Abstract

Some background as well as recent progress in the development of femtosecond lasers are discussed together with a brief outline of a few representative emergent applications in biology and medicine that are underpinned by access to such sources. We also provide a short summary of other contributions in this focus issue.

© 2012 OSA

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  98. V. G. Savitski, N. K. Metzger, S. Calvez, D. Burns, W. Sibbett, and C. T. A. Brown, “Optical trapping with “on-demand” two-photon luminescence using Cr:LiSAF laser with optically addressed saturable Bragg reflector,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7066–7070 (2012).
  99. J. Köhler, M. Wollenhaupt, T. Bayer, C. Sarpe, and T. Baumert, “Zeptosecond precision pulse shaping,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11638–11653 (2011).
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2012 (9)

F. Harth, T. Ulm, M. Lührmann, R. Knappe, A. Klehr, Th. Hoffmann, G. Erbert, and J. A. L’huillier, “High power laser pulses with voltage controlled durations of 400 – 1000 ps,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7002–7007 (2012).

F. Kienle, P. S. Teh, D. Lin, S.-u. Alam, J. H. V. Price, D. C. Hanna, D. J. Richardson, and D. P. Shepherd, “High-power, high repetition-rate, green-pumped, picosecond LBO optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7008–7014 (2012).

X. Zhang, E. Schneider, G. Taft, H. Kaptyen, M. Murnane, and S. Backus, “Multi-microjoule, MHz repetition rate Ti:sapphire ultrafast regenerative amplifier system,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7015–7021 (2012).

K. Metzger, V. F. Olle, A. Wonfor, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, M. Mazilu, C. T. A. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “Algorithm-based continuous pulse duration tuning and performance control of a modelocked laser diode,” Opt. Express 20(7), 722–7034 (2012).

V. F. Olle, P. P. Vasil’ev, A. Wonfor, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Ultrashort superradiant pulse generation from a GaN/InGaN heterostructure,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7035–7039 (2012).

K. G. Wilcox, A. H. Quarterman, V. Apostolopoulos, H. E. Beere, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. C. Tropper, “175 GHz, 400-fs-pulse harmonically mode-locked surface emitting semiconductor laser,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7040–7045 (2012).

N. Leindecker, A. Marandi, R. L. Byer, K. L. Vodopyanov, J. Jiang, I. Hartl, M. Fermann, and P. G. Schunemann, “Octave-spanning ultrafast OPO with 2.6-6.1μm instantaneous bandwidth pumped by femtosecond Tm-fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7046–7053 (2012).

C. R. E. Baer, O. H. Heckl, C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, C. Kränkel, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Frontiers in passively mode-locked high-power thin disk laser oscillators,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7054–7065 (2012).

V. G. Savitski, N. K. Metzger, S. Calvez, D. Burns, W. Sibbett, and C. T. A. Brown, “Optical trapping with “on-demand” two-photon luminescence using Cr:LiSAF laser with optically addressed saturable Bragg reflector,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7066–7070 (2012).

2011 (10)

