Abstract

Herein we describe a photo-alignment layer of improved azimuthal anchoring energy comparable to conventional rubbing method. In order to address the inherent low anchoring stability of photo-alignment layer, we applied embossing technique to conventional photosensitive polymer film, based on the cinnamoyl photoreactive groups, to introduce physical micro-groove effect for additional anchoring energy. From this, 2.5 × 10−4 J/m2 of azimuthal anchoring energy was achieved, which is considered as synergistic effect from both photoinduced chemical interaction and physical microgroove alignment. In this study, we conducted systematic study on change in anchoring energy as a function of both aspect ratio of embossed pattern and UV exposure dose. We also demonstrated fabrication of sophisticated multi-domain structure of LC cells and discussed theoretical interpretation through LC simulation.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. S. S. Sridharamurthy, K. D. Cadwell, N. L. Abbott, and H. Jiang, “A microstructure for the detection of vapor-phase analytes based on orientational transitions of liquid crystals,” Smart Mater. Struct. 17(1), 012001 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. M. Brake, M. K. Daschner, Y. Y. Luk, and N. L. Abbott, “Biomolecular interactions at phospholipid-decorated surfaces of liquid crystals,” Science 302(5653), 2094–2097 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. R. Shah and N. L. Abbott, “Orientational transitions of liquid crystals driven by binding of organoamines to carboxylic acids presented at surfaces with nanometer-scale topography,” Langmuir 19(2), 275–284 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. Wei, J. Weirich, T. T. Alkeskjold, and A. Bjarklev, “On-chip tunable long-period grating devices based on liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Lett. 34(24), 3818–3820 (2009).
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  6. M. O’Neill and S. M. Kelly, “Photoinduced surface alignment for liquid crystal displays,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 33(10), R67–R84 (2000).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  13. S. R. Nersisyan, N. V. Tabiryan, D. M. Steeves, and B. R. Kimball, “The promise of diffractive waveplates,” Opt. Photonic News 21(3), 40–45 (2010).
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  14. M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, “Surface-induced parallel alignment of liquid crystals by linearly polymerized photopolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(Part 1, No. 7), 2155–2164 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. S. Park, C. Padeste, H. Schift, J. Gobrecht, and T. Scharf, “Chemical nanopatterns via nanoimprint lithography for simultaneous control over azimuthal and polar alignment of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 17(11), 1398–1401 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. Suh, S. J. Choi, and H. H. Lee, “Rigiflex lithography for nanostructure transfer,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 17(12), 1554–1560 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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  20. M. Schadt and H. Seiberle, “Optical patterning of multidomain LCDs,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 5(4), 367–370 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Y. Xia and G. M. Whitesides, “Soft lithography,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 37(5), 550–575 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  22. D. Ahn, Y. C. Jeong, S. Lee, and J. K. Park, “UV-driven in-plane rotation of a liquid crystal director in poly(vinyl cinnamate) films having microscale grooves,” Opt. Lett. 35(18), 3141–3143 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. D. W. Berreman, “Solid surface shape and the alignment of an adjacent nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 28(26), 1683–1686 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  24. G. P. Bryan-Brown and I. C. Sage, “Photoinduced ordering and alignment properties of polyvinylcinnamates,” Liq. Cryst. 20(6), 825–829 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. Stohr, M. G. Samant, J. Luning, A. C. Callegari, P. Chaudhari, J. P. Doyle, J. A. Lacey, S. A. Lien, S. Purushothaman, and J. L. Speidell, “Liquid crystal alignment on carbonaceous surfaces with orientational order,” Science 292(5525), 2299–2302 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. R. Yamaguchi, Y. Goto, and S. Sato, “A novel patterning method of liquid crystal alignment by azimuthal anchoring control,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 2, No. 8A), L889–L891 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

W. Schenck, D. H. Ko, and E. Samulski, “Liquid crystal alignment on polymer line gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(6), 064301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

