Abstract

We present a new method to automatically segment the thickness of the choroid in the human eye by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT). A swept source PS-OCT instrument operating at a center wavelength of 1040 nm is used. The segmentation method is based entirely on intrinsic, tissue specific polarization contrast mechanisms. In a first step, the anterior boundary of the choroid, the retinal pigment epithelium, is segmented based on depolarization. In a second step, the choroid-sclera interface is found by using the birefringence of the sclera. The method is demonstrated in five healthy eyes. The mean repeatability (standard deviation) of thickness measurement was found to be 18.3 µm.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. C. Ahlers, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, I. Golbaz, F. Prager, C. Schütze, B. Baumann, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(4), 2149–2157 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2012

2011

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, T. Schmoll, H. Sattmann, R. A. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Speckle noise reduction in high speed polarization sensitive spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 19(15), 14568–14585 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Rahman, F. K. Chen, J. Yeoh, P. Patel, A. Tufail, and L. Da Cruz, “Repeatability of manual subfoveal choroidal thickness measurements in healthy subjects using the technique of enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(5), 2267–2271 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Geitzenauer, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. M. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Retinal optical coherence tomography: past, present and future perspectives,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 95(2), 171–177 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Esmaeelpour, B. Považay, B. Hermann, B. Hofer, V. Kajic, S. L. Hale, R. V. North, W. Drexler, and N. J. L. Sheen, “Mapping choroidal and retinal thickness variation in type 2 diabetes using three-dimensional 1060-nm optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(8), 5311–5316 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ikuno, I. Maruko, Y. Yasuno, M. Miura, T. Sekiryu, K. Nishida, and T. Iida, “Reproducibility of retinal and choroidal thickness measurements in enhanced depth imaging and high-penetration optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(8), 5536–5540 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

M. Esmaeelpour, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, B. Hofer, V. Kajic, K. Kapoor, N. J. L. Sheen, R. V. North, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional 1060-nm OCT: choroidal thickness maps in normal subjects and improved posterior segment visualization in cataract patients,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(10), 5260–5266 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, H. Sattmann, C. Schuutze, F. Schlanitz, C. Ahlers, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Segmentation and quantification of retinal lesions in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 061704 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ahlers, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, I. Golbaz, F. Prager, C. Schütze, B. Baumann, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(4), 2149–2157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

2008

M. Yamanari, S. Makita, and Y. Yasuno, “Polarization-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography with continuous source polarization modulation,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5892–5906 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Ahlers, B. Baumann, S. Michels, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16410–16422 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Puvanathasan, P. Forbes, Z. Ren, D. Malchow, S. Boyd, and K. Bizheva, “High-speed, high-resolution Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography system for retinal imaging in the 1060 nm wavelength region,” Opt. Lett. 33(21), 2479–2481 (2008).
[PubMed]

R. F. Spaide, H. Koizumi, and M. C. Pozzoni, “Enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 146(4), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Michels, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Simader, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Value of polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography in diseases affecting the retinal pigment epithelium,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92(2), 204–209 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yamanari, M. Miura, S. Makita, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Phase retardation measurement of retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization-sensitive spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and scanning laser polarimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 014013 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, C. Hirn, C. Vass, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence evaluated with polarization sensitive spectral domain OCT and scanning laser polarimetry: A comparison,” J Biophoton. 1(2), 129–139 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

W. Drexler and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography in ophthalmology,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Mujat, B. H. Park, B. Cense, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, “Autocalibration of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography spectrometers for in vivo quantitative retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence determination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041205 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Single camera based spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1054–1063 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yasuno, Y. J. Hong, S. Makita, M. Yamanari, M. Akiba, M. Miura, and T. Yatagai, “In vivo high-contrast imaging of deep posterior eye by 1-microm swept source optical coherence tomography and scattering optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express 15(10), 6121–6139 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

E. C. W. Lee, J. F. de Boer, M. Mujat, H. Lim, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo optical frequency domain imaging of human retina and choroid,” Opt. Express 14(10), 4403–4411 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(12), 5487–5494 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

2004

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, H. Sattmann, O. Findl, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Imaging of polarization properties of human retina in vivo with phase resolved transversal PS-OCT,” Opt. Express 12(24), 5940–5951 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “Thickness and birefringence of healthy retinal nerve fiber layer tissue measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45(8), 2606–2612 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

2002

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo depth-resolved birefringence measurements of the human retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 27(18), 1610–1612 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

1998

1997

1995

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992

1991

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

R. N. Weinreb, A. W. Dreher, A. Coleman, H. Quigley, B. Shaw, and K. Reiter, “Histopathologic validation of Fourier-ellipsometry measurements of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 108(4), 557–560 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988

Ahlers, C.