J. Köhler, M. Wollenhaupt, T. Bayer, C. Sarpe, and T. Baumert, “Zeptosecond precision pulse shaping,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11638–11653 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kuetemeyer, G. Kensah, M. Heidrich, H. Meyer, U. Martin, I. Gruh, and A. Heisterkamp, “Two-photon induced collagen cross-linking in bioartificial cardiac tissue,” Opt. Express 19(17), 15996–16007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Yoshida, A. Schmidt, V. Petrov, C. Fiebig, G. Erbert, J. H. Liu, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, and U. Griebner, “Diode-pumped mode-locked Yb:YCOB laser generating 35 fs pulses,” Opt. Lett. 36(22), 4425–4427 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Pekarek, T. Südmeyer, S. Lecomte, S. Kundermann, J. M. Dudley, and U. Keller, “Self-referenceable frequency comb from a gigahertz diode-pumped solid-state laser,” Opt. Express 19(17), 16491–16497 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sobon, K. Krzempek, P. Kaczmarek, K. M. Abramski, and M. Nikodem, “10 GHz passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-Yb double-clad fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 284(18), 4203–4206 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Marra, R. Slavík, H. S. Margolis, S. N. Lea, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, and P. Gill, “High-resolution microwave frequency transfer over an 86-km-long optical fiber network using a mode-locked laser,” Opt. Lett. 36(4), 511–513 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hoffmann, O. D. Sieber, V. J. Wittwer, I. L. Krestnikov, D. A. Livshits, Y. Barbarin, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond high-power quantum dot vertical external cavity surface emitting laser,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8108–8116 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. J. Barretto, T. H. Ko, J. C. Jung, T. J. Wang, G. Capps, A. C. Waters, Y. Ziv, A. Attardo, L. Recht, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Time-lapse imaging of disease progression in deep brain areas using fluorescence microendoscopy,” Nat. Med. 17(2), 223–228 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. S. Xie, C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, G. R. Holtom, B. W. Xu, and M. Dantus, “Highly specific label-free molecular imaging with spectrally tailored excitation-stimulated Raman scattering (STE-SRS) microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 5(2), 103–109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Mamalis, “Femtosecond laser: the future of cataract surgery?” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 37(7), 1177–1178 (2011).
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2010 (14)

N. K. Metzger, W. Lubeigt, D. Burns, M. Griffith, L. Laycock, A. A. Lagatsky, C. T. A. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “Ultrashort-pulse laser with an intracavity phase shaping element,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8123–8134 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. G. Savitski, A. J. Kemp, S. Calvez, and D. Burns, “Optically Pumped Saturable Bragg Reflectors: Nonlinear Spectroscopy and Application in Ultrafast Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(11), 1650–1655 (2010).
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X. M. Liu, E. U. Rafailov, D. Livshits, and D. Turchinovich, “Quantum well saturable absorber mirror with electrical control of modulation depth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(5), 051103 (2010).
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K. G. Wilcox, A. H. Quarterman, H. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and A. C. Tropper, “High Peak Power Femtosecond Pulse Passively Mode-Locked Vertical-External-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(14), 1021–1023 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Thomson, N. D. Psaila, S. J. Beecher, and A. K. Kar, “Ultrafast laser inscription of a high-gain Er-doped bismuthate glass waveguide amplifier,” Opt. Express 18(12), 13212–13219 (2010).
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S. Lefrançois, K. Kieu, Y. J. Deng, J. D. Kafka, and F. W. Wise, “Scaling of dissipative soliton fiber lasers to megawatt peak powers by use of large-area photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1569–1571 (2010).
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B. Oktem, C. Ülgüdür, and F. Ö. Ilday, “Soliton-similariton fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 307–311 (2010).
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Z. P. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Q. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Lagatsky, C. G. Leburn, C. T. A. Brown, W. Sibbett, S. A. Zolotovskaya, and E. U. Rafailov, “Ultrashort-pulse lasers passively mode locked by quantum-dot-based saturable absorbers,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 34(1), 1–45 (2010).
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C. R. E. Baer, C. Kränkel, C. J. Saraceno, O. H. Heckl, M. Golling, R. Peters, K. Petermann, T. Südmeyer, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond thin-disk laser with 141 W of average power,” Opt. Lett. 35(13), 2302–2304 (2010).
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T. Eidam, S. Hanf, E. Seise, T. V. Andersen, T. Gabler, C. Wirth, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond fiber CPA system emitting 830 W average output power,” Opt. Lett. 35(2), 94–96 (2010).
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U. Keller, ““Ultrafast solid-state laser oscillators: a success story for the last 20 years with no end in sight,”,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 15–28 (2010).
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S. A. Diddams, “The evolving optical frequency comb,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(11), B51–B62 (2010).
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L. Kessel, L. Eskildsen, M. van der Poel, and M. Larsen, “Non-invasive bleaching of the human lens by femtosecond laser photolysis,” PLoS ONE 5(3), e9711 (2010).
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2009 (8)

