Abstract

We have fabricated and characterized a germanium on silicon uni-traveling carrier photodetector for analog and coherent communications applications. The device has a bandwidth of 20GHz, a large-signal 1dB saturation photocurrent of 20mA at −3V, and a low thermal impedance of 520K/W.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. P.-L. Liu, K. J. Williams, M. Y. Frankel, R. D. Esman, “Saturation characteristics of fast photodetectors,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47, 297–1303 (1999).
  2. H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. Colace, P. Ferrara, G. Assanto, D. Fulgoni, L. Nash, “Low dark-current germanium-on-silicon near-infrared detectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1813–1815 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Klinger, M. Berroth, M. Kaschel, M. Oehme, E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si p-i-n photodiodes with a 3-dB bandwidth of 49 GHz,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(13), 920–922 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wohl, M. Oehme, E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si vertical incidence photodiodes with 39-GHz bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1510–1512 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, “Near-infrared Ge photodiodes for Si photonics: operation frequency and an approach for the future,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(3), 306–320 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. X. Wang, N. Duan, H. Chen, J. C. Campbell, “InGaAs-InP photodiodes with high responsivity and high saturation Power,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(16), 1272–1274 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. G. Van de Walle, R. M. Martin, “Theoretical study of band offsets at semiconductor interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 35(15), 8154–8165 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. C. Masini, L. Calace, G. Assanto, H.-C. Luan, L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance p-i-n Ge on Si photodetectors for the near infrared: from model to demonstration,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 48(6), 1092–1096 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Liu, D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, “Deformation potential constants of biaxially tensile stressed Ge epitaxial films on Si(100),” Phys. Rev. B 70(15), 155309 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 011110 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. H. Loh, H. S. Nguyen, R. Murthy, M. B. Yu, W. Y. Lohl, G. Q. Lo, N. Balasubramanian, D. L. Kwong, J. Wang, S. J. Lee, “Selective epitaxial germanium on silicon-on-insulator high speed photodetectors using low-temperature ultrathin Si0.8Ge0.2 buffer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 073503 (2007).
  13. H.-Y. Xue, C.-L. Xue, B.-W. Cheng, Y.-D. Yu, Q.-M. Wang, “High-saturation-power and high-wpeed Ge-on-SOI p-i-n photodetectors,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(7), 701–703 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. Sfar Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Joo, S. Kim, I. G. Kim, K.-S. Jang, G. Kim, “High-sensitivity 10 Gbps Ge-on-Si photoreceiver operating at λ ~155 μm,” Opt. Express 18(16), 16474–16479 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. Z. Huang, N. Kong, X. Guo, M. Liu, N. Duan, A. L. Beck, S. K. Banerjee, J. C. Campbell, “21-GHz-bandwidth germanium-on-silicon photodiode using thin SiGe buffer layers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1450–1454 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. Famà, L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, H.-C. Luan, “High performance germanium-on-silicon detectors for optical communications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(4), 586 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Y.-S. Wu, J.-W. Shi, P.-H. Chiu, “Analytical modeling of a high-performance near-ballistic uni-traveling-carrier photodiode at a 1.55-μm wavelength,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(8), 938–940 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  19. T. Ishibashi, S. Kodama, N. Shimizu, T. Furuta, “High-speed response of uni-traveling-carrier photodiodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 1, No. 10), 6263–6268 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. Chtioui, A. Enard, D. Carpentier, S. Bernard, B. Rousseau, F. Lelarge, F. Pommereau, M. Achouche, “High-performance uni-traveling-carrier photodiodes with a new collector design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(13), 1163–1165 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  21. H. Ito, S. Kodama, Y. Muramoto, T. Furuta, T. Nagatsuma, T. Ishibashi, “High-speed and high-output InP-InGaAs unitraveling-carrier photodiodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(4), 709–727 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  22. C. Jacoboni, C. Canali, G. Ottaviani, A. Alberigi Quaranta, “A review of some charge transport properties of silicon,” Solid-State Electron. 20(2), 77–89 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  23. C. J. Glassbrenner, G. A. Slack, “Thermal conductivity of silicon and germanium from 3°K to the melting point,” Phys. Rev. 134(4A), A1058–A1069 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  24. P. Bhattacharya, Properties of Lattice-Matched and Strained Indium Gallium Arsenide (Institution of Engineering and Technology 1993), Chap. 2.
  25. S. Adachi, Handbook on Physical Properties of Semiconductors, vol. 2 (Springer-Verlag 2004), Chap. 16.
  26. J. Christofferson, K. Maize, Y. Ezzahri, J. Shabani, X. Wang, A. Shakouri, “Microscale and nanoscale thermal characterization techniques,” J. Electron. Packag. 130(4), 041101 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2010

