Abstract

A compact, mobile mid-infrared laser spectrometer based on a thermoelectrically (TE) cooled continuous-wave room temperature quantum cascade laser and TE-cooled detectors has been newly developed to demonstrate the applicability of high sensitivity and high precision measurements of atmospheric CO. Performance of the instrument was examined with periodic measurements of reference sample and ambient air at 1 Hz sampling rate and a 1-hourly calibration cycle. The typical precision evaluated from replicate measurements of reference sample over the course of 66-h is 1.41 ppbv. With the utilization of wavelet filtering to improve the spectral SNR and minimize the dispersion of concentration values, a better precision of 0.88 ppbv and a lower detection limit of ~0.4 ppbv with sub-second averaging time have been achieved without reducing the fast temporal response. Allan variance analysis indicates a CO measurement precision of ~0.28 ppbv for optimal integration time of approximate 50 s. The absolute accuracy is limited by the calibration gas standard. This completely thermoelectrically cooled system shows the capability of long-term, unattended and continuous operation at room temperature without complicated cryogenic cooling.

© 2012 OSA

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2011 (4)

2010 (1)

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487(1-3), 1–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

R. Maulini, I. Dunayevskiy, A. Lyakh, A. Tsekoun, C. K. N. Patel, L. Diehl, C. Pflugl, and F. Capasso, “Widely tunable high-power external cavity quantum cascade laser operating in continuous-wave at room temperature,” Electron. Lett. 45(2), 107–108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

C. L. Schiller, H. Bozem, C. Gurk, U. Parchatka, R. Königstedt, G. W. Harris, J. Lelieveld, and H. Fischer, “Applications of quantum cascade lasers for sensitive trace gas measurements of CO, CH4, N2O and HCHO,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 419–430 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflugl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

B. W. M. Moeskops, H. Naus, S. M. Cristescu, and F. J. M. Harren, “Quantum cascade laser-based carbon monoxide detection on a second time scale from human breath,” Appl. Phys. B 82(4), 649–654 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

D. Weidmann, G. Wysocki, C. Oppenheimer, and F. K. Tittel, “Development of a compact quantum cascade laser spectrometer for field measurements of CO2 isotopes,” Appl. Phys. B 80(2), 255–260 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Kormann, R. Königstedt, U. Parchatka, J. Lelieveld, and H. Fischer, “QUALITAS: A mid-infrared spectrometer for sensitive trace gas measurements based on quantum cascade lasers in CW operation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(7), 075102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Provencal, M. Gupta, T. G. Owano, D. S. Baer, K. N. Ricci, A. O’Keefe, and J. R. Podolske, “Cavity-enhanced quantum-cascade laser-based instrument for carbon monoxide measurements,” Appl. Opt. 44(31), 6712–6717 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Jiménez, S. Herndon, J. H. Shorter, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, and M. S. Zahniser, “Atmospheric trace gas measurements using a dual quantum-cascade laser mid-infrared absorption spectrometer,” Proc. SPIE 5738, 318–331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

P. W. Werle, P. Mazzinghi, F. D’Amato, M. De Rosa, K. Maurer, and F. Slemr, “Signal processing and calibration procedures for in situ diode-laser absorption spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 60(8-9), 1685–1705 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

R. Kormann and H. Fischer, “A compact multi-laser TDLAS for trace gas flux measurements based on a micrometeorological technique,” Proc. SPIE 3758, 162–169 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

F. G. Wienhold, H. Fischer, P. Hoor, V. Wagner, R. Königstedt, G. W. Harris, J. Anders, R. Grisar, M. Knothe, W. J. Riedel, F.-J. Lübken, and T. Schilling, “TRISTAR–a tracer in situ TDLAS for atmospheric research,” Appl. Phys. B 67(4), 411–417 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

B. K. Alsberg, A. M. Woodward, M. K. Winson, J. Rowland, and D. B. Kell, “Wavelet denoising of infrared spectra,” Analyst (Lond.) 122(7), 645–652 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

D. L. Donoho, “De-noising by soft-thresholding,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 41(3), 613–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alsberg, B. K.

