Abstract

Single crystal Silicon-Germanium multi-quantum well layers were epitaxially grown on silicon substrates. Very high quality films were achieved with high level of control utilizing recently developed MHAH epitaxial technique. MHAH growth technique facilitates the monolithic integration of photonic functionality such as modulators and photodetectors with low-cost silicon VLSI technology. Mesa structured p-i-n photodetectors were fabricated with low reverse leakage currents of ~10 mA/cm2 and responsivity values exceeding 0.1 A/W. Moreover, the spectral responsivity of fabricated detectors can be tuned by applied voltage.

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  1. J. Mathews, R. Roucka, J. Xie, S.-Q. Yu, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Extended performance GeSn/Si(100) p-i-n photodetectors for full spectral range telecommunication applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 133506 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. M. Nayfeh, C. O. Chui, K. C. Saraswat, and T. Yonehara, “Effects of hydrogen annealing on heteroepitaxial-Ge layers on Si: surface roughness and electrical quality,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(14), 2815–2817 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. K. Okyay, A. M. Nayfeh, K. C. Saraswat, T. Yonehara, A. Marshall, and P. C. McIntyre, “High-efficiency metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors on heteroepitaxially grown Ge on Si,” Opt. Lett. 31(17), 2565–2567 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. O. Fidaner, A. K. Okyay, J. E. Roth, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, K. C. Saraswat, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Ge–SiGe quantum-well waveguide photodetectors on silicon for the near-infrared,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(20), 1631–1633 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H.-Y. Yu, S. Ren, W. S. Jung, A. K. Okyay, D. A. B. Miller, and K. C. Saraswat, “High-efficiency p-i-n photodetectors on selective-area-grown Ge for monolithic integration,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(11), 1161–1163 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. B. Samavedam, M. T. Currie, T. A. Langdo, and E. A. Fitzgerald, “High-quality germanium photodiodes integrated on silicon substrates using optimized relaxed graded buffers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(15), 2125–2127 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. L. Liu, Z. Yang, and K. L. Wang, “Sb surfactant-mediated SiGe graded layers for Ge photodiodes integrated on Si,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(2), 024504 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Oehme, J. Werner, E. Kasper, M. Jutzi, and M. Berroth, “High bandwidth Ge p-i-n photodetector integrated on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071117 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. Ö. Ilday, F. X. Kärtner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. L. Colace, M. Balbi, G. Masini, G. Assanto, H.-C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “Ge on Si p-i-n photodiodes operating at 10 Gbit/s,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 101111 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Famà, L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, and H.-C. Luan, “High performance germanium-on-silicon detectors for optical communications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(4), 586–588 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. Ahn, C. Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3916–3921 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J.-M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J.-F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6252–6257 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. B. Li, G. Li, E. Liu, Z. Jiang, J. Qin, and X. Wang, “Monolithic integration of a SiGe/Si modulator and multiple quantum well photodetector for 1.55 μm operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(24), 3504–3505 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. D. Miller, D. Chemla, T. Damen, A. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. Wood, and C. Burrus, “Band-edge electroabsorption in quantum well structures: the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53(22), 2173–2176 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the band gap of quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. C. Chen, B. Yu, J. Liu, and Q. Dai, “Structural characteristics of SiGe/Si materials investigated by Raman spectroscopy,” Met. Mater. Int. 11(4), 279–283 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. Olivares, P. Martin, A. Rodriguez, J. Sangrador, J. Jimenez, and T. Rodríguez, “Raman spectroscopy study of amorphous SiGe films deposited by low pressure chemical vapor deposition and polycrystalline SiGe films obtained by solid-phase crystallization,” Thin Solid Films 358(1–2), 51–56 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H.-C. Luan, K. Wada, L. C. Kimerling, G. Masini, L. Colace, and G. Assanto, “High efficiency photodetectors based on high quality epitaxial germanium grown on silicon substrates,” Opt. Mater. 17(1-2), 71–73 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  21. P. R. Bandaru, S. Sahni, E. Yablonovitch, J. Liu, H.-J. Kim, and Y.-H. Xie, “Fabrication and characterization of low temperature (<450 °C) grown p-Ge/n-Si photodetectors for silicon based photonics,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113(1), 79–84 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  22. L. Colace, P. Ferrara, G. Assanto, D. Fulgoni, and L. Nash, “Low dark-current germanium-on-silicon near-infrared detectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1813–1815 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (3)