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, “Near-infrared Ge photodiodes for Si photonics: operation frequency and an approach for the future,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(3), 306–320 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H.-Y. Xue, C.-L. Xue, B.-W. Cheng, Y.-D. Yu, Q.-M. Wang, “High-saturation-power and high-wpeed Ge-on-SOI p-i-n photodetectors,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(7), 701–703 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Joo, S. Kim, I. G. Kim, K.-S. Jang, G. Kim, “High-sensitivity 10 Gbps Ge-on-Si photoreceiver operating at λ ~155 μm,” Opt. Express 18(16), 16474–16479 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. Sfar Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Klinger, M. Berroth, M. Kaschel, M. Oehme, E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si p-i-n photodiodes with a 3-dB bandwidth of 49 GHz,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(13), 920–922 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

J. Christofferson, K. Maize, Y. Ezzahri, J. Shabani, X. Wang, A. Shakouri, “Microscale and nanoscale thermal characterization techniques,” J. Electron. Packag. 130(4), 041101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Chtioui, A. Enard, D. Carpentier, S. Bernard, B. Rousseau, F. Lelarge, F. Pommereau, M. Achouche, “High-performance uni-traveling-carrier photodiodes with a new collector design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(13), 1163–1165 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

T. H. Loh, H. S. Nguyen, R. Murthy, M. B. Yu, W. Y. Lohl, G. Q. Lo, N. Balasubramanian, D. L. Kwong, J. Wang, S. J. Lee, “Selective epitaxial germanium on silicon-on-insulator high speed photodetectors using low-temperature ultrathin Si0.8Ge0.2 buffer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 073503 (2007).

X. Wang, N. Duan, H. Chen, J. C. Campbell, “InGaAs-InP photodiodes with high responsivity and high saturation Power,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(16), 1272–1274 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Colace, P. Ferrara, G. Assanto, D. Fulgoni, L. Nash, “Low dark-current germanium-on-silicon near-infrared detectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1813–1815 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

Z. Huang, N. Kong, X. Guo, M. Liu, N. Duan, A. L. Beck, S. K. Banerjee, J. C. Campbell, “21-GHz-bandwidth germanium-on-silicon photodiode using thin SiGe buffer layers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1450–1454 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y.-S. Wu, J.-W. Shi, P.-H. Chiu, “Analytical modeling of a high-performance near-ballistic uni-traveling-carrier photodiode at a 1.55-μm wavelength,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(8), 938–940 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 011110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wohl, M. Oehme, E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si vertical incidence photodiodes with 39-GHz bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1510–1512 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

J. Liu, D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, “Deformation potential constants of biaxially tensile stressed Ge epitaxial films on Si(100),” Phys. Rev. B 70(15), 155309 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Ito, S. Kodama, Y. Muramoto, T. Furuta, T. Nagatsuma, T. Ishibashi, “High-speed and high-output InP-InGaAs unitraveling-carrier photodiodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(4), 709–727 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

S. Famà, L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, H.-C. Luan, “High performance germanium-on-silicon detectors for optical communications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(4), 586 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

C. Masini, L. Calace, G. Assanto, H.-C. Luan, L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance p-i-n Ge on Si photodetectors for the near infrared: from model to demonstration,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 48(6), 1092–1096 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

P.-L. Liu, K. J. Williams, M. Y. Frankel, R. D. Esman, “Saturation characteristics of fast photodetectors,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47, 297–1303 (1999).