B. K. Alsberg, A. M. Woodward, M. K. Winson, J. Rowland, and D. B. Kell, “Wavelet denoising of infrared spectra,” Analyst (Lond.) 122(7), 645–652 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Anders, J.

F. G. Wienhold, H. Fischer, P. Hoor, V. Wagner, R. Königstedt, G. W. Harris, J. Anders, R. Grisar, M. Knothe, W. J. Riedel, F.-J. Lübken, and T. Schilling, “TRISTAR–a tracer in situ TDLAS for atmospheric research,” Appl. Phys. B 67(4), 411–417 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Audet, R.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflugl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Baer, D. S.

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Belkin, M. A.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflugl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bernath, P. F.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Boudon, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bour, D.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflugl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bozem, H.

C. L. Schiller, H. Bozem, C. Gurk, U. Parchatka, R. Königstedt, G. W. Harris, J. Lelieveld, and H. Fischer, “Applications of quantum cascade lasers for sensitive trace gas measurements of CO, CH4, N2O and HCHO,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 419–430 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Campargue, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487(1-3), 1–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Maulini, I. Dunayevskiy, A. Lyakh, A. Tsekoun, C. K. N. Patel, L. Diehl, C. Pflugl, and F. Capasso, “Widely tunable high-power external cavity quantum cascade laser operating in continuous-wave at room temperature,” Electron. Lett. 45(2), 107–108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflugl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Champion, J. P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chapman, D.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflugl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231101 (2007).
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Cho, A. Y.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
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Corzine, S.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflugl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Coudert, L. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cristescu, S. M.

B. W. M. Moeskops, H. Naus, S. M. Cristescu, and F. J. M. Harren, “Quantum cascade laser-based carbon monoxide detection on a second time scale from human breath,” Appl. Phys. B 82(4), 649–654 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Curl, R. F.

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487(1-3), 1–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D’Amato, F.

P. W. Werle, P. Mazzinghi, F. D’Amato, M. De Rosa, K. Maurer, and F. Slemr, “Signal processing and calibration procedures for in situ diode-laser absorption spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 60(8-9), 1685–1705 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

De Rosa, M.

P. W. Werle, P. Mazzinghi, F. D’Amato, M. De Rosa, K. Maurer, and F. Slemr, “Signal processing and calibration procedures for in situ diode-laser absorption spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 60(8-9), 1685–1705 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Di Domenico, G.

Di Francesco, J.

Diehl, L.

R. Maulini, I. Dunayevskiy, A. Lyakh, A. Tsekoun, C. K. N. Patel, L. Diehl, C. Pflugl, and F. Capasso, “Widely tunable high-power external cavity quantum cascade laser operating in continuous-wave at room temperature,” Electron. Lett. 45(2), 107–108 (2009).
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B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflugl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dong, L.

Donoho, D. L.

D. L. Donoho, “De-noising by soft-thresholding,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 41(3), 613–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dunayevskiy, I.

R. Maulini, I. Dunayevskiy, A. Lyakh, A. Tsekoun, C. K. N. Patel, L. Diehl, C. Pflugl, and F. Capasso, “Widely tunable high-power external cavity quantum cascade laser operating in continuous-wave at room temperature,” Electron. Lett. 45(2), 107–108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

L. Tombez, J. Di Francesco, S. Schilt, G. Di Domenico, J. Faist, P. Thomann, and D. Hofstetter, “Frequency noise of free-running 4.6 μm distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers near room temperature,” Opt. Lett. 36(16), 3109–3111 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflugl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fally, S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, H.

C. L. Schiller, H. Bozem, C. Gurk, U. Parchatka, R. Königstedt, G. W. Harris, J. Lelieveld, and H. Fischer, “Applications of quantum cascade lasers for sensitive trace gas measurements of CO, CH4, N2O and HCHO,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 419–430 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Kormann, R. Königstedt, U. Parchatka, J. Lelieveld, and H. Fischer, “QUALITAS: A mid-infrared spectrometer for sensitive trace gas measurements based on quantum cascade lasers in CW operation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(7), 075102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Kormann and H. Fischer, “A compact multi-laser TDLAS for trace gas flux measurements based on a micrometeorological technique,” Proc. SPIE 3758, 162–169 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Wienhold, H. Fischer, P. Hoor, V. Wagner, R. Königstedt, G. W. Harris, J. Anders, R. Grisar, M. Knothe, W. J. Riedel, F.-J. Lübken, and T. Schilling, “TRISTAR–a tracer in situ TDLAS for atmospheric research,” Appl. Phys. B 67(4), 411–417 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C.