B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, H. Sattmann, C. Schuutze, F. Schlanitz, C. Ahlers, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Segmentation and quantification of retinal lesions in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 061704 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ahlers, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, I. Golbaz, F. Prager, C. Schütze, B. Baumann, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(4), 2149–2157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, C. Ahlers, W. Geitzenauer, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Three-dimensional polarization sensitive OCT imaging and interactive display of the human retina,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4151–4165 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Ahlers, B. Baumann, S. Michels, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16410–16422 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akiba, M.

Bajraszewski, T.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumann, B.

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, T. Schmoll, H. Sattmann, R. A. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Speckle noise reduction in high speed polarization sensitive spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 19(15), 14568–14585 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ahlers, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, I. Golbaz, F. Prager, C. Schütze, B. Baumann, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(4), 2149–2157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, H. Sattmann, C. Schuutze, F. Schlanitz, C. Ahlers, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Segmentation and quantification of retinal lesions in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 061704 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, C. Ahlers, W. Geitzenauer, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Three-dimensional polarization sensitive OCT imaging and interactive display of the human retina,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4151–4165 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, C. Hirn, C. Vass, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence evaluated with polarization sensitive spectral domain OCT and scanning laser polarimetry: A comparison,” J Biophoton. 1(2), 129–139 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Ahlers, B. Baumann, S. Michels, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16410–16422 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Single camera based spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1054–1063 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bizheva, K.

Bouma, B. E.

Boyd, S.

Brink, H. B.

Cense, B.

M. Mujat, B. H. Park, B. Cense, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, “Autocalibration of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography spectrometers for in vivo quantitative retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence determination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041205 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “Thickness and birefringence of healthy retinal nerve fiber layer tissue measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45(8), 2606–2612 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 28(21), 2067–2069 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo depth-resolved birefringence measurements of the human retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 27(18), 1610–1612 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chavez-Pirson, A.

Chen, F. K.

W. Rahman, F. K. Chen, J. Yeoh, P. Patel, A. Tufail, and L. Da Cruz, “Repeatability of manual subfoveal choroidal thickness measurements in healthy subjects using the technique of enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(5), 2267–2271 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, T. C.

M. Mujat, B. H. Park, B. Cense, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, “Autocalibration of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography spectrometers for in vivo quantitative retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence determination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041205 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “Thickness and birefringence of healthy retinal nerve fiber layer tissue measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45(8), 2606–2612 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo depth-resolved birefringence measurements of the human retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 27(18), 1610–1612 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choma, M. A.

Coleman, A.

R. N. Weinreb, A. W. Dreher, A. Coleman, H. Quigley, B. Shaw, and K. Reiter, “Histopathologic validation of Fourier-ellipsometry measurements of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 108(4), 557–560 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colston, B. W.

Da Cruz, L.

W. Rahman, F. K. Chen, J. Yeoh, P. Patel, A. Tufail, and L. Da Cruz, “Repeatability of manual subfoveal choroidal thickness measurements in healthy subjects using the technique of enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(5), 2267–2271 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Da Silva, L. B.

de Boer, J. F.

M. Mujat, B. H. Park, B. Cense, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, “Autocalibration of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography spectrometers for in vivo quantitative retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence determination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041205 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. C. W. Lee, J. F. de Boer, M. Mujat, H. Lim, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo optical frequency domain imaging of human retina and choroid,” Opt. Express 14(10), 4403–4411 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “Thickness and birefringence of healthy retinal nerve fiber layer tissue measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45(8), 2606–2612 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 28(21), 2067–2069 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo depth-resolved birefringence measurements of the human retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 27(18), 1610–1612 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer, T. E. Milner, M. J. C. van Gemert, and J. S. Nelson, “Two-dimensional birefringence imaging in biological tissue by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 22(12), 934–936 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dreher, A. W.