S. R. Nersisyan, N. V. Tabiryan, D. M. Steeves, and B. R. Kimball, “The promise of diffractive waveplates,” Opt. Photonic News 21(3), 40–45 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Prompinit, A. S. Achalkumar, J. P. Bramble, R. J. Bushby, C. Wälti, and S. D. Evans, “Controlling liquid crystal alignment using photocleavable cyanobiphenyl self-assembled monolayers,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(12), 3686–3692 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. K. Bisoyi and S. Kumar, “Liquid-crystal nanoscience: an emerging avenue of soft self-assembly,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 40(1), 306–319 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Ahn, Y. C. Jeong, S. Lee, and J. K. Park, “UV-driven in-plane rotation of a liquid crystal director in poly(vinyl cinnamate) films having microscale grooves,” Opt. Lett. 35(18), 3141–3143 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

2008 (1)

S. S. Sridharamurthy, K. D. Cadwell, N. L. Abbott, and H. Jiang, “A microstructure for the detection of vapor-phase analytes based on orientational transitions of liquid crystals,” Smart Mater. Struct. 17(1), 012001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

S. Park, C. Padeste, H. Schift, J. Gobrecht, and T. Scharf, “Chemical nanopatterns via nanoimprint lithography for simultaneous control over azimuthal and polar alignment of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 17(11), 1398–1401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Suh, S. J. Choi, and H. H. Lee, “Rigiflex lithography for nanostructure transfer,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 17(12), 1554–1560 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

J. M. Brake, M. K. Daschner, Y. Y. Luk, and N. L. Abbott, “Biomolecular interactions at phospholipid-decorated surfaces of liquid crystals,” Science 302(5653), 2094–2097 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Shah and N. L. Abbott, “Orientational transitions of liquid crystals driven by binding of organoamines to carboxylic acids presented at surfaces with nanometer-scale topography,” Langmuir 19(2), 275–284 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Z. Ruan, J. R. Sambles, and I. W. Stewart, “Self-organized periodic photonic structure in a nonchiral liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(3), 033901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

J. H. Kim, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “Tristable nematic liquid-crystal device using micropatterned surface alignment,” Nature 420(6912), 159–162 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Yamaguchi, Y. Goto, and S. Sato, “A novel patterning method of liquid crystal alignment by azimuthal anchoring control,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 2, No. 8A), L889–L891 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

J. Stohr, M. G. Samant, J. Luning, A. C. Callegari, P. Chaudhari, J. P. Doyle, J. A. Lacey, S. A. Lien, S. Purushothaman, and J. L. Speidell, “Liquid crystal alignment on carbonaceous surfaces with orientational order,” Science 292(5525), 2299–2302 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. van Haaren, “Wiping out dirty displays,” Nature 411(6833), 29–30 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

M. O’Neill and S. M. Kelly, “Photoinduced surface alignment for liquid crystal displays,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 33(10), R67–R84 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

Y. Xia and G. M. Whitesides, “Soft lithography,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 37(5), 550–575 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

M. Schadt and H. Seiberle, “Optical patterning of multidomain LCDs,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 5(4), 367–370 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, and A. Schuster, “Optical patterning of multi-domain liquid-crystal displays with wide viewing angles,” Nature 381(6579), 212–215 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Bryan-Brown and I. C. Sage, “Photoinduced ordering and alignment properties of polyvinylcinnamates,” Liq. Cryst. 20(6), 825–829 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, “Surface-induced parallel alignment of liquid crystals by linearly polymerized photopolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(Part 1, No. 7), 2155–2164 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

D. W. Berreman, “Solid surface shape and the alignment of an adjacent nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 28(26), 1683–1686 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Abbott, N. L.