C. McDougall, D. J. Stevenson, C. T. A. Brown, F. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, “Targeted optical injection of gold nanoparticles into single mammalian cells,” J Biophotonics 2(12), 736–743 (2009).
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U. Demirbas, D. Li, J. R. Birge, A. Sennaroglu, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, F. X. Kaertner, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Low-cost, single-mode diode-pumped Cr:Colquiriite lasers,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14374–14388 (2009).
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P. Russbueldt, T. Mans, G. Rotarius, J. Weitenberg, H. D. Hoffmann, and R. Poprawe, “400W Yb:YAG Innoslab fs-Amplifier,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12230–12245 (2009).
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R. W. Newson, J. Dean, B. Schmidt, and H. M. van Driel, “Ultrafast carrier kinetics in exfoliated graphene and thin graphite films,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2326–2333 (2009).
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P. P. Vasil'ev, “Femtosecond superradiant emission in inorganic semiconductors,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 72(7), 076501 (2009).
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A. Sell, G. Krauss, R. Scheu, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, “8-fs pulses from a compact Er:fiber system: quantitative modeling and experimental implementation,” Opt. Express 17(2), 1070–1077 (2009).
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A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, V. Apostolopoulos, Z. Mihoubi, S. P. Elsmere, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. Tropper, “A passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser emitting 60-fs pulses,” Nat. Photonics 3(12), 729–731 (2009).
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S. A. Zolotovskaya, K. G. Wilcox, A. Abdolvand, D. A. Livshits, and E. U. Rafailov, “Electronically Controlled Pulse Duration Passively Mode-Locked Cr:Forsterite Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(16), 1124–1126 (2009).
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2008 (7)

J. Chen, J. W. Sickler, P. Fendel, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kärtner, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Generation of low-timing-jitter femtosecond pulse trains with 2 GHz repetition rate via external repetition rate multiplication,” Opt. Lett. 33(9), 959–961 (2008).
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R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 219–225 (2008).
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K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C. H. Lui, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the optical conductivity of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(19), 196405 (2008).
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A. E. H. Oehler, T. Südmeyer, K. J. Weingarten, and U. Keller, “100 GHz passively mode-locked Er:Yb:glass laser at 1.5 microm with 1.6-ps pulses,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21930–21935 (2008).
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W. Sekundo, K. Kunert, C. Russmann, A. Gille, W. Bissmann, G. Stobrawa, M. Sticker, M. Bischoff, and M. Blum, “First efficacy and safety study of femtosecond lenticule extraction for the correction of myopia: six-month results,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 34(9), 1513–1520 (2008).
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T. Cižmár, V. Kollárová, X. Tsampoula, F. Gunn-Moore, W. Sibbett, Z. Bouchal, and K. Dholakia, “Generation of multiple Bessel beams for a biophotonics workstation,” Opt. Express 16(18), 14024–14035 (2008).
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C. T. A. Brown, D. J. Stevenson, X. Tsampoula, C. McDougall, A. A. Lagatsky, W. Sibbett, F. J. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, “Enhanced operation of femtosecond lasers and applications in cell transfection,” J Biophotonics 1(3), 183–199 (2008).
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2007 (5)

K. König, A. Ehlers, I. Riemann, S. Schenkl, R. Bückle, and M. Kaatz, “Clinical two-photon microendoscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70(5), 398–402 (2007).
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X. Tsampoula, V. Garces-Chavez, M. Comrie, D. J. Stevenson, B. Agate, C. T. A. Brown, F. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, “Femtosecond cellular transfection using a nondiffracting light beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 053902 (2007).
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S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, “Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb,” Nature 445(7128), 627–630 (2007).
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E. Sorokin, I. T. Sorokina, J. Mandon, G. Guelachvili, and N. Picque, “Sensitive multiplex spectroscopy in the molecular fingerprint 2.4 mum region with a Cr(2+):ZnSe femtosecond laser,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16540–16545 (2007).
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N. Nishizawa and J. Takayanagi, “Octave spanning high-quality supercontinuum generation in all-fiber system,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(8), 1786–1792 (2007).
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2006 (3)