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487(1-3), 1–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, I. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Grisar, R.

F. G. Wienhold, H. Fischer, P. Hoor, V. Wagner, R. Königstedt, G. W. Harris, J. Anders, R. Grisar, M. Knothe, W. J. Riedel, F.-J. Lübken, and T. Schilling, “TRISTAR–a tracer in situ TDLAS for atmospheric research,” Appl. Phys. B 67(4), 411–417 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, M.

Gurk, C.

C. L. Schiller, H. Bozem, C. Gurk, U. Parchatka, R. Königstedt, G. W. Harris, J. Lelieveld, and H. Fischer, “Applications of quantum cascade lasers for sensitive trace gas measurements of CO, CH4, N2O and HCHO,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 419–430 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Harren, F. J. M.

B. W. M. Moeskops, H. Naus, S. M. Cristescu, and F. J. M. Harren, “Quantum cascade laser-based carbon monoxide detection on a second time scale from human breath,” Appl. Phys. B 82(4), 649–654 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Harris, G. W.

C. L. Schiller, H. Bozem, C. Gurk, U. Parchatka, R. Königstedt, G. W. Harris, J. Lelieveld, and H. Fischer, “Applications of quantum cascade lasers for sensitive trace gas measurements of CO, CH4, N2O and HCHO,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 419–430 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Wienhold, H. Fischer, P. Hoor, V. Wagner, R. Königstedt, G. W. Harris, J. Anders, R. Grisar, M. Knothe, W. J. Riedel, F.-J. Lübken, and T. Schilling, “TRISTAR–a tracer in situ TDLAS for atmospheric research,” Appl. Phys. B 67(4), 411–417 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Herndon, S.

R. Jiménez, S. Herndon, J. H. Shorter, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, and M. S. Zahniser, “Atmospheric trace gas measurements using a dual quantum-cascade laser mid-infrared absorption spectrometer,” Proc. SPIE 5738, 318–331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hofler, G.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflugl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hofstetter, D.

Hoor, P.

F. G. Wienhold, H. Fischer, P. Hoor, V. Wagner, R. Königstedt, G. W. Harris, J. Anders, R. Grisar, M. Knothe, W. J. Riedel, F.-J. Lübken, and T. Schilling, “TRISTAR–a tracer in situ TDLAS for atmospheric research,” Appl. Phys. B 67(4), 411–417 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hutchinson, A. L.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jiménez, R.

R. Jiménez, S. Herndon, J. H. Shorter, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, and M. S. Zahniser, “Atmospheric trace gas measurements using a dual quantum-cascade laser mid-infrared absorption spectrometer,” Proc. SPIE 5738, 318–331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Karpf, A.

Kell, D. B.

B. K. Alsberg, A. M. Woodward, M. K. Winson, J. Rowland, and D. B. Kell, “Wavelet denoising of infrared spectra,” Analyst (Lond.) 122(7), 645–652 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kleiner, I.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Knothe, M.

F. G. Wienhold, H. Fischer, P. Hoor, V. Wagner, R. Königstedt, G. W. Harris, J. Anders, R. Grisar, M. Knothe, W. J. Riedel, F.-J. Lübken, and T. Schilling, “TRISTAR–a tracer in situ TDLAS for atmospheric research,” Appl. Phys. B 67(4), 411–417 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Königstedt, R.