J. Mathews, R. Roucka, J. Xie, S.-Q. Yu, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Extended performance GeSn/Si(100) p-i-n photodetectors for full spectral range telecommunication applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 133506 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H.-Y. Yu, S. Ren, W. S. Jung, A. K. Okyay, D. A. B. Miller, and K. C. Saraswat, “High-efficiency p-i-n photodetectors on selective-area-grown Ge for monolithic integration,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(11), 1161–1163 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J.-M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J.-F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6252–6257 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

D. Ahn, C. Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3916–3921 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Fidaner, A. K. Okyay, J. E. Roth, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, K. C. Saraswat, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Ge–SiGe quantum-well waveguide photodetectors on silicon for the near-infrared,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(20), 1631–1633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Colace, P. Ferrara, G. Assanto, D. Fulgoni, and L. Nash, “Low dark-current germanium-on-silicon near-infrared detectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1813–1815 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

A. K. Okyay, A. M. Nayfeh, K. C. Saraswat, T. Yonehara, A. Marshall, and P. C. McIntyre, “High-efficiency metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors on heteroepitaxially grown Ge on Si,” Opt. Lett. 31(17), 2565–2567 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Liu, Z. Yang, and K. L. Wang, “Sb surfactant-mediated SiGe graded layers for Ge photodiodes integrated on Si,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(2), 024504 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Oehme, J. Werner, E. Kasper, M. Jutzi, and M. Berroth, “High bandwidth Ge p-i-n photodetector integrated on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Colace, M. Balbi, G. Masini, G. Assanto, H.-C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “Ge on Si p-i-n photodiodes operating at 10 Gbit/s,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 101111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. Ö. Ilday, F. X. Kärtner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Chen, B. Yu, J. Liu, and Q. Dai, “Structural characteristics of SiGe/Si materials investigated by Raman spectroscopy,” Met. Mater. Int. 11(4), 279–283 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

P. R. Bandaru, S. Sahni, E. Yablonovitch, J. Liu, H.-J. Kim, and Y.-H. Xie, “Fabrication and characterization of low temperature (<450 °C) grown p-Ge/n-Si photodetectors for silicon based photonics,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113(1), 79–84 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Nayfeh, C. O. Chui, K. C. Saraswat, and T. Yonehara, “Effects of hydrogen annealing on heteroepitaxial-Ge layers on Si: surface roughness and electrical quality,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(14), 2815–2817 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

S. Famà, L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, and H.-C. Luan, “High performance germanium-on-silicon detectors for optical communications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(4), 586–588 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

H.-C. Luan, K. Wada, L. C. Kimerling, G. Masini, L. Colace, and G. Assanto, “High efficiency photodetectors based on high quality epitaxial germanium grown on silicon substrates,” Opt. Mater. 17(1-2), 71–73 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. Olivares, P. Martin, A. Rodriguez, J. Sangrador, J. Jimenez, and T. Rodríguez, “Raman spectroscopy study of amorphous SiGe films deposited by low pressure chemical vapor deposition and polycrystalline SiGe films obtained by solid-phase crystallization,” Thin Solid Films 358(1–2), 51–56 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

B. Li, G. Li, E. Liu, Z. Jiang, J. Qin, and X. Wang, “Monolithic integration of a SiGe/Si modulator and multiple quantum well photodetector for 1.55 μm operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(24), 3504–3505 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Samavedam, M. T. Currie, T. A. Langdo, and E. A. Fitzgerald, “High-quality germanium photodiodes integrated on silicon substrates using optimized relaxed graded buffers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(15), 2125–2127 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the band gap of quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

D. Miller, D. Chemla, T. Damen, A. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. Wood, and C. Burrus, “Band-edge electroabsorption in quantum well structures: the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53(22), 2173–2176 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, D.

Assanto, G.