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2002 (4)

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
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L. Krainer, R. Paschotta, S. Lecomte, M. Moser, K. J. Weingarten, and U. Keller, “Compact Nd: YVO4 lasers with pulse repetition rates up to 160 GHz,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(10), 1331–1338 (2002).
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D. J. Ripin, C. Chudoba, J. T. Gopinath, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, and T. Tschudi, “Generation of 20-fs pulses by a prismless Cr(4+):YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 27(1), 61–63 (2002).
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U. K. Tirlapur and K. König, “Targeted transfection by femtosecond laser,” Nature 418(6895), 290–291 (2002).
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2001 (1)

2000 (2)

A. H. Zewail, “Femtochemistry. Past, present, and future,” Pure Appl. Chem. 72(12), 2219–2231 (2000).
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W. H. Knox, “Ultrafast technology in telecommunications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 1273–1278 (2000).
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1999 (2)

T. Ditmire, J. Zweiback, V. P. Yanovsky, T. E. Cowan, G. Hays, and K. B. Wharton, “Nuclear fusion from explosions of femtosecond laser-heated deuterium clusters,” Nature 398(6727), 489–492 (1999).
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T. Juhasz, H. Frieder, R. M. Kurtz, C. Horvath, J. F. Bille, and G. Mourou, “Corneal refractive surgery with femtosecond lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 902–910 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

D. H. Sutter, I. D. Jung, F. X. Kärtner, N. Matuschek, F. Morier-Genoud, V. Scheuer, M. Tilsch, T. Tschudi, and U. Keller, “Self-starting 6.5-fs pulses from a Ti:sapphire laser using a semiconductor saturable absorber and double-chirped mirrors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4(2), 169–178 (1998).
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1996 (3)

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, I. P. Bilinsky, B. Golubovic, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Self-phase-modulated Kerr-lens mode-locked Cr:forsterite laser source for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 21(22), 1839–1841 (1996).
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U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. A. derAu, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM's) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
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S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, S. T. Cundiff, W. Y. Jan, and J. E. Cunningham, “Mode-locking ultrafast solid-state lasers with saturable Bragg reflectors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 454–464 (1996).
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1994 (3)

1992 (1)

A. M. Weiner, D. E. Leaird, J. S. Patel, and J. R. Wullert, “Programmable Shaping of Femtosecond Optical Pulses by Use of 128-Element Liquid-Crystal Phase Modulator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(4), 908–920 (1992).
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1991 (1)

1990 (1)

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
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1989 (1)

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G. H. C. New, “The Generation of Ultrashort Laser-Pulses,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 46(8), 877–971 (1983).
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1981 (1)

R. L. Fork, B. I. Greene, and C. V. Shank, “Generation of Optical Pulses Shorter than 0.1 psec by Colliding Pulse Mode-Locking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38(9), 671–672 (1981).
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1975 (2)

H. A. Haus, “Theory of Mode-Locking with a Fast Saturable Absorber,” J. Appl. Phys. 46(7), 3049–3058 (1975).
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H. A. Haus, “Theory of Mode-Locking with a Slow Saturable Absorber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11(9), 736–746 (1975).
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1974 (1)

C. V. Shank and E. P. Ippen, “Subpicosecond kilowatt pulses from a mode-locked cw dye laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24(8), 373–375 (1974).
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1966 (1)

A. J. DeMaria, D. A. Stetser, and H. Heynau, “Self Mode-Locking of Lasers with Saturable Absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 8(7), 174–176 (1966).
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Abdolvand, A.

S. A. Zolotovskaya, K. G. Wilcox, A. Abdolvand, D. A. Livshits, and E. U. Rafailov, “Electronically Controlled Pulse Duration Passively Mode-Locked Cr:Forsterite Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(16), 1124–1126 (2009).
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Abramski, K. M.