C. L. Schiller, H. Bozem, C. Gurk, U. Parchatka, R. Königstedt, G. W. Harris, J. Lelieveld, and H. Fischer, “Applications of quantum cascade lasers for sensitive trace gas measurements of CO, CH4, N2O and HCHO,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 419–430 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Kormann, R. Königstedt, U. Parchatka, J. Lelieveld, and H. Fischer, “QUALITAS: A mid-infrared spectrometer for sensitive trace gas measurements based on quantum cascade lasers in CW operation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(7), 075102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Wienhold, H. Fischer, P. Hoor, V. Wagner, R. Königstedt, G. W. Harris, J. Anders, R. Grisar, M. Knothe, W. J. Riedel, F.-J. Lübken, and T. Schilling, “TRISTAR–a tracer in situ TDLAS for atmospheric research,” Appl. Phys. B 67(4), 411–417 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kormann, R.

R. Kormann, R. Königstedt, U. Parchatka, J. Lelieveld, and H. Fischer, “QUALITAS: A mid-infrared spectrometer for sensitive trace gas measurements based on quantum cascade lasers in CW operation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(7), 075102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Kormann and H. Fischer, “A compact multi-laser TDLAS for trace gas flux measurements based on a micrometeorological technique,” Proc. SPIE 3758, 162–169 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kosterev, A. A.

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487(1-3), 1–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lacome, N.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lafferty, W. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. G.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflugl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lelieveld, J.

C. L. Schiller, H. Bozem, C. Gurk, U. Parchatka, R. Königstedt, G. W. Harris, J. Lelieveld, and H. Fischer, “Applications of quantum cascade lasers for sensitive trace gas measurements of CO, CH4, N2O and HCHO,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 419–430 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Kormann, R. Königstedt, U. Parchatka, J. Lelieveld, and H. Fischer, “QUALITAS: A mid-infrared spectrometer for sensitive trace gas measurements based on quantum cascade lasers in CW operation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(7), 075102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lewicki, R.

L. Dong, V. Spagnolo, R. Lewicki, and F. K. Tittel, “Ppb-level detection of nitric oxide using an external cavity quantum cascade laser based QEPAS sensor,” Opt. Express 19(24), 24037–24045 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487(1-3), 1–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lübken, F.-J.

F. G. Wienhold, H. Fischer, P. Hoor, V. Wagner, R. Königstedt, G. W. Harris, J. Anders, R. Grisar, M. Knothe, W. J. Riedel, F.-J. Lübken, and T. Schilling, “TRISTAR–a tracer in situ TDLAS for atmospheric research,” Appl. Phys. B 67(4), 411–417 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lyakh, A.

R. Maulini, I. Dunayevskiy, A. Lyakh, A. Tsekoun, C. K. N. Patel, L. Diehl, C. Pflugl, and F. Capasso, “Widely tunable high-power external cavity quantum cascade laser operating in continuous-wave at room temperature,” Electron. Lett. 45(2), 107–108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

MacArthur, J.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflugl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mandin, J.-Y.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Maulini, R.

R. Maulini, I. Dunayevskiy, A. Lyakh, A. Tsekoun, C. K. N. Patel, L. Diehl, C. Pflugl, and F. Capasso, “Widely tunable high-power external cavity quantum cascade laser operating in continuous-wave at room temperature,” Electron. Lett. 45(2), 107–108 (2009).
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Maurer, K.

P. W. Werle, P. Mazzinghi, F. D’Amato, M. De Rosa, K. Maurer, and F. Slemr, “Signal processing and calibration procedures for in situ diode-laser absorption spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 60(8-9), 1685–1705 (2004).
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Mazzinghi, P.

P. W. Werle, P. Mazzinghi, F. D’Amato, M. De Rosa, K. Maurer, and F. Slemr, “Signal processing and calibration procedures for in situ diode-laser absorption spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 60(8-9), 1685–1705 (2004).
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McManus, B.

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487(1-3), 1–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

McManus, J. B.

R. Jiménez, S. Herndon, J. H. Shorter, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, and M. S. Zahniser, “Atmospheric trace gas measurements using a dual quantum-cascade laser mid-infrared absorption spectrometer,” Proc. SPIE 5738, 318–331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mikhailenko, S. N.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Miller, C. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Moazzen-Ahmadi, N.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Moeskops, B. W. M.

B. W. M. Moeskops, H. Naus, S. M. Cristescu, and F. J. M. Harren, “Quantum cascade laser-based carbon monoxide detection on a second time scale from human breath,” Appl. Phys. B 82(4), 649–654 (2006).
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Napoleone, A.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflugl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Naumenko, O. V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Naus, H.