L. Colace, P. Ferrara, G. Assanto, D. Fulgoni, and L. Nash, “Low dark-current germanium-on-silicon near-infrared detectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1813–1815 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Colace, M. Balbi, G. Masini, G. Assanto, H.-C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “Ge on Si p-i-n photodiodes operating at 10 Gbit/s,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 101111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Famà, L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, and H.-C. Luan, “High performance germanium-on-silicon detectors for optical communications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(4), 586–588 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H.-C. Luan, K. Wada, L. C. Kimerling, G. Masini, L. Colace, and G. Assanto, “High efficiency photodetectors based on high quality epitaxial germanium grown on silicon substrates,” Opt. Mater. 17(1-2), 71–73 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Balbi, M.

L. Colace, M. Balbi, G. Masini, G. Assanto, H.-C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “Ge on Si p-i-n photodiodes operating at 10 Gbit/s,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 101111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bandaru, P. R.

P. R. Bandaru, S. Sahni, E. Yablonovitch, J. Liu, H.-J. Kim, and Y.-H. Xie, “Fabrication and characterization of low temperature (<450 °C) grown p-Ge/n-Si photodetectors for silicon based photonics,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113(1), 79–84 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Beals, M.

Berroth, M.

M. Oehme, J. Werner, E. Kasper, M. Jutzi, and M. Berroth, “High bandwidth Ge p-i-n photodetector integrated on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Burrus, C.

D. Miller, D. Chemla, T. Damen, A. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. Wood, and C. Burrus, “Band-edge electroabsorption in quantum well structures: the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53(22), 2173–2176 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Burrus, C. A.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the band gap of quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cannon, D. D.

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. Ö. Ilday, F. X. Kärtner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cassan, E.

Chemla, D.

D. Miller, D. Chemla, T. Damen, A. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. Wood, and C. Burrus, “Band-edge electroabsorption in quantum well structures: the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53(22), 2173–2176 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Chemla, D. S.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the band gap of quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, C.

C. Chen, B. Yu, J. Liu, and Q. Dai, “Structural characteristics of SiGe/Si materials investigated by Raman spectroscopy,” Met. Mater. Int. 11(4), 279–283 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

D. Ahn, C. Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3916–3921 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. Ö. Ilday, F. X. Kärtner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chui, C. O.

A. M. Nayfeh, C. O. Chui, K. C. Saraswat, and T. Yonehara, “Effects of hydrogen annealing on heteroepitaxial-Ge layers on Si: surface roughness and electrical quality,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(14), 2815–2817 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Colace, L.

L. Colace, P. Ferrara, G. Assanto, D. Fulgoni, and L. Nash, “Low dark-current germanium-on-silicon near-infrared detectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1813–1815 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Colace, M. Balbi, G. Masini, G. Assanto, H.-C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “Ge on Si p-i-n photodiodes operating at 10 Gbit/s,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 101111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Famà, L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, and H.-C. Luan, “High performance germanium-on-silicon detectors for optical communications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(4), 586–588 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H.-C. Luan, K. Wada, L. C. Kimerling, G. Masini, L. Colace, and G. Assanto, “High efficiency photodetectors based on high quality epitaxial germanium grown on silicon substrates,” Opt. Mater. 17(1-2), 71–73 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Crozat, P.

Currie, M. T.

S. B. Samavedam, M. T. Currie, T. A. Langdo, and E. A. Fitzgerald, “High-quality germanium photodiodes integrated on silicon substrates using optimized relaxed graded buffers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(15), 2125–2127 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dai, Q.

C. Chen, B. Yu, J. Liu, and Q. Dai, “Structural characteristics of SiGe/Si materials investigated by Raman spectroscopy,” Met. Mater. Int. 11(4), 279–283 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Damen, T.

D. Miller, D. Chemla, T. Damen, A. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. Wood, and C. Burrus, “Band-edge electroabsorption in quantum well structures: the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53(22), 2173–2176 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Damen, T. C.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the band gap of quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Damlencourt, J.-F.

Danielson, D. T.

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. Ö. Ilday, F. X. Kärtner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Famà, S.

S. Famà, L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, and H.-C. Luan, “High performance germanium-on-silicon detectors for optical communications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(4), 586–588 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fédéli, J.-M.

Ferrara, P.

L. Colace, P. Ferrara, G. Assanto, D. Fulgoni, and L. Nash, “Low dark-current germanium-on-silicon near-infrared detectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1813–1815 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fidaner, O.

O. Fidaner, A. K. Okyay, J. E. Roth, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, K. C. Saraswat, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Ge–SiGe quantum-well waveguide photodetectors on silicon for the near-infrared,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(20), 1631–1633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fitzgerald, E. A.