R. N. Weinreb, A. W. Dreher, A. Coleman, H. Quigley, B. Shaw, and K. Reiter, “Histopathologic validation of Fourier-ellipsometry measurements of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 108(4), 557–560 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drexler, W.

V. Kajić, M. Esmaeelpour, B. Považay, D. Marshall, P. L. Rosin, and W. Drexler, “Automated choroidal segmentation of 1060 nm OCT in healthy and pathologic eyes using a statistical model,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(1), 86–103 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Esmaeelpour, B. Považay, B. Hermann, B. Hofer, V. Kajic, S. L. Hale, R. V. North, W. Drexler, and N. J. L. Sheen, “Mapping choroidal and retinal thickness variation in type 2 diabetes using three-dimensional 1060-nm optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(8), 5311–5316 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Esmaeelpour, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, B. Hofer, V. Kajic, K. Kapoor, N. J. L. Sheen, R. V. North, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional 1060-nm OCT: choroidal thickness maps in normal subjects and improved posterior segment visualization in cataract patients,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(10), 5260–5266 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography in ophthalmology,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Unterhuber, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, A. Chavez-Pirson, and W. Drexler, “In vivo retinal optical coherence tomography at 1040 nm - enhanced penetration into the choroid,” Opt. Express 13(9), 3252–3258 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, “Optical coherence tomography - principles and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66(2), 239–303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Duan, L.

Elzaiat, S. Y.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Esmaeelpour, M.

V. Kajić, M. Esmaeelpour, B. Považay, D. Marshall, P. L. Rosin, and W. Drexler, “Automated choroidal segmentation of 1060 nm OCT in healthy and pathologic eyes using a statistical model,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(1), 86–103 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Esmaeelpour, B. Považay, B. Hermann, B. Hofer, V. Kajic, S. L. Hale, R. V. North, W. Drexler, and N. J. L. Sheen, “Mapping choroidal and retinal thickness variation in type 2 diabetes using three-dimensional 1060-nm optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(8), 5311–5316 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Esmaeelpour, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, B. Hofer, V. Kajic, K. Kapoor, N. J. L. Sheen, R. V. North, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional 1060-nm OCT: choroidal thickness maps in normal subjects and improved posterior segment visualization in cataract patients,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(10), 5260–5266 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Everett, M. J.

Fercher, A. F.

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, “Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(8), 889–894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, “Optical coherence tomography - principles and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66(2), 239–303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Hitzenberger, E. Goetzinger, M. Sticker, M. Pircher, and A. F. Fercher, “Measurement and imaging of birefringence and optic axis orientation by phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 9(13), 780–790 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Findl, O.

S. Michels, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Simader, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Value of polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography in diseases affecting the retinal pigment epithelium,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92(2), 204–209 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(12), 5487–5494 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, H. Sattmann, O. Findl, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Imaging of polarization properties of human retina in vivo with phase resolved transversal PS-OCT,” Opt. Express 12(24), 5940–5951 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Forbes, P.

Fujimoto, J. G.

W. Drexler and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography in ophthalmology,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Polarization-sensitive low-coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9(6), 903–908 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geitzenauer, W.

W. Geitzenauer, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. M. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Retinal optical coherence tomography: past, present and future perspectives,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 95(2), 171–177 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, C. Ahlers, W. Geitzenauer, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Three-dimensional polarization sensitive OCT imaging and interactive display of the human retina,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4151–4165 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Michels, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Simader, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Value of polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography in diseases affecting the retinal pigment epithelium,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92(2), 204–209 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Ahlers, B. Baumann, S. Michels, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16410–16422 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(12), 5487–5494 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goetzinger, E.

Golbaz, I.

C. Ahlers, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, I. Golbaz, F. Prager, C. Schütze, B. Baumann, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(4), 2149–2157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Götzinger, E.