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

T. Ishibashi, S. Kodama, N. Shimizu, T. Furuta, “High-speed response of uni-traveling-carrier photodiodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 1, No. 10), 6263–6268 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1987

C. G. Van de Walle, R. M. Martin, “Theoretical study of band offsets at semiconductor interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 35(15), 8154–8165 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977

C. Jacoboni, C. Canali, G. Ottaviani, A. Alberigi Quaranta, “A review of some charge transport properties of silicon,” Solid-State Electron. 20(2), 77–89 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1964

C. J. Glassbrenner, G. A. Slack, “Thermal conductivity of silicon and germanium from 3°K to the melting point,” Phys. Rev. 134(4A), A1058–A1069 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Achouche, M.

M. Chtioui, A. Enard, D. Carpentier, S. Bernard, B. Rousseau, F. Lelarge, F. Pommereau, M. Achouche, “High-performance uni-traveling-carrier photodiodes with a new collector design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(13), 1163–1165 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Alberigi Quaranta, A.

C. Jacoboni, C. Canali, G. Ottaviani, A. Alberigi Quaranta, “A review of some charge transport properties of silicon,” Solid-State Electron. 20(2), 77–89 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Assanto, G.

L. Colace, P. Ferrara, G. Assanto, D. Fulgoni, L. Nash, “Low dark-current germanium-on-silicon near-infrared detectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1813–1815 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Famà, L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, H.-C. Luan, “High performance germanium-on-silicon detectors for optical communications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(4), 586 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Masini, L. Calace, G. Assanto, H.-C. Luan, L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance p-i-n Ge on Si photodetectors for the near infrared: from model to demonstration,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 48(6), 1092–1096 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Balasubramanian, N.

T. H. Loh, H. S. Nguyen, R. Murthy, M. B. Yu, W. Y. Lohl, G. Q. Lo, N. Balasubramanian, D. L. Kwong, J. Wang, S. J. Lee, “Selective epitaxial germanium on silicon-on-insulator high speed photodetectors using low-temperature ultrathin Si0.8Ge0.2 buffer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 073503 (2007).

Banerjee, S. K.

Z. Huang, N. Kong, X. Guo, M. Liu, N. Duan, A. L. Beck, S. K. Banerjee, J. C. Campbell, “21-GHz-bandwidth germanium-on-silicon photodiode using thin SiGe buffer layers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1450–1454 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Beck, A. L.

Z. Huang, N. Kong, X. Guo, M. Liu, N. Duan, A. L. Beck, S. K. Banerjee, J. C. Campbell, “21-GHz-bandwidth germanium-on-silicon photodiode using thin SiGe buffer layers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1450–1454 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Beling, A.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. Sfar Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bernard, S.

M. Chtioui, A. Enard, D. Carpentier, S. Bernard, B. Rousseau, F. Lelarge, F. Pommereau, M. Achouche, “High-performance uni-traveling-carrier photodiodes with a new collector design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(13), 1163–1165 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Berroth, M.

S. Klinger, M. Berroth, M. Kaschel, M. Oehme, E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si p-i-n photodiodes with a 3-dB bandwidth of 49 GHz,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(13), 920–922 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wohl, M. Oehme, E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si vertical incidence photodiodes with 39-GHz bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1510–1512 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J. E.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. Sfar Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Calace, L.

C. Masini, L. Calace, G. Assanto, H.-C. Luan, L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance p-i-n Ge on Si photodetectors for the near infrared: from model to demonstration,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 48(6), 1092–1096 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, J. C.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. Sfar Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, N. Duan, H. Chen, J. C. Campbell, “InGaAs-InP photodiodes with high responsivity and high saturation Power,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(16), 1272–1274 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Huang, N. Kong, X. Guo, M. Liu, N. Duan, A. L. Beck, S. K. Banerjee, J. C. Campbell, “21-GHz-bandwidth germanium-on-silicon photodiode using thin SiGe buffer layers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1450–1454 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Canali, C.