S. B. Samavedam, M. T. Currie, T. A. Langdo, and E. A. Fitzgerald, “High-quality germanium photodiodes integrated on silicon substrates using optimized relaxed graded buffers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(15), 2125–2127 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fulgoni, D.

L. Colace, P. Ferrara, G. Assanto, D. Fulgoni, and L. Nash, “Low dark-current germanium-on-silicon near-infrared detectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1813–1815 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ge, Y.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giziewicz, W.

D. Ahn, C. Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3916–3921 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. Ö. Ilday, F. X. Kärtner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gossard, A.

D. Miller, D. Chemla, T. Damen, A. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. Wood, and C. Burrus, “Band-edge electroabsorption in quantum well structures: the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53(22), 2173–2176 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Gossard, A. C.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the band gap of quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harris, J. S.

O. Fidaner, A. K. Okyay, J. E. Roth, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, K. C. Saraswat, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Ge–SiGe quantum-well waveguide photodetectors on silicon for the near-infrared,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(20), 1631–1633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, C. Y.

Ilday, F. Ö.

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. Ö. Ilday, F. X. Kärtner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Z.

B. Li, G. Li, E. Liu, Z. Jiang, J. Qin, and X. Wang, “Monolithic integration of a SiGe/Si modulator and multiple quantum well photodetector for 1.55 μm operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(24), 3504–3505 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jimenez, J.

J. Olivares, P. Martin, A. Rodriguez, J. Sangrador, J. Jimenez, and T. Rodríguez, “Raman spectroscopy study of amorphous SiGe films deposited by low pressure chemical vapor deposition and polycrystalline SiGe films obtained by solid-phase crystallization,” Thin Solid Films 358(1–2), 51–56 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jongthammanurak, S.

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. Ö. Ilday, F. X. Kärtner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jung, W. S.

H.-Y. Yu, S. Ren, W. S. Jung, A. K. Okyay, D. A. B. Miller, and K. C. Saraswat, “High-efficiency p-i-n photodetectors on selective-area-grown Ge for monolithic integration,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(11), 1161–1163 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jutzi, M.

M. Oehme, J. Werner, E. Kasper, M. Jutzi, and M. Berroth, “High bandwidth Ge p-i-n photodetector integrated on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kamins, T. I.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kärtner, F. X.

D. Ahn, C. Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3916–3921 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. Ö. Ilday, F. X. Kärtner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kasper, E.

M. Oehme, J. Werner, E. Kasper, M. Jutzi, and M. Berroth, “High bandwidth Ge p-i-n photodetector integrated on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.-J.

P. R. Bandaru, S. Sahni, E. Yablonovitch, J. Liu, H.-J. Kim, and Y.-H. Xie, “Fabrication and characterization of low temperature (<450 °C) grown p-Ge/n-Si photodetectors for silicon based photonics,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113(1), 79–84 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

D. Ahn, C. Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3916–3921 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Colace, M. Balbi, G. Masini, G. Assanto, H.-C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “Ge on Si p-i-n photodiodes operating at 10 Gbit/s,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 101111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. Ö. Ilday, F. X. Kärtner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H.-C. Luan, K. Wada, L. C. Kimerling, G. Masini, L. Colace, and G. Assanto, “High efficiency photodetectors based on high quality epitaxial germanium grown on silicon substrates,” Opt. Mater. 17(1-2), 71–73 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kouvetakis, J.

J. Mathews, R. Roucka, J. Xie, S.-Q. Yu, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Extended performance GeSn/Si(100) p-i-n photodetectors for full spectral range telecommunication applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 133506 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, Y.-H.

O. Fidaner, A. K. Okyay, J. E. Roth, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, K. C. Saraswat, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Ge–SiGe quantum-well waveguide photodetectors on silicon for the near-infrared,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(20), 1631–1633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langdo, T. A.

S. B. Samavedam, M. T. Currie, T. A. Langdo, and E. A. Fitzgerald, “High-quality germanium photodiodes integrated on silicon substrates using optimized relaxed graded buffers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(15), 2125–2127 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Laval, S.

Lecunff, Y.

Lee, Y. K.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, B.