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, T. Schmoll, H. Sattmann, R. A. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Speckle noise reduction in high speed polarization sensitive spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 19(15), 14568–14585 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ahlers, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, I. Golbaz, F. Prager, C. Schütze, B. Baumann, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(4), 2149–2157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, H. Sattmann, C. Schuutze, F. Schlanitz, C. Ahlers, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Segmentation and quantification of retinal lesions in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 061704 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, C. Ahlers, W. Geitzenauer, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Three-dimensional polarization sensitive OCT imaging and interactive display of the human retina,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4151–4165 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, C. Hirn, C. Vass, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence evaluated with polarization sensitive spectral domain OCT and scanning laser polarimetry: A comparison,” J Biophoton. 1(2), 129–139 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Michels, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Simader, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Value of polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography in diseases affecting the retinal pigment epithelium,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92(2), 204–209 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Ahlers, B. Baumann, S. Michels, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16410–16422 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Single camera based spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1054–1063 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(12), 5487–5494 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “High speed spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Opt. Express 13(25), 10217–10229 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, H. Sattmann, O. Findl, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Imaging of polarization properties of human retina in vivo with phase resolved transversal PS-OCT,” Opt. Express 12(24), 5940–5951 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hale, S. L.

M. Esmaeelpour, B. Považay, B. Hermann, B. Hofer, V. Kajic, S. L. Hale, R. V. North, W. Drexler, and N. J. L. Sheen, “Mapping choroidal and retinal thickness variation in type 2 diabetes using three-dimensional 1060-nm optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(8), 5311–5316 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Häusler, G.

G. Häusler and M. W. Lindner, “Coherence radar” and “spectral radar” - new tools for dermatological diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3(1), 21–31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hee, M. R.

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Polarization-sensitive low-coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9(6), 903–908 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hermann, B.

M. Esmaeelpour, B. Považay, B. Hermann, B. Hofer, V. Kajic, S. L. Hale, R. V. North, W. Drexler, and N. J. L. Sheen, “Mapping choroidal and retinal thickness variation in type 2 diabetes using three-dimensional 1060-nm optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(8), 5311–5316 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Esmaeelpour, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, B. Hofer, V. Kajic, K. Kapoor, N. J. L. Sheen, R. V. North, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional 1060-nm OCT: choroidal thickness maps in normal subjects and improved posterior segment visualization in cataract patients,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(10), 5260–5266 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Unterhuber, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, A. Chavez-Pirson, and W. Drexler, “In vivo retinal optical coherence tomography at 1040 nm - enhanced penetration into the choroid,” Opt. Express 13(9), 3252–3258 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirn, C.

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, C. Hirn, C. Vass, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence evaluated with polarization sensitive spectral domain OCT and scanning laser polarimetry: A comparison,” J Biophoton. 1(2), 129–139 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

W. Geitzenauer, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. M. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Retinal optical coherence tomography: past, present and future perspectives,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 95(2), 171–177 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, T. Schmoll, H. Sattmann, R. A. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Speckle noise reduction in high speed polarization sensitive spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 19(15), 14568–14585 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ahlers, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, I. Golbaz, F. Prager, C. Schütze, B. Baumann, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(4), 2149–2157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, H. Sattmann, C. Schuutze, F. Schlanitz, C. Ahlers, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Segmentation and quantification of retinal lesions in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 061704 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, C. Ahlers, W. Geitzenauer, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Three-dimensional polarization sensitive OCT imaging and interactive display of the human retina,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4151–4165 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, C. Hirn, C. Vass, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence evaluated with polarization sensitive spectral domain OCT and scanning laser polarimetry: A comparison,” J Biophoton. 1(2), 129–139 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Michels, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Simader, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Value of polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography in diseases affecting the retinal pigment epithelium,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92(2), 204–209 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Ahlers, B. Baumann, S. Michels, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16410–16422 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Single camera based spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1054–1063 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(12), 5487–5494 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “High speed spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Opt. Express 13(25), 10217–10229 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, H. Sattmann, O. Findl, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Imaging of polarization properties of human retina in vivo with phase resolved transversal PS-OCT,” Opt. Express 12(24), 5940–5951 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, “Optical coherence tomography - principles and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66(2), 239–303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, “Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(8), 889–894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Hitzenberger, E. Goetzinger, M. Sticker, M. Pircher, and A. F. Fercher, “Measurement and imaging of birefringence and optic axis orientation by phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 9(13), 780–790 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hofer, B.