C. Jacoboni, C. Canali, G. Ottaviani, A. Alberigi Quaranta, “A review of some charge transport properties of silicon,” Solid-State Electron. 20(2), 77–89 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Cannon, D.

J. Liu, D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, “Deformation potential constants of biaxially tensile stressed Ge epitaxial films on Si(100),” Phys. Rev. B 70(15), 155309 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cannon, D. D.

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 011110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Carpentier, D.

M. Chtioui, A. Enard, D. Carpentier, S. Bernard, B. Rousseau, F. Lelarge, F. Pommereau, M. Achouche, “High-performance uni-traveling-carrier photodiodes with a new collector design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(13), 1163–1165 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

X. Wang, N. Duan, H. Chen, J. C. Campbell, “InGaAs-InP photodiodes with high responsivity and high saturation Power,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(16), 1272–1274 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.-W.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. Sfar Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K. M.

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, B.-W.

H.-Y. Xue, C.-L. Xue, B.-W. Cheng, Y.-D. Yu, Q.-M. Wang, “High-saturation-power and high-wpeed Ge-on-SOI p-i-n photodetectors,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(7), 701–703 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, P.-H.

Y.-S. Wu, J.-W. Shi, P.-H. Chiu, “Analytical modeling of a high-performance near-ballistic uni-traveling-carrier photodiode at a 1.55-μm wavelength,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(8), 938–940 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Christofferson, J.

J. Christofferson, K. Maize, Y. Ezzahri, J. Shabani, X. Wang, A. Shakouri, “Microscale and nanoscale thermal characterization techniques,” J. Electron. Packag. 130(4), 041101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chtioui, M.

M. Chtioui, A. Enard, D. Carpentier, S. Bernard, B. Rousseau, F. Lelarge, F. Pommereau, M. Achouche, “High-performance uni-traveling-carrier photodiodes with a new collector design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(13), 1163–1165 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Colace, L.

L. Colace, P. Ferrara, G. Assanto, D. Fulgoni, L. Nash, “Low dark-current germanium-on-silicon near-infrared detectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1813–1815 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Famà, L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, H.-C. Luan, “High performance germanium-on-silicon detectors for optical communications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(4), 586 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Danielson, D. T.

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 011110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, “Deformation potential constants of biaxially tensile stressed Ge epitaxial films on Si(100),” Phys. Rev. B 70(15), 155309 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Duan, N.

X. Wang, N. Duan, H. Chen, J. C. Campbell, “InGaAs-InP photodiodes with high responsivity and high saturation Power,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(16), 1272–1274 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Huang, N. Kong, X. Guo, M. Liu, N. Duan, A. L. Beck, S. K. Banerjee, J. C. Campbell, “21-GHz-bandwidth germanium-on-silicon photodiode using thin SiGe buffer layers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1450–1454 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Enard, A.

M. Chtioui, A. Enard, D. Carpentier, S. Bernard, B. Rousseau, F. Lelarge, F. Pommereau, M. Achouche, “High-performance uni-traveling-carrier photodiodes with a new collector design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(13), 1163–1165 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Esman, R. D.

P.-L. Liu, K. J. Williams, M. Y. Frankel, R. D. Esman, “Saturation characteristics of fast photodetectors,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47, 297–1303 (1999).

Ezzahri, Y.

J. Christofferson, K. Maize, Y. Ezzahri, J. Shabani, X. Wang, A. Shakouri, “Microscale and nanoscale thermal characterization techniques,” J. Electron. Packag. 130(4), 041101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Famà, S.

S. Famà, L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, H.-C. Luan, “High performance germanium-on-silicon detectors for optical communications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(4), 586 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ferrara, P.

L. Colace, P. Ferrara, G. Assanto, D. Fulgoni, L. Nash, “Low dark-current germanium-on-silicon near-infrared detectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1813–1815 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Frankel, M. Y.

P.-L. Liu, K. J. Williams, M. Y. Frankel, R. D. Esman, “Saturation characteristics of fast photodetectors,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47, 297–1303 (1999).

Fulgoni, D.

L. Colace, P. Ferrara, G. Assanto, D. Fulgoni, L. Nash, “Low dark-current germanium-on-silicon near-infrared detectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1813–1815 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Furuta, T.