B. Li, G. Li, E. Liu, Z. Jiang, J. Qin, and X. Wang, “Monolithic integration of a SiGe/Si modulator and multiple quantum well photodetector for 1.55 μm operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(24), 3504–3505 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

B. Li, G. Li, E. Liu, Z. Jiang, J. Qin, and X. Wang, “Monolithic integration of a SiGe/Si modulator and multiple quantum well photodetector for 1.55 μm operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(24), 3504–3505 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liu, E.

B. Li, G. Li, E. Liu, Z. Jiang, J. Qin, and X. Wang, “Monolithic integration of a SiGe/Si modulator and multiple quantum well photodetector for 1.55 μm operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(24), 3504–3505 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

D. Ahn, C. Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3916–3921 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. Ö. Ilday, F. X. Kärtner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Chen, B. Yu, J. Liu, and Q. Dai, “Structural characteristics of SiGe/Si materials investigated by Raman spectroscopy,” Met. Mater. Int. 11(4), 279–283 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Bandaru, S. Sahni, E. Yablonovitch, J. Liu, H.-J. Kim, and Y.-H. Xie, “Fabrication and characterization of low temperature (<450 °C) grown p-Ge/n-Si photodetectors for silicon based photonics,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113(1), 79–84 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J. L.

J. L. Liu, Z. Yang, and K. L. Wang, “Sb surfactant-mediated SiGe graded layers for Ge photodiodes integrated on Si,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(2), 024504 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Luan, H.-C.

L. Colace, M. Balbi, G. Masini, G. Assanto, H.-C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “Ge on Si p-i-n photodiodes operating at 10 Gbit/s,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 101111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Famà, L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, and H.-C. Luan, “High performance germanium-on-silicon detectors for optical communications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(4), 586–588 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H.-C. Luan, K. Wada, L. C. Kimerling, G. Masini, L. Colace, and G. Assanto, “High efficiency photodetectors based on high quality epitaxial germanium grown on silicon substrates,” Opt. Mater. 17(1-2), 71–73 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Marris-Morini, D.

Marshall, A.

Martin, P.

J. Olivares, P. Martin, A. Rodriguez, J. Sangrador, J. Jimenez, and T. Rodríguez, “Raman spectroscopy study of amorphous SiGe films deposited by low pressure chemical vapor deposition and polycrystalline SiGe films obtained by solid-phase crystallization,” Thin Solid Films 358(1–2), 51–56 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Masini, G.

L. Colace, M. Balbi, G. Masini, G. Assanto, H.-C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “Ge on Si p-i-n photodiodes operating at 10 Gbit/s,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 101111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Famà, L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, and H.-C. Luan, “High performance germanium-on-silicon detectors for optical communications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(4), 586–588 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H.-C. Luan, K. Wada, L. C. Kimerling, G. Masini, L. Colace, and G. Assanto, “High efficiency photodetectors based on high quality epitaxial germanium grown on silicon substrates,” Opt. Mater. 17(1-2), 71–73 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mathews, J.

J. Mathews, R. Roucka, J. Xie, S.-Q. Yu, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Extended performance GeSn/Si(100) p-i-n photodetectors for full spectral range telecommunication applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 133506 (2009).
[CrossRef]

McIntyre, P. C.

Menéndez, J.

J. Mathews, R. Roucka, J. Xie, S.-Q. Yu, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Extended performance GeSn/Si(100) p-i-n photodetectors for full spectral range telecommunication applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 133506 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Michel, J.

D. Ahn, C. Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3916–3921 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. Ö. Ilday, F. X. Kärtner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D.

D. Miller, D. Chemla, T. Damen, A. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. Wood, and C. Burrus, “Band-edge electroabsorption in quantum well structures: the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53(22), 2173–2176 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

H.-Y. Yu, S. Ren, W. S. Jung, A. K. Okyay, D. A. B. Miller, and K. C. Saraswat, “High-efficiency p-i-n photodetectors on selective-area-grown Ge for monolithic integration,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(11), 1161–1163 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Fidaner, A. K. Okyay, J. E. Roth, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, K. C. Saraswat, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Ge–SiGe quantum-well waveguide photodetectors on silicon for the near-infrared,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(20), 1631–1633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the band gap of quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nash, L.