S. S. Sridharamurthy, K. D. Cadwell, N. L. Abbott, and H. Jiang, “A microstructure for the detection of vapor-phase analytes based on orientational transitions of liquid crystals,” Smart Mater. Struct. 17(1), 012001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Brake, M. K. Daschner, Y. Y. Luk, and N. L. Abbott, “Biomolecular interactions at phospholipid-decorated surfaces of liquid crystals,” Science 302(5653), 2094–2097 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Shah and N. L. Abbott, “Orientational transitions of liquid crystals driven by binding of organoamines to carboxylic acids presented at surfaces with nanometer-scale topography,” Langmuir 19(2), 275–284 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Achalkumar, A. S.

P. Prompinit, A. S. Achalkumar, J. P. Bramble, R. J. Bushby, C. Wälti, and S. D. Evans, “Controlling liquid crystal alignment using photocleavable cyanobiphenyl self-assembled monolayers,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(12), 3686–3692 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahn, D.

Alkeskjold, T. T.

Andry, P. S.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berreman, D. W.

D. W. Berreman, “Solid surface shape and the alignment of an adjacent nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 28(26), 1683–1686 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Bisoyi, H. K.

H. K. Bisoyi and S. Kumar, “Liquid-crystal nanoscience: an emerging avenue of soft self-assembly,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 40(1), 306–319 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bjarklev, A.

Brake, J. M.

J. M. Brake, M. K. Daschner, Y. Y. Luk, and N. L. Abbott, “Biomolecular interactions at phospholipid-decorated surfaces of liquid crystals,” Science 302(5653), 2094–2097 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bramble, J. P.

P. Prompinit, A. S. Achalkumar, J. P. Bramble, R. J. Bushby, C. Wälti, and S. D. Evans, “Controlling liquid crystal alignment using photocleavable cyanobiphenyl self-assembled monolayers,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(12), 3686–3692 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bryan-Brown, G. P.

G. P. Bryan-Brown and I. C. Sage, “Photoinduced ordering and alignment properties of polyvinylcinnamates,” Liq. Cryst. 20(6), 825–829 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bushby, R. J.

P. Prompinit, A. S. Achalkumar, J. P. Bramble, R. J. Bushby, C. Wälti, and S. D. Evans, “Controlling liquid crystal alignment using photocleavable cyanobiphenyl self-assembled monolayers,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(12), 3686–3692 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cadwell, K. D.

S. S. Sridharamurthy, K. D. Cadwell, N. L. Abbott, and H. Jiang, “A microstructure for the detection of vapor-phase analytes based on orientational transitions of liquid crystals,” Smart Mater. Struct. 17(1), 012001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cai, C.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Callegari, A.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Callegari, A. C.

J. Stohr, M. G. Samant, J. Luning, A. C. Callegari, P. Chaudhari, J. P. Doyle, J. A. Lacey, S. A. Lien, S. Purushothaman, and J. L. Speidell, “Liquid crystal alignment on carbonaceous surfaces with orientational order,” Science 292(5525), 2299–2302 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chaudhari, P.

J. Stohr, M. G. Samant, J. Luning, A. C. Callegari, P. Chaudhari, J. P. Doyle, J. A. Lacey, S. A. Lien, S. Purushothaman, and J. L. Speidell, “Liquid crystal alignment on carbonaceous surfaces with orientational order,” Science 292(5525), 2299–2302 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chigrinov, V.

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, “Surface-induced parallel alignment of liquid crystals by linearly polymerized photopolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(Part 1, No. 7), 2155–2164 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S. J.

D. Suh, S. J. Choi, and H. H. Lee, “Rigiflex lithography for nanostructure transfer,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 17(12), 1554–1560 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Daschner, M. K.

J. M. Brake, M. K. Daschner, Y. Y. Luk, and N. L. Abbott, “Biomolecular interactions at phospholipid-decorated surfaces of liquid crystals,” Science 302(5653), 2094–2097 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doyle, J.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doyle, J. P.

J. Stohr, M. G. Samant, J. Luning, A. C. Callegari, P. Chaudhari, J. P. Doyle, J. A. Lacey, S. A. Lien, S. Purushothaman, and J. L. Speidell, “Liquid crystal alignment on carbonaceous surfaces with orientational order,” Science 292(5525), 2299–2302 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evans, S. D.

