Abstract

The impedance matching to free space in metamaterial perfect absorbers has been believed to involve and rely on magnetic resonant response, with direct evidence provided by the anti-parallel surface currents in the metal structures. Here I present a different theoretical interpretation based on interference, which shows that the two layers of metal structures in metamaterial absorbers are linked only by multiple reflections with negligible near-field interactions or magnetic resonances. This is further supported by the out-of-phase surface currents derived at the interfaces of resonator array and ground plane through multiple reflections and superpositions. The theory developed here explains all features observed in narrowband metamaterial absorbers and therefore provides a profound understanding of the underlying physics.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. A. Alù, F. Bilotti, N. Engheta, and L. Vegni, “A thin absorbing screen using metamaterial complementary pairs,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Electromagnetics in Advanced Applications, (Turin, Italy, September 12–16, 2005), 75–78.
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “Manipulation of terahertz radiation using metamaterials,” Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 513–533 (2011).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2011 (3)

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “Manipulation of terahertz radiation using metamaterials,” Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 513–533 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Hao, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “Nearly total absorption of light and heat generation by plasmonic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 165107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Sun, L. Liu, G. Dong, and J. Zhou, “An extremely broad band metamaterial absorber based on destructive interference,” Opt. Express 19, 21155–21162 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10, 2342–2348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liu, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, and W. J. Padilla, “Infrared spatial and frequency selective metamaterial with near-unity absorbance,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 207403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, J. Zhou, J. F. O’Hara, F. Chen, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “Antireflection coating using metamaterials and identification of its mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 073901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Y. Shchegolkov, A. K. Azad, J. F. O’Hara, and E. I. Simakov, “Perfect subwavelength fishnetlike metamaterial-based film terahertz absorbers,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 205117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

C. L. Holloway, A. Dienstfrey, E. F. Kuester, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “A discussion on the interpretation and characterization of metafilms/metasurfaces: The two-dimensional equivalent of metamaterials,” Metamaterials 3, 100–112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Avitzour, Y. A. Urzhumov, and G. Shvets, “Wide-angle infrared absorber based on a negative-index plasmonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 045131 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Y. Wen, Y. S. Xie, H. W. Zhang, Q. H. Yang, Y. X. Li, and Y. L. Liu, “Transmission line model and fields analysis of metamaterial absorber in the terahertz band,” Opt. Express 17, 20256–20265 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Diem, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Wide-angle perfect absorber/thermal emitter in the terahertz regime,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 033101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: Design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express 16, 7181–7188 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 241103(R) (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 30, 3356–3358 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184–4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alù, A.

A. Alù, F. Bilotti, N. Engheta, and L. Vegni, “A thin absorbing screen using metamaterial complementary pairs,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Electromagnetics in Advanced Applications, (Turin, Italy, September 12–16, 2005), 75–78.

Averitt, R. D.

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 241103(R) (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: Design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express 16, 7181–7188 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avitzour, Y.

Y. Avitzour, Y. A. Urzhumov, and G. Shvets, “Wide-angle infrared absorber based on a negative-index plasmonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 045131 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Azad, A. K.

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “Manipulation of terahertz radiation using metamaterials,” Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 513–533 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Shchegolkov, A. K. Azad, J. F. O’Hara, and E. I. Simakov, “Perfect subwavelength fishnetlike metamaterial-based film terahertz absorbers,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 205117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Chen, J. Zhou, J. F. O’Hara, F. Chen, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “Antireflection coating using metamaterials and identification of its mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 073901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Holloway, A. Dienstfrey, E. F. Kuester, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “A discussion on the interpretation and characterization of metafilms/metasurfaces: The two-dimensional equivalent of metamaterials,” Metamaterials 3, 100–112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bilotti, F.

A. Alù, F. Bilotti, N. Engheta, and L. Vegni, “A thin absorbing screen using metamaterial complementary pairs,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Electromagnetics in Advanced Applications, (Turin, Italy, September 12–16, 2005), 75–78.

Bingham, C. M.

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: Design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express 16, 7181–7188 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 241103(R) (2008).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of optics (Pergamon, 1980), 6th ed.

Brueck, S. R. J.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, W.

Chen, F.

H.-T. Chen, J. Zhou, J. F. O’Hara, F. Chen, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “Antireflection coating using metamaterials and identification of its mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 073901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H.-T.

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “Manipulation of terahertz radiation using metamaterials,” Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 513–533 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Chen, J. Zhou, J. F. O’Hara, F. Chen, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “Antireflection coating using metamaterials and identification of its mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 073901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chettiar, U. K.

Diem, M.

M. Diem, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Wide-angle perfect absorber/thermal emitter in the terahertz regime,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 033101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dienstfrey, A.

C. L. Holloway, A. Dienstfrey, E. F. Kuester, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “A discussion on the interpretation and characterization of metafilms/metasurfaces: The two-dimensional equivalent of metamaterials,” Metamaterials 3, 100–112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dong, G.