M. Esmaeelpour, B. Považay, B. Hermann, B. Hofer, V. Kajic, S. L. Hale, R. V. North, W. Drexler, and N. J. L. Sheen, “Mapping choroidal and retinal thickness variation in type 2 diabetes using three-dimensional 1060-nm optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(8), 5311–5316 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Esmaeelpour, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, B. Hofer, V. Kajic, K. Kapoor, N. J. L. Sheen, R. V. North, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional 1060-nm OCT: choroidal thickness maps in normal subjects and improved posterior segment visualization in cataract patients,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(10), 5260–5266 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, Y. J.

Huang, D.

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Polarization-sensitive low-coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9(6), 903–908 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iida, T.

Y. Ikuno, I. Maruko, Y. Yasuno, M. Miura, T. Sekiryu, K. Nishida, and T. Iida, “Reproducibility of retinal and choroidal thickness measurements in enhanced depth imaging and high-penetration optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(8), 5536–5540 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ikuno, Y.

Y. Ikuno, I. Maruko, Y. Yasuno, M. Miura, T. Sekiryu, K. Nishida, and T. Iida, “Reproducibility of retinal and choroidal thickness measurements in enhanced depth imaging and high-penetration optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(8), 5536–5540 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

Kajic, V.

V. Kajić, M. Esmaeelpour, B. Považay, D. Marshall, P. L. Rosin, and W. Drexler, “Automated choroidal segmentation of 1060 nm OCT in healthy and pathologic eyes using a statistical model,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(1), 86–103 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Esmaeelpour, B. Považay, B. Hermann, B. Hofer, V. Kajic, S. L. Hale, R. V. North, W. Drexler, and N. J. L. Sheen, “Mapping choroidal and retinal thickness variation in type 2 diabetes using three-dimensional 1060-nm optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(8), 5311–5316 (2011).
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M. Esmaeelpour, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, B. Hofer, V. Kajic, K. Kapoor, N. J. L. Sheen, R. V. North, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional 1060-nm OCT: choroidal thickness maps in normal subjects and improved posterior segment visualization in cataract patients,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(10), 5260–5266 (2010).
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R. F. Spaide, H. Koizumi, and M. C. Pozzoni, “Enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 146(4), 496–500 (2008).
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M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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G. Häusler and M. W. Lindner, “Coherence radar” and “spectral radar” - new tools for dermatological diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3(1), 21–31 (1998).
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Y. Ikuno, I. Maruko, Y. Yasuno, M. Miura, T. Sekiryu, K. Nishida, and T. Iida, “Reproducibility of retinal and choroidal thickness measurements in enhanced depth imaging and high-penetration optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(8), 5536–5540 (2011).
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Michels, S.

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Ahlers, B. Baumann, S. Michels, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16410–16422 (2008).
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S. Michels, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Simader, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Value of polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography in diseases affecting the retinal pigment epithelium,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92(2), 204–209 (2008).
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M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(12), 5487–5494 (2006).
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Miura, M.

Y. Ikuno, I. Maruko, Y. Yasuno, M. Miura, T. Sekiryu, K. Nishida, and T. Iida, “Reproducibility of retinal and choroidal thickness measurements in enhanced depth imaging and high-penetration optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(8), 5536–5540 (2011).
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M. Yamanari, M. Miura, S. Makita, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Phase retardation measurement of retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization-sensitive spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and scanning laser polarimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 014013 (2008).
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Y. Yasuno, Y. J. Hong, S. Makita, M. Yamanari, M. Akiba, M. Miura, and T. Yatagai, “In vivo high-contrast imaging of deep posterior eye by 1-microm swept source optical coherence tomography and scattering optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express 15(10), 6121–6139 (2007).
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Nishida, K.