G. Sobon, K. Krzempek, P. Kaczmarek, K. M. Abramski, and M. Nikodem, “10 GHz passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-Yb double-clad fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 284(18), 4203–4206 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Agate, B.

X. Tsampoula, V. Garces-Chavez, M. Comrie, D. J. Stevenson, B. Agate, C. T. A. Brown, F. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, “Femtosecond cellular transfection using a nondiffracting light beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 053902 (2007).
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D. Stevenson, B. Agate, X. Tsampoula, P. Fischer, C. T. A. Brown, W. Sibbett, A. Riches, F. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, “Femtosecond optical transfection of cells: viability and efficiency,” Opt. Express 14(16), 7125–7133 (2006).
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Alam, S.-u.

Andersen, T. V.

Angelow, G.

Apolonski, A.

Apostolopoulos, V.

K. G. Wilcox, A. H. Quarterman, V. Apostolopoulos, H. E. Beere, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. C. Tropper, “175 GHz, 400-fs-pulse harmonically mode-locked surface emitting semiconductor laser,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7040–7045 (2012).

A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, V. Apostolopoulos, Z. Mihoubi, S. P. Elsmere, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. Tropper, “A passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser emitting 60-fs pulses,” Nat. Photonics 3(12), 729–731 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Attardo, A.

R. P. J. Barretto, T. H. Ko, J. C. Jung, T. J. Wang, G. Capps, A. C. Waters, Y. Ziv, A. Attardo, L. Recht, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Time-lapse imaging of disease progression in deep brain areas using fluorescence microendoscopy,” Nat. Med. 17(2), 223–228 (2011).
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Backus, S.

Baer, C. R. E.

Barbarin, Y.

Barretto, R. P. J.

R. P. J. Barretto, T. H. Ko, J. C. Jung, T. J. Wang, G. Capps, A. C. Waters, Y. Ziv, A. Attardo, L. Recht, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Time-lapse imaging of disease progression in deep brain areas using fluorescence microendoscopy,” Nat. Med. 17(2), 223–228 (2011).
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Basko, D. M.

Z. P. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Q. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumert, T.

Bayer, T.

Beecher, S. J.

Beere, H.

K. G. Wilcox, A. H. Quarterman, H. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and A. C. Tropper, “High Peak Power Femtosecond Pulse Passively Mode-Locked Vertical-External-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(14), 1021–1023 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Beere, H. E.

Bilinsky, I. P.

Bille, J. F.

T. Juhasz, H. Frieder, R. M. Kurtz, C. Horvath, J. F. Bille, and G. Mourou, “Corneal refractive surgery with femtosecond lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 902–910 (1999).
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Binder, P. S.

P. S. Binder, “Flap dimensions created with the IntraLase FS laser,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 30(1), 26–32 (2004).
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Birge, J. R.

Bischoff, M.

W. Sekundo, K. Kunert, C. Russmann, A. Gille, W. Bissmann, G. Stobrawa, M. Sticker, M. Bischoff, and M. Blum, “First efficacy and safety study of femtosecond lenticule extraction for the correction of myopia: six-month results,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 34(9), 1513–1520 (2008).
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Bissmann, W.

W. Sekundo, K. Kunert, C. Russmann, A. Gille, W. Bissmann, G. Stobrawa, M. Sticker, M. Bischoff, and M. Blum, “First efficacy and safety study of femtosecond lenticule extraction for the correction of myopia: six-month results,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 34(9), 1513–1520 (2008).
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Blum, M.

W. Sekundo, K. Kunert, C. Russmann, A. Gille, W. Bissmann, G. Stobrawa, M. Sticker, M. Bischoff, and M. Blum, “First efficacy and safety study of femtosecond lenticule extraction for the correction of myopia: six-month results,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 34(9), 1513–1520 (2008).
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Bonaccorso, F.

Z. P. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Q. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouchal, Z.