H. Ito, S. Kodama, Y. Muramoto, T. Furuta, T. Nagatsuma, T. Ishibashi, “High-speed and high-output InP-InGaAs unitraveling-carrier photodiodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(4), 709–727 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Ishibashi, S. Kodama, N. Shimizu, T. Furuta, “High-speed response of uni-traveling-carrier photodiodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 1, No. 10), 6263–6268 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Glassbrenner, C. J.

C. J. Glassbrenner, G. A. Slack, “Thermal conductivity of silicon and germanium from 3°K to the melting point,” Phys. Rev. 134(4A), A1058–A1069 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Guo, X.

Z. Huang, N. Kong, X. Guo, M. Liu, N. Duan, A. L. Beck, S. K. Banerjee, J. C. Campbell, “21-GHz-bandwidth germanium-on-silicon photodiode using thin SiGe buffer layers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1450–1454 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Z.

Z. Huang, N. Kong, X. Guo, M. Liu, N. Duan, A. L. Beck, S. K. Banerjee, J. C. Campbell, “21-GHz-bandwidth germanium-on-silicon photodiode using thin SiGe buffer layers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1450–1454 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ishibashi, T.

H. Ito, S. Kodama, Y. Muramoto, T. Furuta, T. Nagatsuma, T. Ishibashi, “High-speed and high-output InP-InGaAs unitraveling-carrier photodiodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(4), 709–727 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Ishibashi, S. Kodama, N. Shimizu, T. Furuta, “High-speed response of uni-traveling-carrier photodiodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 1, No. 10), 6263–6268 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, Y.

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, “Near-infrared Ge photodiodes for Si photonics: operation frequency and an approach for the future,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(3), 306–320 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 011110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, “Deformation potential constants of biaxially tensile stressed Ge epitaxial films on Si(100),” Phys. Rev. B 70(15), 155309 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ito, H.

H. Ito, S. Kodama, Y. Muramoto, T. Furuta, T. Nagatsuma, T. Ishibashi, “High-speed and high-output InP-InGaAs unitraveling-carrier photodiodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(4), 709–727 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jacoboni, C.

C. Jacoboni, C. Canali, G. Ottaviani, A. Alberigi Quaranta, “A review of some charge transport properties of silicon,” Solid-State Electron. 20(2), 77–89 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Jang, K.-S.

Jongthammanurak, S.

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 011110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, “Deformation potential constants of biaxially tensile stressed Ge epitaxial films on Si(100),” Phys. Rev. B 70(15), 155309 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Joo, J.

Jutzi, M.

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wohl, M. Oehme, E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si vertical incidence photodiodes with 39-GHz bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1510–1512 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kang, Y.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. Sfar Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kaschel, M.

S. Klinger, M. Berroth, M. Kaschel, M. Oehme, E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si p-i-n photodiodes with a 3-dB bandwidth of 49 GHz,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(13), 920–922 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kasper, E.

S. Klinger, M. Berroth, M. Kaschel, M. Oehme, E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si p-i-n photodiodes with a 3-dB bandwidth of 49 GHz,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(13), 920–922 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wohl, M. Oehme, E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si vertical incidence photodiodes with 39-GHz bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1510–1512 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, G.

Kim, I. G.

Kim, S.

Kimerling, L. C.

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 011110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, “Deformation potential constants of biaxially tensile stressed Ge epitaxial films on Si(100),” Phys. Rev. B 70(15), 155309 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Masini, L. Calace, G. Assanto, H.-C. Luan, L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance p-i-n Ge on Si photodetectors for the near infrared: from model to demonstration,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 48(6), 1092–1096 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Klinger, S.

S. Klinger, M. Berroth, M. Kaschel, M. Oehme, E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si p-i-n photodiodes with a 3-dB bandwidth of 49 GHz,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(13), 920–922 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kodama, S.