Y. Ikuno, I. Maruko, Y. Yasuno, M. Miura, T. Sekiryu, K. Nishida, and T. Iida, “Reproducibility of retinal and choroidal thickness measurements in enhanced depth imaging and high-penetration optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(8), 5536–5540 (2011).
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M. Esmaeelpour, B. Považay, B. Hermann, B. Hofer, V. Kajic, S. L. Hale, R. V. North, W. Drexler, and N. J. L. Sheen, “Mapping choroidal and retinal thickness variation in type 2 diabetes using three-dimensional 1060-nm optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(8), 5311–5316 (2011).
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M. Esmaeelpour, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, B. Hofer, V. Kajic, K. Kapoor, N. J. L. Sheen, R. V. North, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional 1060-nm OCT: choroidal thickness maps in normal subjects and improved posterior segment visualization in cataract patients,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(10), 5260–5266 (2010).
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Ouyang, Y.

C. S. Tan, Y. Ouyang, H. Ruiz, and S. R. Sadda, “Diurnal variation of choroidal thickness in normal, healthy subjects measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(1), 261–266 (2012).
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M. Mujat, B. H. Park, B. Cense, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, “Autocalibration of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography spectrometers for in vivo quantitative retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence determination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041205 (2007).
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B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “Thickness and birefringence of healthy retinal nerve fiber layer tissue measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45(8), 2606–2612 (2004).
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J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 28(21), 2067–2069 (2003).
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W. Rahman, F. K. Chen, J. Yeoh, P. Patel, A. Tufail, and L. Da Cruz, “Repeatability of manual subfoveal choroidal thickness measurements in healthy subjects using the technique of enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(5), 2267–2271 (2011).
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Pierce, M. C.

Pircher, M.

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, T. Schmoll, H. Sattmann, R. A. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Speckle noise reduction in high speed polarization sensitive spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 19(15), 14568–14585 (2011).
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C. Ahlers, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, I. Golbaz, F. Prager, C. Schütze, B. Baumann, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(4), 2149–2157 (2010).
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B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, H. Sattmann, C. Schuutze, F. Schlanitz, C. Ahlers, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Segmentation and quantification of retinal lesions in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 061704 (2010).
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E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, C. Ahlers, W. Geitzenauer, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Three-dimensional polarization sensitive OCT imaging and interactive display of the human retina,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4151–4165 (2009).
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E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, C. Hirn, C. Vass, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence evaluated with polarization sensitive spectral domain OCT and scanning laser polarimetry: A comparison,” J Biophoton. 1(2), 129–139 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Michels, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Simader, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Value of polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography in diseases affecting the retinal pigment epithelium,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92(2), 204–209 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Ahlers, B. Baumann, S. Michels, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16410–16422 (2008).
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B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Single camera based spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1054–1063 (2007).
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M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(12), 5487–5494 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “High speed spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Opt. Express 13(25), 10217–10229 (2005).
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M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, H. Sattmann, O. Findl, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Imaging of polarization properties of human retina in vivo with phase resolved transversal PS-OCT,” Opt. Express 12(24), 5940–5951 (2004).
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C. K. Hitzenberger, E. Goetzinger, M. Sticker, M. Pircher, and A. F. Fercher, “Measurement and imaging of birefringence and optic axis orientation by phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 9(13), 780–790 (2001).
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M. Esmaeelpour, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, B. Hofer, V. Kajic, K. Kapoor, N. J. L. Sheen, R. V. North, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional 1060-nm OCT: choroidal thickness maps in normal subjects and improved posterior segment visualization in cataract patients,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(10), 5260–5266 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Unterhuber, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, A. Chavez-Pirson, and W. Drexler, “In vivo retinal optical coherence tomography at 1040 nm - enhanced penetration into the choroid,” Opt. Express 13(9), 3252–3258 (2005).
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Považay, B.

V. Kajić, M. Esmaeelpour, B. Považay, D. Marshall, P. L. Rosin, and W. Drexler, “Automated choroidal segmentation of 1060 nm OCT in healthy and pathologic eyes using a statistical model,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(1), 86–103 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Esmaeelpour, B. Považay, B. Hermann, B. Hofer, V. Kajic, S. L. Hale, R. V. North, W. Drexler, and N. J. L. Sheen, “Mapping choroidal and retinal thickness variation in type 2 diabetes using three-dimensional 1060-nm optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(8), 5311–5316 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pozzoni, M. C.