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K. G. Wilcox, A. H. Quarterman, H. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and A. C. Tropper, “High Peak Power Femtosecond Pulse Passively Mode-Locked Vertical-External-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(14), 1021–1023 (2010).
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D. Stevenson, B. Agate, X. Tsampoula, P. Fischer, C. T. A. Brown, W. Sibbett, A. Riches, F. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, “Femtosecond optical transfection of cells: viability and efficiency,” Opt. Express 14(16), 7125–7133 (2006).
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K. G. Wilcox, A. H. Quarterman, H. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and A. C. Tropper, “High Peak Power Femtosecond Pulse Passively Mode-Locked Vertical-External-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(14), 1021–1023 (2010).
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K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C. H. Lui, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the optical conductivity of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(19), 196405 (2008).
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A. A. Lagatsky, C. G. Leburn, C. T. A. Brown, W. Sibbett, S. A. Zolotovskaya, and E. U. Rafailov, “Ultrashort-pulse lasers passively mode locked by quantum-dot-based saturable absorbers,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 34(1), 1–45 (2010).
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S. A. Zolotovskaya, K. G. Wilcox, A. Abdolvand, D. A. Livshits, and E. U. Rafailov, “Electronically Controlled Pulse Duration Passively Mode-Locked Cr:Forsterite Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(16), 1124–1126 (2009).
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T. Ditmire, J. Zweiback, V. P. Yanovsky, T. E. Cowan, G. Hays, and K. B. Wharton, “Nuclear fusion from explosions of femtosecond laser-heated deuterium clusters,” Nature 398(6727), 489–492 (1999).
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ACS Nano (1)

Z. P. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Q. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (3)

A. Giesen, H. Hugel, A. Voss, K. Wittig, U. Brauch, and H. Opower, ““Scalable Concept for Diode-Pumped High-Power Solid-State Lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 58(5), 365–372 (1994).
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U. Keller, ““Ultrafast solid-state laser oscillators: a success story for the last 20 years with no end in sight,”,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 15–28 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Vogel, J. Noack, G. Huttman, and G. Paltauf, “Mechanisms of femtosecond laser nanosurgery of cells and tissues,” Appl. Phys. B 81(8), 1015–1047 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

X. Tsampoula, V. Garces-Chavez, M. Comrie, D. J. Stevenson, B. Agate, C. T. A. Brown, F. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, “Femtosecond cellular transfection using a nondiffracting light beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 053902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. J. DeMaria, D. A. Stetser, and H. Heynau, “Self Mode-Locking of Lasers with Saturable Absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 8(7), 174–176 (1966).
[CrossRef]

C. V. Shank and E. P. Ippen, “Subpicosecond kilowatt pulses from a mode-locked cw dye laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24(8), 373–375 (1974).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Fork, B. I. Greene, and C. V. Shank, “Generation of Optical Pulses Shorter than 0.1 psec by Colliding Pulse Mode-Locking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38(9), 671–672 (1981).
[CrossRef]

X. M. Liu, E. U. Rafailov, D. Livshits, and D. Turchinovich, “Quantum well saturable absorber mirror with electrical control of modulation depth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(5), 051103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (4)

A. M. Weiner, D. E. Leaird, J. S. Patel, and J. R. Wullert, “Programmable Shaping of Femtosecond Optical Pulses by Use of 128-Element Liquid-Crystal Phase Modulator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(4), 908–920 (1992).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Savitski, A. J. Kemp, S. Calvez, and D. Burns, “Optically Pumped Saturable Bragg Reflectors: Nonlinear Spectroscopy and Application in Ultrafast Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(11), 1650–1655 (2010).
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[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (6)

E. Sorokin, S. Naumov, and I. T. Sorokina, “Ultrabroadband infrared solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(3), 690–712 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (1)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A plot of peak power versus average power for a range of ultrashort pulse laser oscillator technologies. Also included are indicative application areas placed in appropriate regions of laser performance. The inset in the figure shows the performance of the sources indicated.

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