H. Ito, S. Kodama, Y. Muramoto, T. Furuta, T. Nagatsuma, T. Ishibashi, “High-speed and high-output InP-InGaAs unitraveling-carrier photodiodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(4), 709–727 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Ishibashi, S. Kodama, N. Shimizu, T. Furuta, “High-speed response of uni-traveling-carrier photodiodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 1, No. 10), 6263–6268 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kong, N.

Z. Huang, N. Kong, X. Guo, M. Liu, N. Duan, A. L. Beck, S. K. Banerjee, J. C. Campbell, “21-GHz-bandwidth germanium-on-silicon photodiode using thin SiGe buffer layers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1450–1454 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, Y.-H.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. Sfar Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kwong, D. L.

T. H. Loh, H. S. Nguyen, R. Murthy, M. B. Yu, W. Y. Lohl, G. Q. Lo, N. Balasubramanian, D. L. Kwong, J. Wang, S. J. Lee, “Selective epitaxial germanium on silicon-on-insulator high speed photodetectors using low-temperature ultrathin Si0.8Ge0.2 buffer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 073503 (2007).

Lee, K. K.

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. J.

T. H. Loh, H. S. Nguyen, R. Murthy, M. B. Yu, W. Y. Lohl, G. Q. Lo, N. Balasubramanian, D. L. Kwong, J. Wang, S. J. Lee, “Selective epitaxial germanium on silicon-on-insulator high speed photodetectors using low-temperature ultrathin Si0.8Ge0.2 buffer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 073503 (2007).

Lelarge, F.

M. Chtioui, A. Enard, D. Carpentier, S. Bernard, B. Rousseau, F. Lelarge, F. Pommereau, M. Achouche, “High-performance uni-traveling-carrier photodiodes with a new collector design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(13), 1163–1165 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lim, D. R.

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Litski, S.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. Sfar Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.-D.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. Sfar Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 011110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, “Deformation potential constants of biaxially tensile stressed Ge epitaxial films on Si(100),” Phys. Rev. B 70(15), 155309 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, M.

Z. Huang, N. Kong, X. Guo, M. Liu, N. Duan, A. L. Beck, S. K. Banerjee, J. C. Campbell, “21-GHz-bandwidth germanium-on-silicon photodiode using thin SiGe buffer layers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1450–1454 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, P.-L.

P.-L. Liu, K. J. Williams, M. Y. Frankel, R. D. Esman, “Saturation characteristics of fast photodetectors,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47, 297–1303 (1999).

Lo, G. Q.

T. H. Loh, H. S. Nguyen, R. Murthy, M. B. Yu, W. Y. Lohl, G. Q. Lo, N. Balasubramanian, D. L. Kwong, J. Wang, S. J. Lee, “Selective epitaxial germanium on silicon-on-insulator high speed photodetectors using low-temperature ultrathin Si0.8Ge0.2 buffer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 073503 (2007).

Loh, T. H.

T. H. Loh, H. S. Nguyen, R. Murthy, M. B. Yu, W. Y. Lohl, G. Q. Lo, N. Balasubramanian, D. L. Kwong, J. Wang, S. J. Lee, “Selective epitaxial germanium on silicon-on-insulator high speed photodetectors using low-temperature ultrathin Si0.8Ge0.2 buffer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 073503 (2007).

Lohl, W. Y.

T. H. Loh, H. S. Nguyen, R. Murthy, M. B. Yu, W. Y. Lohl, G. Q. Lo, N. Balasubramanian, D. L. Kwong, J. Wang, S. J. Lee, “Selective epitaxial germanium on silicon-on-insulator high speed photodetectors using low-temperature ultrathin Si0.8Ge0.2 buffer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 073503 (2007).

Luan, H.-C.

S. Famà, L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, H.-C. Luan, “High performance germanium-on-silicon detectors for optical communications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(4), 586 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Masini, L. Calace, G. Assanto, H.-C. Luan, L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance p-i-n Ge on Si photodetectors for the near infrared: from model to demonstration,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 48(6), 1092–1096 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Maize, K.

J. Christofferson, K. Maize, Y. Ezzahri, J. Shabani, X. Wang, A. Shakouri, “Microscale and nanoscale thermal characterization techniques,” J. Electron. Packag. 130(4), 041101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Martin, R. M.