R. F. Spaide, H. Koizumi, and M. C. Pozzoni, “Enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 146(4), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prager, F.

C. Ahlers, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, I. Golbaz, F. Prager, C. Schütze, B. Baumann, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(4), 2149–2157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Quigley, H.

R. N. Weinreb, A. W. Dreher, A. Coleman, H. Quigley, B. Shaw, and K. Reiter, “Histopathologic validation of Fourier-ellipsometry measurements of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 108(4), 557–560 (1990).
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Rahman, W.

W. Rahman, F. K. Chen, J. Yeoh, P. Patel, A. Tufail, and L. Da Cruz, “Repeatability of manual subfoveal choroidal thickness measurements in healthy subjects using the technique of enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(5), 2267–2271 (2011).
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Reiter, K.

R. N. Weinreb, A. W. Dreher, A. Coleman, H. Quigley, B. Shaw, and K. Reiter, “Histopathologic validation of Fourier-ellipsometry measurements of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 108(4), 557–560 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ren, Z.

Rosin, P. L.

Ruiz, H.

C. S. Tan, Y. Ouyang, H. Ruiz, and S. R. Sadda, “Diurnal variation of choroidal thickness in normal, healthy subjects measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(1), 261–266 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sadda, S. R.

C. S. Tan, Y. Ouyang, H. Ruiz, and S. R. Sadda, “Diurnal variation of choroidal thickness in normal, healthy subjects measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(1), 261–266 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sarunic, M. V.

Sattmann, H.

Schlanitz, F.

B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, H. Sattmann, C. Schuutze, F. Schlanitz, C. Ahlers, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Segmentation and quantification of retinal lesions in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 061704 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt-Erfurth, U.

B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, H. Sattmann, C. Schuutze, F. Schlanitz, C. Ahlers, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Segmentation and quantification of retinal lesions in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 061704 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ahlers, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, I. Golbaz, F. Prager, C. Schütze, B. Baumann, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(4), 2149–2157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, C. Ahlers, W. Geitzenauer, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Three-dimensional polarization sensitive OCT imaging and interactive display of the human retina,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4151–4165 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Ahlers, B. Baumann, S. Michels, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16410–16422 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Michels, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Simader, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Value of polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography in diseases affecting the retinal pigment epithelium,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92(2), 204–209 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(12), 5487–5494 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt-Erfurth, U. M.

W. Geitzenauer, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. M. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Retinal optical coherence tomography: past, present and future perspectives,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 95(2), 171–177 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmoll, T.

Schoenenberger, K.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schütze, C.

C. Ahlers, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, I. Golbaz, F. Prager, C. Schütze, B. Baumann, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(4), 2149–2157 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuutze, C.

B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, H. Sattmann, C. Schuutze, F. Schlanitz, C. Ahlers, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Segmentation and quantification of retinal lesions in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 061704 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sekiryu, T.

Y. Ikuno, I. Maruko, Y. Yasuno, M. Miura, T. Sekiryu, K. Nishida, and T. Iida, “Reproducibility of retinal and choroidal thickness measurements in enhanced depth imaging and high-penetration optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(8), 5536–5540 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shaw, B.

R. N. Weinreb, A. W. Dreher, A. Coleman, H. Quigley, B. Shaw, and K. Reiter, “Histopathologic validation of Fourier-ellipsometry measurements of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 108(4), 557–560 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheen, N. J. L.

M. Esmaeelpour, B. Považay, B. Hermann, B. Hofer, V. Kajic, S. L. Hale, R. V. North, W. Drexler, and N. J. L. Sheen, “Mapping choroidal and retinal thickness variation in type 2 diabetes using three-dimensional 1060-nm optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(8), 5311–5316 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Esmaeelpour, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, B. Hofer, V. Kajic, K. Kapoor, N. J. L. Sheen, R. V. North, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional 1060-nm OCT: choroidal thickness maps in normal subjects and improved posterior segment visualization in cataract patients,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(10), 5260–5266 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simader, C.