B. W. M. Moeskops, H. Naus, S. M. Cristescu, and F. J. M. Harren, “Quantum cascade laser-based carbon monoxide detection on a second time scale from human breath,” Appl. Phys. B 82(4), 649–654 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, D. D.

R. Jiménez, S. Herndon, J. H. Shorter, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, and M. S. Zahniser, “Atmospheric trace gas measurements using a dual quantum-cascade laser mid-infrared absorption spectrometer,” Proc. SPIE 5738, 318–331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nikitin, A. V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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O’Keefe, A.

Oakley, D. C.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflugl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231101 (2007).
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Oehlschlaeger, M. A.

J. Vanderover, W. Wang, and M. A. Oehlschlaeger, “A carbon monoxide and thermometry sensor based on mid-IR quantum-cascade laser wavelength-modulation absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 103(4), 959–966 (2011).
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Oppenheimer, C.

D. Weidmann, G. Wysocki, C. Oppenheimer, and F. K. Tittel, “Development of a compact quantum cascade laser spectrometer for field measurements of CO2 isotopes,” Appl. Phys. B 80(2), 255–260 (2005).
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Orphal, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Owano, T. G.

Parchatka, U.

C. L. Schiller, H. Bozem, C. Gurk, U. Parchatka, R. Königstedt, G. W. Harris, J. Lelieveld, and H. Fischer, “Applications of quantum cascade lasers for sensitive trace gas measurements of CO, CH4, N2O and HCHO,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 419–430 (2008).
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R. Kormann, R. Königstedt, U. Parchatka, J. Lelieveld, and H. Fischer, “QUALITAS: A mid-infrared spectrometer for sensitive trace gas measurements based on quantum cascade lasers in CW operation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(7), 075102 (2005).
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Patel, C. K. N.

R. Maulini, I. Dunayevskiy, A. Lyakh, A. Tsekoun, C. K. N. Patel, L. Diehl, C. Pflugl, and F. Capasso, “Widely tunable high-power external cavity quantum cascade laser operating in continuous-wave at room temperature,” Electron. Lett. 45(2), 107–108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Perevalov, V. I.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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R. Maulini, I. Dunayevskiy, A. Lyakh, A. Tsekoun, C. K. N. Patel, L. Diehl, C. Pflugl, and F. Capasso, “Widely tunable high-power external cavity quantum cascade laser operating in continuous-wave at room temperature,” Electron. Lett. 45(2), 107–108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflugl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Podolske, J. R.

Predoi-Cross, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Provencal, R.

Pusharsky, M.

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487(1-3), 1–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rao, G. N.

Ricci, K. N.

Riedel, W. J.

F. G. Wienhold, H. Fischer, P. Hoor, V. Wagner, R. Königstedt, G. W. Harris, J. Anders, R. Grisar, M. Knothe, W. J. Riedel, F.-J. Lübken, and T. Schilling, “TRISTAR–a tracer in situ TDLAS for atmospheric research,” Appl. Phys. B 67(4), 411–417 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Rotger, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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C. L. Schiller, H. Bozem, C. Gurk, U. Parchatka, R. Königstedt, G. W. Harris, J. Lelieveld, and H. Fischer, “Applications of quantum cascade lasers for sensitive trace gas measurements of CO, CH4, N2O and HCHO,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 419–430 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schilling, T.

F. G. Wienhold, H. Fischer, P. Hoor, V. Wagner, R. Königstedt, G. W. Harris, J. Anders, R. Grisar, M. Knothe, W. J. Riedel, F.-J. Lübken, and T. Schilling, “TRISTAR–a tracer in situ TDLAS for atmospheric research,” Appl. Phys. B 67(4), 411–417 (1998).
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Schilt, S.

Shorter, J. H.

R. Jiménez, S. Herndon, J. H. Shorter, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, and M. S. Zahniser, “Atmospheric trace gas measurements using a dual quantum-cascade laser mid-infrared absorption spectrometer,” Proc. SPIE 5738, 318–331 (2005).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sivco, D. L.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Slemr, F.