C. G. Van de Walle, R. M. Martin, “Theoretical study of band offsets at semiconductor interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 35(15), 8154–8165 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Masini, C.

C. Masini, L. Calace, G. Assanto, H.-C. Luan, L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance p-i-n Ge on Si photodetectors for the near infrared: from model to demonstration,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 48(6), 1092–1096 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Masini, G.

S. Famà, L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, H.-C. Luan, “High performance germanium-on-silicon detectors for optical communications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(4), 586 (2002).
[CrossRef]

McIntosh, D. C.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. Sfar Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Michel, J.

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 011110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, “Deformation potential constants of biaxially tensile stressed Ge epitaxial films on Si(100),” Phys. Rev. B 70(15), 155309 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Morse, M.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. Sfar Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Muramoto, Y.

H. Ito, S. Kodama, Y. Muramoto, T. Furuta, T. Nagatsuma, T. Ishibashi, “High-speed and high-output InP-InGaAs unitraveling-carrier photodiodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(4), 709–727 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Murthy, R.

T. H. Loh, H. S. Nguyen, R. Murthy, M. B. Yu, W. Y. Lohl, G. Q. Lo, N. Balasubramanian, D. L. Kwong, J. Wang, S. J. Lee, “Selective epitaxial germanium on silicon-on-insulator high speed photodetectors using low-temperature ultrathin Si0.8Ge0.2 buffer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 073503 (2007).

Nagatsuma, T.

H. Ito, S. Kodama, Y. Muramoto, T. Furuta, T. Nagatsuma, T. Ishibashi, “High-speed and high-output InP-InGaAs unitraveling-carrier photodiodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(4), 709–727 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nash, L.

L. Colace, P. Ferrara, G. Assanto, D. Fulgoni, L. Nash, “Low dark-current germanium-on-silicon near-infrared detectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1813–1815 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, H. S.

T. H. Loh, H. S. Nguyen, R. Murthy, M. B. Yu, W. Y. Lohl, G. Q. Lo, N. Balasubramanian, D. L. Kwong, J. Wang, S. J. Lee, “Selective epitaxial germanium on silicon-on-insulator high speed photodetectors using low-temperature ultrathin Si0.8Ge0.2 buffer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 073503 (2007).

Oehme, M.

S. Klinger, M. Berroth, M. Kaschel, M. Oehme, E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si p-i-n photodiodes with a 3-dB bandwidth of 49 GHz,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(13), 920–922 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wohl, M. Oehme, E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si vertical incidence photodiodes with 39-GHz bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1510–1512 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ottaviani, G.

C. Jacoboni, C. Canali, G. Ottaviani, A. Alberigi Quaranta, “A review of some charge transport properties of silicon,” Solid-State Electron. 20(2), 77–89 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Paniccia, M. J.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. Sfar Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pauchard, A.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. Sfar Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pommereau, F.

M. Chtioui, A. Enard, D. Carpentier, S. Bernard, B. Rousseau, F. Lelarge, F. Pommereau, M. Achouche, “High-performance uni-traveling-carrier photodiodes with a new collector design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(13), 1163–1165 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rousseau, B.

M. Chtioui, A. Enard, D. Carpentier, S. Bernard, B. Rousseau, F. Lelarge, F. Pommereau, M. Achouche, “High-performance uni-traveling-carrier photodiodes with a new collector design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(13), 1163–1165 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sandland, J. G.

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sarid, G.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. Sfar Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sfar Zaoui, W.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. Sfar Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shabani, J.

J. Christofferson, K. Maize, Y. Ezzahri, J. Shabani, X. Wang, A. Shakouri, “Microscale and nanoscale thermal characterization techniques,” J. Electron. Packag. 130(4), 041101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shakouri, A.

J. Christofferson, K. Maize, Y. Ezzahri, J. Shabani, X. Wang, A. Shakouri, “Microscale and nanoscale thermal characterization techniques,” J. Electron. Packag. 130(4), 041101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shi, J.-W.