L. Colace, P. Ferrara, G. Assanto, D. Fulgoni, and L. Nash, “Low dark-current germanium-on-silicon near-infrared detectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1813–1815 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nayfeh, A. M.

A. K. Okyay, A. M. Nayfeh, K. C. Saraswat, T. Yonehara, A. Marshall, and P. C. McIntyre, “High-efficiency metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors on heteroepitaxially grown Ge on Si,” Opt. Lett. 31(17), 2565–2567 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Nayfeh, C. O. Chui, K. C. Saraswat, and T. Yonehara, “Effects of hydrogen annealing on heteroepitaxial-Ge layers on Si: surface roughness and electrical quality,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(14), 2815–2817 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Oehme, M.

M. Oehme, J. Werner, E. Kasper, M. Jutzi, and M. Berroth, “High bandwidth Ge p-i-n photodetector integrated on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Okyay, A. K.

H.-Y. Yu, S. Ren, W. S. Jung, A. K. Okyay, D. A. B. Miller, and K. C. Saraswat, “High-efficiency p-i-n photodetectors on selective-area-grown Ge for monolithic integration,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(11), 1161–1163 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Fidaner, A. K. Okyay, J. E. Roth, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, K. C. Saraswat, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Ge–SiGe quantum-well waveguide photodetectors on silicon for the near-infrared,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(20), 1631–1633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Okyay, A. M. Nayfeh, K. C. Saraswat, T. Yonehara, A. Marshall, and P. C. McIntyre, “High-efficiency metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors on heteroepitaxially grown Ge on Si,” Opt. Lett. 31(17), 2565–2567 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olivares, J.

J. Olivares, P. Martin, A. Rodriguez, J. Sangrador, J. Jimenez, and T. Rodríguez, “Raman spectroscopy study of amorphous SiGe films deposited by low pressure chemical vapor deposition and polycrystalline SiGe films obtained by solid-phase crystallization,” Thin Solid Films 358(1–2), 51–56 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Osmond, J.

Pan, D.

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. Ö. Ilday, F. X. Kärtner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Qin, J.

B. Li, G. Li, E. Liu, Z. Jiang, J. Qin, and X. Wang, “Monolithic integration of a SiGe/Si modulator and multiple quantum well photodetector for 1.55 μm operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(24), 3504–3505 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ren, S.

H.-Y. Yu, S. Ren, W. S. Jung, A. K. Okyay, D. A. B. Miller, and K. C. Saraswat, “High-efficiency p-i-n photodetectors on selective-area-grown Ge for monolithic integration,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(11), 1161–1163 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodriguez, A.

J. Olivares, P. Martin, A. Rodriguez, J. Sangrador, J. Jimenez, and T. Rodríguez, “Raman spectroscopy study of amorphous SiGe films deposited by low pressure chemical vapor deposition and polycrystalline SiGe films obtained by solid-phase crystallization,” Thin Solid Films 358(1–2), 51–56 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rodríguez, T.

J. Olivares, P. Martin, A. Rodriguez, J. Sangrador, J. Jimenez, and T. Rodríguez, “Raman spectroscopy study of amorphous SiGe films deposited by low pressure chemical vapor deposition and polycrystalline SiGe films obtained by solid-phase crystallization,” Thin Solid Films 358(1–2), 51–56 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Roth, J. E.

O. Fidaner, A. K. Okyay, J. E. Roth, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, K. C. Saraswat, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Ge–SiGe quantum-well waveguide photodetectors on silicon for the near-infrared,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(20), 1631–1633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roucka, R.

J. Mathews, R. Roucka, J. Xie, S.-Q. Yu, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Extended performance GeSn/Si(100) p-i-n photodetectors for full spectral range telecommunication applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 133506 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sahni, S.

P. R. Bandaru, S. Sahni, E. Yablonovitch, J. Liu, H.-J. Kim, and Y.-H. Xie, “Fabrication and characterization of low temperature (<450 °C) grown p-Ge/n-Si photodetectors for silicon based photonics,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113(1), 79–84 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Samavedam, S. B.

S. B. Samavedam, M. T. Currie, T. A. Langdo, and E. A. Fitzgerald, “High-quality germanium photodiodes integrated on silicon substrates using optimized relaxed graded buffers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(15), 2125–2127 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sangrador, J.