P. W. Werle, P. Mazzinghi, F. D’Amato, M. De Rosa, K. Maurer, and F. Slemr, “Signal processing and calibration procedures for in situ diode-laser absorption spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 60(8-9), 1685–1705 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Spagnolo, V.

Sung, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tashkun, S. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tennyson, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thomann, P.

Tittel, F. K.

L. Dong, V. Spagnolo, R. Lewicki, and F. K. Tittel, “Ppb-level detection of nitric oxide using an external cavity quantum cascade laser based QEPAS sensor,” Opt. Express 19(24), 24037–24045 (2011).
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R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487(1-3), 1–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Weidmann, G. Wysocki, C. Oppenheimer, and F. K. Tittel, “Development of a compact quantum cascade laser spectrometer for field measurements of CO2 isotopes,” Appl. Phys. B 80(2), 255–260 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tombez, L.

Toth, R. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tsekoun, A.

R. Maulini, I. Dunayevskiy, A. Lyakh, A. Tsekoun, C. K. N. Patel, L. Diehl, C. Pflugl, and F. Capasso, “Widely tunable high-power external cavity quantum cascade laser operating in continuous-wave at room temperature,” Electron. Lett. 45(2), 107–108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vandaele, A. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vander Auwera, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vanderover, J.

J. Vanderover, W. Wang, and M. A. Oehlschlaeger, “A carbon monoxide and thermometry sensor based on mid-IR quantum-cascade laser wavelength-modulation absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 103(4), 959–966 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, V.

F. G. Wienhold, H. Fischer, P. Hoor, V. Wagner, R. Königstedt, G. W. Harris, J. Anders, R. Grisar, M. Knothe, W. J. Riedel, F.-J. Lübken, and T. Schilling, “TRISTAR–a tracer in situ TDLAS for atmospheric research,” Appl. Phys. B 67(4), 411–417 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W.

J. Vanderover, W. Wang, and M. A. Oehlschlaeger, “A carbon monoxide and thermometry sensor based on mid-IR quantum-cascade laser wavelength-modulation absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 103(4), 959–966 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Weidmann, D.

D. Weidmann, G. Wysocki, C. Oppenheimer, and F. K. Tittel, “Development of a compact quantum cascade laser spectrometer for field measurements of CO2 isotopes,” Appl. Phys. B 80(2), 255–260 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Werle, P. W.

P. W. Werle, P. Mazzinghi, F. D’Amato, M. De Rosa, K. Maurer, and F. Slemr, “Signal processing and calibration procedures for in situ diode-laser absorption spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 60(8-9), 1685–1705 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wienhold, F. G.

F. G. Wienhold, H. Fischer, P. Hoor, V. Wagner, R. Königstedt, G. W. Harris, J. Anders, R. Grisar, M. Knothe, W. J. Riedel, F.-J. Lübken, and T. Schilling, “TRISTAR–a tracer in situ TDLAS for atmospheric research,” Appl. Phys. B 67(4), 411–417 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Winson, M. K.

B. K. Alsberg, A. M. Woodward, M. K. Winson, J. Rowland, and D. B. Kell, “Wavelet denoising of infrared spectra,” Analyst (Lond.) 122(7), 645–652 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Woodward, A. M.

B. K. Alsberg, A. M. Woodward, M. K. Winson, J. Rowland, and D. B. Kell, “Wavelet denoising of infrared spectra,” Analyst (Lond.) 122(7), 645–652 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wysocki, G.

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487(1-3), 1–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Weidmann, G. Wysocki, C. Oppenheimer, and F. K. Tittel, “Development of a compact quantum cascade laser spectrometer for field measurements of CO2 isotopes,” Appl. Phys. B 80(2), 255–260 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zahniser, M. S.