Drachev, V. P.

Engheta, N.

A. Alù, F. Bilotti, N. Engheta, and L. Vegni, “A thin absorbing screen using metamaterial complementary pairs,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Electromagnetics in Advanced Applications, (Turin, Italy, September 12–16, 2005), 75–78.

Fan, K.

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 241103(R) (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fan, W.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giessen, H.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10, 2342–2348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hao, J.

J. Hao, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “Nearly total absorption of light and heat generation by plasmonic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 165107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hentschel, M.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10, 2342–2348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holloway, C. L.

C. L. Holloway, A. Dienstfrey, E. F. Kuester, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “A discussion on the interpretation and characterization of metafilms/metasurfaces: The two-dimensional equivalent of metamaterials,” Metamaterials 3, 100–112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, J. D.

J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics (Wiley, 1998), 3rd ed.

Kildishev, A. V.

Koschny, T.

M. Diem, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Wide-angle perfect absorber/thermal emitter in the terahertz regime,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 033101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kuester, E. F.

C. L. Holloway, A. Dienstfrey, E. F. Kuester, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “A discussion on the interpretation and characterization of metafilms/metasurfaces: The two-dimensional equivalent of metamaterials,” Metamaterials 3, 100–112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Landy, N. I.

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: Design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express 16, 7181–7188 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 241103(R) (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y. X.

Liu, L.

Liu, N.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10, 2342–2348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

X. Liu, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, and W. J. Padilla, “Infrared spatial and frequency selective metamaterial with near-unity absorbance,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 207403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y. L.

Malloy, K. J.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mesch, M.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10, 2342–2348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mock, J. J.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nemat-Nasser, S. C.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184–4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Hara, J. F.

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “Manipulation of terahertz radiation using metamaterials,” Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 513–533 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Shchegolkov, A. K. Azad, J. F. O’Hara, and E. I. Simakov, “Perfect subwavelength fishnetlike metamaterial-based film terahertz absorbers,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 205117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Chen, J. Zhou, J. F. O’Hara, F. Chen, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “Antireflection coating using metamaterials and identification of its mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 073901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Holloway, A. Dienstfrey, E. F. Kuester, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “A discussion on the interpretation and characterization of metafilms/metasurfaces: The two-dimensional equivalent of metamaterials,” Metamaterials 3, 100–112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Osgood, R. M.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Padilla, W. J.

X. Liu, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, and W. J. Padilla, “Infrared spatial and frequency selective metamaterial with near-unity absorbance,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 207403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 241103(R) (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: Design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express 16, 7181–7188 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184–4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Panoiu, N. C.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pilon, D.

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 241103(R) (2008).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, M.

J. Hao, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “Nearly total absorption of light and heat generation by plasmonic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 165107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sajuyigbe, S.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sarychev, A. K.

Schultz, S.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184–4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shalaev, V.

W. Cai and V. Shalaev, Optical Metamaterials: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2010).

Shalaev, V. M.

Shchegolkov, D. Y.

D. Y. Shchegolkov, A. K. Azad, J. F. O’Hara, and E. I. Simakov, “Perfect subwavelength fishnetlike metamaterial-based film terahertz absorbers,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 205117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shrekenhamer, D.

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 241103(R) (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shvets, G.

Y. Avitzour, Y. A. Urzhumov, and G. Shvets, “Wide-angle infrared absorber based on a negative-index plasmonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 045131 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Simakov, E. I.

D. Y. Shchegolkov, A. K. Azad, J. F. O’Hara, and E. I. Simakov, “Perfect subwavelength fishnetlike metamaterial-based film terahertz absorbers,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 205117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184–4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

M. Diem, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Wide-angle perfect absorber/thermal emitter in the terahertz regime,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 033101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Starr, A. F.

X. Liu, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, and W. J. Padilla, “Infrared spatial and frequency selective metamaterial with near-unity absorbance,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 207403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Starr, T.

X. Liu, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, and W. J. Padilla, “Infrared spatial and frequency selective metamaterial with near-unity absorbance,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 207403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strikwerda, A. C.

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 241103(R) (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sun, J.

Tao, H.

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: Design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express 16, 7181–7188 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 241103(R) (2008).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “Manipulation of terahertz radiation using metamaterials,” Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 513–533 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Chen, J. Zhou, J. F. O’Hara, F. Chen, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “Antireflection coating using metamaterials and identification of its mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 073901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Holloway, A. Dienstfrey, E. F. Kuester, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “A discussion on the interpretation and characterization of metafilms/metasurfaces: The two-dimensional equivalent of metamaterials,” Metamaterials 3, 100–112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Urzhumov, Y. A.

Y. Avitzour, Y. A. Urzhumov, and G. Shvets, “Wide-angle infrared absorber based on a negative-index plasmonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 045131 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vegni, L.