S. Michels, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Simader, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Value of polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography in diseases affecting the retinal pigment epithelium,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92(2), 204–209 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spaide, R. F.

R. F. Spaide, H. Koizumi, and M. C. Pozzoni, “Enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 146(4), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sticker, M.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Polarization-sensitive low-coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9(6), 903–908 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tan, C. S.

C. S. Tan, Y. Ouyang, H. Ruiz, and S. R. Sadda, “Diurnal variation of choroidal thickness in normal, healthy subjects measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(1), 261–266 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

Tufail, A.

W. Rahman, F. K. Chen, J. Yeoh, P. Patel, A. Tufail, and L. Da Cruz, “Repeatability of manual subfoveal choroidal thickness measurements in healthy subjects using the technique of enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(5), 2267–2271 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Unterhuber, A.

van Blokland, G. J.

van Gemert, M. J. C.

Vass, C.

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, C. Hirn, C. Vass, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence evaluated with polarization sensitive spectral domain OCT and scanning laser polarimetry: A comparison,” J Biophoton. 1(2), 129–139 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weinreb, R. N.

R. N. Weinreb, A. W. Dreher, A. Coleman, H. Quigley, B. Shaw, and K. Reiter, “Histopathologic validation of Fourier-ellipsometry measurements of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 108(4), 557–560 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wojtkowski, M.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamanari, M.

Yang, C. H.

Yasuno, Y.

L. Duan, M. Yamanari, and Y. Yasuno, “Automated phase retardation oriented segmentation of chorio-scleral interface by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(3), 3353–3366 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ikuno, I. Maruko, Y. Yasuno, M. Miura, T. Sekiryu, K. Nishida, and T. Iida, “Reproducibility of retinal and choroidal thickness measurements in enhanced depth imaging and high-penetration optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(8), 5536–5540 (2011).
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M. Yamanari, M. Miura, S. Makita, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Phase retardation measurement of retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization-sensitive spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and scanning laser polarimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 014013 (2008).
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Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.

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M. Mujat, B. H. Park, B. Cense, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, “Autocalibration of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography spectrometers for in vivo quantitative retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence determination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041205 (2007).
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E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Ahlers, B. Baumann, S. Michels, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16410–16422 (2008).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

PS-OCT images of human fovea region to illustrate segmentation of choroid. a) Intensity B-scan; b) DOPU B-scan (color bar: 0-1); c) retardation B-scan (color bar: 0° - 90°); d) retardation A-scan (position shown by orange line in a)); e) intensity B-scan with segmentation lines (red: RPE, green: CSI); f) retardation B-scan with segmentation lines (top white line: RPE, bottom white line: CSI, color bar: 0° - 90°). B-scan dimensions: 19° (horizontal) x 1 mm (vertical; geometric distance).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Segmentation of choroid in five healthy volunteers by PS-OCT. Left column: intensity B-scans (red line: RPE, green line: CSI). Right column: retardation B-scans (top white line: RPE, bottom white line: CSI; color scale: cf. Figure 1). B-scan dimensions: 19° (horizontal) x 1060 µm (vertical; geometric distance).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Plots of choroidal thickness obtained by PS-OCT in five healthy volunteers. The foveola is at 0° (left and right sides are cropped to cover only those parts of the horizontal scans that are imaged in all eyes; the cropping was necessary because of decentration of some scans, cf. Figure 2).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Repeatability of CT segmentation by PS-OCT. The center line (black) shows the mean value of 5 CT thickness measurements obtained in a single subject. The other lines (red and green) show mean ± standard deviation. The foveola is at 0°.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

PS-OCT B-scans of a human retina to illustrate deviations between PS-OCT based choroidal segmentation and results derived manually from intensity image. See text for details. a) Intensity (red line: RPE, green line: CSI by PS-OCT, orange line: CSI by manual segmentation); b) retardation (top white line: RPE, bottom white line: CSI by PS-OCT, orange line: CSI by manual segmentation; color bar: cf. Fig. 1). B-scan dimensions: 19° (horizontal) x 1060 µm (vertical; geometric distance).

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