Y.-S. Wu, J.-W. Shi, P.-H. Chiu, “Analytical modeling of a high-performance near-ballistic uni-traveling-carrier photodiode at a 1.55-μm wavelength,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(8), 938–940 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, N.

T. Ishibashi, S. Kodama, N. Shimizu, T. Furuta, “High-speed response of uni-traveling-carrier photodiodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 1, No. 10), 6263–6268 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Slack, G. A.

C. J. Glassbrenner, G. A. Slack, “Thermal conductivity of silicon and germanium from 3°K to the melting point,” Phys. Rev. 134(4A), A1058–A1069 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Van de Walle, C. G.

C. G. Van de Walle, R. M. Martin, “Theoretical study of band offsets at semiconductor interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 35(15), 8154–8165 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wada, K.

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, “Near-infrared Ge photodiodes for Si photonics: operation frequency and an approach for the future,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(3), 306–320 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 011110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, “Deformation potential constants of biaxially tensile stressed Ge epitaxial films on Si(100),” Phys. Rev. B 70(15), 155309 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

T. H. Loh, H. S. Nguyen, R. Murthy, M. B. Yu, W. Y. Lohl, G. Q. Lo, N. Balasubramanian, D. L. Kwong, J. Wang, S. J. Lee, “Selective epitaxial germanium on silicon-on-insulator high speed photodetectors using low-temperature ultrathin Si0.8Ge0.2 buffer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 073503 (2007).

Wang, Q.-M.

H.-Y. Xue, C.-L. Xue, B.-W. Cheng, Y.-D. Yu, Q.-M. Wang, “High-saturation-power and high-wpeed Ge-on-SOI p-i-n photodetectors,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(7), 701–703 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

J. Christofferson, K. Maize, Y. Ezzahri, J. Shabani, X. Wang, A. Shakouri, “Microscale and nanoscale thermal characterization techniques,” J. Electron. Packag. 130(4), 041101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, N. Duan, H. Chen, J. C. Campbell, “InGaAs-InP photodiodes with high responsivity and high saturation Power,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(16), 1272–1274 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Williams, K. J.

P.-L. Liu, K. J. Williams, M. Y. Frankel, R. D. Esman, “Saturation characteristics of fast photodetectors,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47, 297–1303 (1999).

Wohl, G.

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wohl, M. Oehme, E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si vertical incidence photodiodes with 39-GHz bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1510–1512 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.-S.

Y.-S. Wu, J.-W. Shi, P.-H. Chiu, “Analytical modeling of a high-performance near-ballistic uni-traveling-carrier photodiode at a 1.55-μm wavelength,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(8), 938–940 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xue, C.-L.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Cross-section schematic (b) Optical photograph of the fabricated device.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Responsivity of a large-area topside illuminated device around 1550nm. The theoretical curve was calculated by assuming Eg,hh = 0.79eV and Eg,lh = 0.77eV and fitting the momentum matrix element to the data. (b) Responsivities of surface-normal Ge/Si devices from the literature. Circles: data displayed as reported; Crosses: data modified to account for lack of anti-reflective coating.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Bandwidth as a function of bias voltage at 200μA photocurrent. (b) Bandwidth at 3V as a function of photocurrent.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Output RF power at 20GHz as a function of photocurrent. (b) 1dB compression current as a function of bias voltage. Circles: Measured data; Upper line: 1dB compression current predicted by model without thermal effects; Lower line: model with thermal effects.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Measured and simulated photodiode temperatures as a function of dissipated power. A simulated line for an InP/InGaAs device with the same dimensions is also shown. (b) Thermal image of the photodetector mesa while it is dissipating 40mW of electrical power.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

V P D = V b i a s I d c R s I a c ( R L + R s ) / 1 + ( 2 π f R C ) 2
J max = 2 ε S i v n w c 2 ( V b i + V P D E c r i t w c + q w c 2 2 ε S i N D C )
I D C P a v e = 1 m π sin ( π T c T ) + m T c T cos ( π T c T )
I R F P R F = 1 T c T + 1 2 π sin ( 2 π T c T ) .
Δ T = Δ R C t h R

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