J. Olivares, P. Martin, A. Rodriguez, J. Sangrador, J. Jimenez, and T. Rodríguez, “Raman spectroscopy study of amorphous SiGe films deposited by low pressure chemical vapor deposition and polycrystalline SiGe films obtained by solid-phase crystallization,” Thin Solid Films 358(1–2), 51–56 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Saraswat, K. C.

H.-Y. Yu, S. Ren, W. S. Jung, A. K. Okyay, D. A. B. Miller, and K. C. Saraswat, “High-efficiency p-i-n photodetectors on selective-area-grown Ge for monolithic integration,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(11), 1161–1163 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Fidaner, A. K. Okyay, J. E. Roth, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, K. C. Saraswat, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Ge–SiGe quantum-well waveguide photodetectors on silicon for the near-infrared,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(20), 1631–1633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Okyay, A. M. Nayfeh, K. C. Saraswat, T. Yonehara, A. Marshall, and P. C. McIntyre, “High-efficiency metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors on heteroepitaxially grown Ge on Si,” Opt. Lett. 31(17), 2565–2567 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Nayfeh, C. O. Chui, K. C. Saraswat, and T. Yonehara, “Effects of hydrogen annealing on heteroepitaxial-Ge layers on Si: surface roughness and electrical quality,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(14), 2815–2817 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schaevitz, R. K.

O. Fidaner, A. K. Okyay, J. E. Roth, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, K. C. Saraswat, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Ge–SiGe quantum-well waveguide photodetectors on silicon for the near-infrared,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(20), 1631–1633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vivien, L.

Wada, K.

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. Ö. Ilday, F. X. Kärtner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H.-C. Luan, K. Wada, L. C. Kimerling, G. Masini, L. Colace, and G. Assanto, “High efficiency photodetectors based on high quality epitaxial germanium grown on silicon substrates,” Opt. Mater. 17(1-2), 71–73 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K. L.

J. L. Liu, Z. Yang, and K. L. Wang, “Sb surfactant-mediated SiGe graded layers for Ge photodiodes integrated on Si,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(2), 024504 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

B. Li, G. Li, E. Liu, Z. Jiang, J. Qin, and X. Wang, “Monolithic integration of a SiGe/Si modulator and multiple quantum well photodetector for 1.55 μm operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(24), 3504–3505 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Werner, J.

M. Oehme, J. Werner, E. Kasper, M. Jutzi, and M. Berroth, “High bandwidth Ge p-i-n photodetector integrated on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wiegmann, W.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the band gap of quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Miller, D. Chemla, T. Damen, A. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. Wood, and C. Burrus, “Band-edge electroabsorption in quantum well structures: the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53(22), 2173–2176 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Wood, T.

D. Miller, D. Chemla, T. Damen, A. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. Wood, and C. Burrus, “Band-edge electroabsorption in quantum well structures: the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53(22), 2173–2176 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Wood, T. H.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the band gap of quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, J.

J. Mathews, R. Roucka, J. Xie, S.-Q. Yu, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Extended performance GeSn/Si(100) p-i-n photodetectors for full spectral range telecommunication applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 133506 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xie, Y.-H.

P. R. Bandaru, S. Sahni, E. Yablonovitch, J. Liu, H.-J. Kim, and Y.-H. Xie, “Fabrication and characterization of low temperature (<450 °C) grown p-Ge/n-Si photodetectors for silicon based photonics,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113(1), 79–84 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yablonovitch, E.

P. R. Bandaru, S. Sahni, E. Yablonovitch, J. Liu, H.-J. Kim, and Y.-H. Xie, “Fabrication and characterization of low temperature (<450 °C) grown p-Ge/n-Si photodetectors for silicon based photonics,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113(1), 79–84 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Z.

J. L. Liu, Z. Yang, and K. L. Wang, “Sb surfactant-mediated SiGe graded layers for Ge photodiodes integrated on Si,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(2), 024504 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yasaitis, J.

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. Ö. Ilday, F. X. Kärtner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yonehara, T.

A. K. Okyay, A. M. Nayfeh, K. C. Saraswat, T. Yonehara, A. Marshall, and P. C. McIntyre, “High-efficiency metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors on heteroepitaxially grown Ge on Si,” Opt. Lett. 31(17), 2565–2567 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Nayfeh, C. O. Chui, K. C. Saraswat, and T. Yonehara, “Effects of hydrogen annealing on heteroepitaxial-Ge layers on Si: surface roughness and electrical quality,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(14), 2815–2817 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yu, B.