A. Alù, F. Bilotti, N. Engheta, and L. Vegni, “A thin absorbing screen using metamaterial complementary pairs,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Electromagnetics in Advanced Applications, (Turin, Italy, September 12–16, 2005), 75–78.

Vier, D. C.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184–4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiss, T.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10, 2342–2348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wen, Q. Y.

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of optics (Pergamon, 1980), 6th ed.

Xie, Y. S.

Yang, Q. H.

Yuan, H.-K.

Zhang, H. W.

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 241103(R) (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: Design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express 16, 7181–7188 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, J.

J. Sun, L. Liu, G. Dong, and J. Zhou, “An extremely broad band metamaterial absorber based on destructive interference,” Opt. Express 19, 21155–21162 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, J. Zhou, J. F. O’Hara, F. Chen, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “Antireflection coating using metamaterials and identification of its mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 073901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, L.

J. Hao, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “Nearly total absorption of light and heat generation by plasmonic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 165107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “Manipulation of terahertz radiation using metamaterials,” Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 513–533 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Metamaterials (1)

C. L. Holloway, A. Dienstfrey, E. F. Kuester, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “A discussion on the interpretation and characterization of metafilms/metasurfaces: The two-dimensional equivalent of metamaterials,” Metamaterials 3, 100–112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10, 2342–2348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (5)

J. Hao, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “Nearly total absorption of light and heat generation by plasmonic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 165107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Avitzour, Y. A. Urzhumov, and G. Shvets, “Wide-angle infrared absorber based on a negative-index plasmonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 045131 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Shchegolkov, A. K. Azad, J. F. O’Hara, and E. I. Simakov, “Perfect subwavelength fishnetlike metamaterial-based film terahertz absorbers,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 205117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 241103(R) (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Diem, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Wide-angle perfect absorber/thermal emitter in the terahertz regime,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 033101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

X. Liu, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, and W. J. Padilla, “Infrared spatial and frequency selective metamaterial with near-unity absorbance,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 207403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184–4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, J. Zhou, J. F. O’Hara, F. Chen, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “Antireflection coating using metamaterials and identification of its mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 073901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (6)

A. Alù, F. Bilotti, N. Engheta, and L. Vegni, “A thin absorbing screen using metamaterial complementary pairs,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Electromagnetics in Advanced Applications, (Turin, Italy, September 12–16, 2005), 75–78.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of optics (Pergamon, 1980), 6th ed.

J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics (Wiley, 1998), 3rd ed.

J. Zhou, H.-T. Chen, T. Koschny, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, C. M. Soukoulis, and J. F. O’Hara, “Application of metasurface description for multilayered metamaterials and an alternative theory for metamaterial perfect absorber,” http://arxiv.org/abs/1111.0343 .

W. Cai and V. Shalaev, Optical Metamaterials: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2010).

CST Microwave Studio 2009, http://www.cst.com/ .

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic structure of the metamaterial absorber unit cell, which repeats in the x and y directions forming a square array with periodicity p. (b) Unit cell used to obtain the reflection and transmission coefficients at the air-spacer interface with the cross-resonator array. (c) The solid red curve is the reflection |S11| from the metamaterial absorber shown in unit cell (a), and the dashed blue curve is the resonant transmission |S21| through the cross-resonator array shown in unit cell (b). (d) Surface currents of the metamaterial absorber at the peak absorption frequency. The current at the cross flows to left direction, while it flows to right direction at the ground plane.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Amplitude and (b) phase of the reflection and transmission coefficients at the air-spacer interface with cross-resonator array, obtained by numerical simulations using the unit cell shown in Fig. 1(b). Inset: Multiple reflections and interference model of the metamaterial absorber, where the cross-resonator array is indicated by the dashed line at the air-spacer interface.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated absorptance in the decoupled metamaterial absorber using the interference model for various spacer thicknesses. Insets: The simulated absorptance when treating the whole metamaterial absorber as a coupled system.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Phase spectra of the excited surface currents at the air-spacer interface with cross-resonator array (ψc) and at the ground plane (ψg), as well as their difference (ψcψg), calculated through multiple reflections and superposition based on the interference model. The corresponding magnitude of the surface currents are shown in the inset. (b) Backward radiation field (reflection) calculated through E r J c total + J g total e i β 0 for various spacer thicknesses.

Equations (3)

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r ˜ = r ˜ 12 t ˜ 12 t ˜ 21 e i 2 β ˜ 1 + r ˜ 21 e i 2 β ˜ ,
J c total = { ( 1 r ˜ 12 Z 0 t ˜ 12 Z s ) ( 1 r ˜ 21 Z s t ˜ 21 Z 0 ) t ˜ 12 e i 2 β ˜ 1 + r ˜ 21 e i 2 β ˜ } E c i x ^ ,
J g total = 2 t ˜ 12 e i β ˜ 1 + r ˜ 21 e i 2 β ˜ 1 Z s E c i x ^ .

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