Amplification of long-range surface plasmons by a dipolar gain medium,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 382–387 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (2)

V. Coello, T. Søndergaard, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Modeling of a surface plasmon polariton interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 240(4-6), 345–350 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Coello and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface plasmon polariton excitation and manipulation by nanoparticle arrays,” Opt. Commun. 282(14), 3032–3036 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (3)

T. Søndergaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Vectorial model for multiple scattering by surface nanoparticles via surface polariton-to-polariton interactions,” Phys. Rev. B 67(16), 165405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Holmgaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Theoretical analysis of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 75(24), 245405 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. González, and R. Quidant, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: Figures of merit and mode characterization by image and Fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 78(24), 245419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

D. J. Bergman and M. I. Stockman, “Surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation: quantum generation of coherent surface plasmons in nanosystems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(2), 027402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Seidel, S. Grafström, and L. Eng, “Stimulated emission of surface plasmons at the interface between a silver film and an optically pumped dye solution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(17), 177401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, M. Mayy, B. A. Ritzo, N. Noginova, and V. A. Podolskiy, “Stimulated emission of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(22), 226806 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H.-J. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science 290(5490), 314–317 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer, 1988).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Straight DLSPPW. (b) Cross section along the dashed line in (a). The PbS quantum dots are embedded inside de PMMA film.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Experimental setup. A beam-splitter (BS) is used to combine both laser beams. (b) Active DLSPPW. The small circle in the left represents the size and position where the probe laser spot was focused to couple into a DLSPP mode inside the waveguide and the big circle corresponds to the pump laser. (c) Schematic of the Fourier plane showing the three main contributions: the gold-air SPP (1), the incident beam (2) and a straight line that corresponds to the guided mode signature (3). The shaded rectangle represents the spatial filter used in the experimental setup and only (3) reached the detector.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) LRM image of the DLSPP mode propagating along the waveguide. (b) Intensity profile of the guided mode along the waveguide. (c) Guided mode power plotted for different values of the probe laser power in the absence of the pump laser.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Stimulated emission measured for different powers of the probe laser. Two values of the pump irradiance are also shown. (b) Stimulated emission dependence measured for different values of the pump irradiance at fixed probe power. Two different values of probe laser powers are plotted.

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