C. Chen, B. Yu, J. Liu, and Q. Dai, “Structural characteristics of SiGe/Si materials investigated by Raman spectroscopy,” Met. Mater. Int. 11(4), 279–283 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yu, H.-Y.

H.-Y. Yu, S. Ren, W. S. Jung, A. K. Okyay, D. A. B. Miller, and K. C. Saraswat, “High-efficiency p-i-n photodetectors on selective-area-grown Ge for monolithic integration,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(11), 1161–1163 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, S.-Q.

J. Mathews, R. Roucka, J. Xie, S.-Q. Yu, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Extended performance GeSn/Si(100) p-i-n photodetectors for full spectral range telecommunication applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 133506 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

J. Mathews, R. Roucka, J. Xie, S.-Q. Yu, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Extended performance GeSn/Si(100) p-i-n photodetectors for full spectral range telecommunication applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 133506 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Nayfeh, C. O. Chui, K. C. Saraswat, and T. Yonehara, “Effects of hydrogen annealing on heteroepitaxial-Ge layers on Si: surface roughness and electrical quality,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(14), 2815–2817 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Oehme, J. Werner, E. Kasper, M. Jutzi, and M. Berroth, “High bandwidth Ge p-i-n photodetector integrated on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071117 (2006).
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J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. Ö. Ilday, F. X. Kärtner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Colace, M. Balbi, G. Masini, G. Assanto, H.-C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “Ge on Si p-i-n photodiodes operating at 10 Gbit/s,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 101111 (2006).
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S. Famà, L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, and H.-C. Luan, “High performance germanium-on-silicon detectors for optical communications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(4), 586–588 (2002).
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IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1)

H.-Y. Yu, S. Ren, W. S. Jung, A. K. Okyay, D. A. B. Miller, and K. C. Saraswat, “High-efficiency p-i-n photodetectors on selective-area-grown Ge for monolithic integration,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(11), 1161–1163 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

O. Fidaner, A. K. Okyay, J. E. Roth, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, K. C. Saraswat, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Ge–SiGe quantum-well waveguide photodetectors on silicon for the near-infrared,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(20), 1631–1633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Colace, P. Ferrara, G. Assanto, D. Fulgoni, and L. Nash, “Low dark-current germanium-on-silicon near-infrared detectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1813–1815 (2007).
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J. L. Liu, Z. Yang, and K. L. Wang, “Sb surfactant-mediated SiGe graded layers for Ge photodiodes integrated on Si,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(2), 024504 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. B (1)

P. R. Bandaru, S. Sahni, E. Yablonovitch, J. Liu, H.-J. Kim, and Y.-H. Xie, “Fabrication and characterization of low temperature (<450 °C) grown p-Ge/n-Si photodetectors for silicon based photonics,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113(1), 79–84 (2004).
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C. Chen, B. Yu, J. Liu, and Q. Dai, “Structural characteristics of SiGe/Si materials investigated by Raman spectroscopy,” Met. Mater. Int. 11(4), 279–283 (2005).
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Nature (1)

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
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Opt. Express (2)

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H.-C. Luan, K. Wada, L. C. Kimerling, G. Masini, L. Colace, and G. Assanto, “High efficiency photodetectors based on high quality epitaxial germanium grown on silicon substrates,” Opt. Mater. 17(1-2), 71–73 (2001).
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[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cross sectional transmission electron microscope (TEM) image of grown SiGe p-i-n MQW structure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Compositional depth profile of grown SiGe p-i-n MQW structure obtained by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and in situ etching.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photoluminescence spectra of SiGe p-i-n MQW (excitation wavelength is 225 nm).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Raman signal obtained for reference Si and SiGe MQW layers.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the completed p-i-n optical detector. The lower inset is an illustration of the device cross section, (b) Measured photodetector dark current as a function of mesa area at different bias voltages.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured spectral responsivity of fabricated devices with a mesa diameter of 80 µm.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 p-i-n MQW architectures (10 MQW pairs)

Tables Icon

Table 2 Reported Dark Current Density and Responsivity Values from Literature

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