R. Jiménez, S. Herndon, J. H. Shorter, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, and M. S. Zahniser, “Atmospheric trace gas measurements using a dual quantum-cascade laser mid-infrared absorption spectrometer,” Proc. SPIE 5738, 318–331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Analyst (Lond.) (1)

B. K. Alsberg, A. M. Woodward, M. K. Winson, J. Rowland, and D. B. Kell, “Wavelet denoising of infrared spectra,” Analyst (Lond.) 122(7), 645–652 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (5)

D. Weidmann, G. Wysocki, C. Oppenheimer, and F. K. Tittel, “Development of a compact quantum cascade laser spectrometer for field measurements of CO2 isotopes,” Appl. Phys. B 80(2), 255–260 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Vanderover, W. Wang, and M. A. Oehlschlaeger, “A carbon monoxide and thermometry sensor based on mid-IR quantum-cascade laser wavelength-modulation absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 103(4), 959–966 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. W. M. Moeskops, H. Naus, S. M. Cristescu, and F. J. M. Harren, “Quantum cascade laser-based carbon monoxide detection on a second time scale from human breath,” Appl. Phys. B 82(4), 649–654 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Wienhold, H. Fischer, P. Hoor, V. Wagner, R. Königstedt, G. W. Harris, J. Anders, R. Grisar, M. Knothe, W. J. Riedel, F.-J. Lübken, and T. Schilling, “TRISTAR–a tracer in situ TDLAS for atmospheric research,” Appl. Phys. B 67(4), 411–417 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Schiller, H. Bozem, C. Gurk, U. Parchatka, R. Königstedt, G. W. Harris, J. Lelieveld, and H. Fischer, “Applications of quantum cascade lasers for sensitive trace gas measurements of CO, CH4, N2O and HCHO,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 419–430 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflugl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487(1-3), 1–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

R. Maulini, I. Dunayevskiy, A. Lyakh, A. Tsekoun, C. K. N. Patel, L. Diehl, C. Pflugl, and F. Capasso, “Widely tunable high-power external cavity quantum cascade laser operating in continuous-wave at room temperature,” Electron. Lett. 45(2), 107–108 (2009).
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IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory (1)

D. L. Donoho, “De-noising by soft-thresholding,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 41(3), 613–627 (1995).
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J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. (1)

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (2)

R. Jiménez, S. Herndon, J. H. Shorter, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, and M. S. Zahniser, “Atmospheric trace gas measurements using a dual quantum-cascade laser mid-infrared absorption spectrometer,” Proc. SPIE 5738, 318–331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Kormann and H. Fischer, “A compact multi-laser TDLAS for trace gas flux measurements based on a micrometeorological technique,” Proc. SPIE 3758, 162–169 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

R. Kormann, R. Königstedt, U. Parchatka, J. Lelieveld, and H. Fischer, “QUALITAS: A mid-infrared spectrometer for sensitive trace gas measurements based on quantum cascade lasers in CW operation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(7), 075102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. (1)

P. W. Werle, P. Mazzinghi, F. D’Amato, M. De Rosa, K. Maurer, and F. Slemr, “Signal processing and calibration procedures for in situ diode-laser absorption spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 60(8-9), 1685–1705 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

HITRAN simulated 2nd harmonic spectrum of the R(12) line of CO and the potential absorptions from other molecules nearby. Conditions are 50 mbar total pressure, 296 K temperature, 36 m optical path length, and relative content as indicated.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diagram of the RT-QCLS optical layout and the gas sampling system (MO: Mirror objective; M: flat mirror; Fp: Focal point; OAP: off-axis parabolic mirror; OAE: off-axis ellipsoid; BS: beam splitter; FAS: fluid automation systems; MFC: mass flow controllers; PF: Particle filter; P sensor: Pressure transducer).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Typical example of ambient CO spectrum of R(12) transition recorded with the RT-QCL spectrometer (0.88 s averaging time) before and after the application wavelet filtering (upper panel), and the residual (lower panel).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Alternating measurements of reference CO sample (PBA, CO = 325ppb) and ambient air during a 24-h data period with 1 Hz sampling rate and the application of wavelet filter (lower panel). Both upper panels present a zoom-into a typical 1-h measurement cycle (upper left panel) and approximate 3-min measurement interval (upper right panel), respectively. (Details see text)

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Allan variance plot acquired from series of measurements on standard CO sample (269 ppbv) with 1 Hz sampling rate in the laboratory conditions.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of Different Measures of the Mean Instrument Precisions Before and after the Application of the Wavelet Filtering

Metrics