P. Prompinit, A. S. Achalkumar, J. P. Bramble, R. J. Bushby, C. Wälti, and S. D. Evans, “Controlling liquid crystal alignment using photocleavable cyanobiphenyl self-assembled monolayers,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(12), 3686–3692 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galligan, E.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gobrecht, J.

S. Park, C. Padeste, H. Schift, J. Gobrecht, and T. Scharf, “Chemical nanopatterns via nanoimprint lithography for simultaneous control over azimuthal and polar alignment of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 17(11), 1398–1401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Goto, Y.

R. Yamaguchi, Y. Goto, and S. Sato, “A novel patterning method of liquid crystal alignment by azimuthal anchoring control,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 2, No. 8A), L889–L891 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hegmann, T.

H. Qi and T. Hegmann, “Multiple alignment modes for nematic liquid crystals doped with alkylthiol-capped gold nanoparticles,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 1(8), 1731–1738 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heo, Y.

Hougham, G.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeong, Y. C.

Jiang, H.

S. S. Sridharamurthy, K. D. Cadwell, N. L. Abbott, and H. Jiang, “A microstructure for the detection of vapor-phase analytes based on orientational transitions of liquid crystals,” Smart Mater. Struct. 17(1), 012001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

John, R.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Katoh, Y.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kelly, S. M.

M. O’Neill and S. M. Kelly, “Photoinduced surface alignment for liquid crystal displays,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 33(10), R67–R84 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. H.

J. H. Kim, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “Tristable nematic liquid-crystal device using micropatterned surface alignment,” Nature 420(6912), 159–162 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimball, B. R.

S. R. Nersisyan, N. V. Tabiryan, D. M. Steeves, and B. R. Kimball, “The promise of diffractive waveplates,” Opt. Photonic News 21(3), 40–45 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ko, D. H.

W. Schenck, D. H. Ko, and E. Samulski, “Liquid crystal alignment on polymer line gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(6), 064301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kozinkov, V.

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, “Surface-induced parallel alignment of liquid crystals by linearly polymerized photopolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(Part 1, No. 7), 2155–2164 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, S.

H. K. Bisoyi and S. Kumar, “Liquid-crystal nanoscience: an emerging avenue of soft self-assembly,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 40(1), 306–319 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lacey, J.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. Stohr, M. G. Samant, J. Luning, A. C. Callegari, P. Chaudhari, J. P. Doyle, J. A. Lacey, S. A. Lien, S. Purushothaman, and J. L. Speidell, “Liquid crystal alignment on carbonaceous surfaces with orientational order,” Science 292(5525), 2299–2302 (2001).
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P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
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D. Suh, S. J. Choi, and H. H. Lee, “Rigiflex lithography for nanostructure transfer,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 17(12), 1554–1560 (2005).
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Lee, J.

Lee, S.

Lien, S. A.

J. Stohr, M. G. Samant, J. Luning, A. C. Callegari, P. Chaudhari, J. P. Doyle, J. A. Lacey, S. A. Lien, S. Purushothaman, and J. L. Speidell, “Liquid crystal alignment on carbonaceous surfaces with orientational order,” Science 292(5525), 2299–2302 (2001).
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P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
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P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
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J. M. Brake, M. K. Daschner, Y. Y. Luk, and N. L. Abbott, “Biomolecular interactions at phospholipid-decorated surfaces of liquid crystals,” Science 302(5653), 2094–2097 (2003).
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J. Stohr, M. G. Samant, J. Luning, A. C. Callegari, P. Chaudhari, J. P. Doyle, J. A. Lacey, S. A. Lien, S. Purushothaman, and J. L. Speidell, “Liquid crystal alignment on carbonaceous surfaces with orientational order,” Science 292(5525), 2299–2302 (2001).
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P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
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P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
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P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
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S. R. Nersisyan, N. V. Tabiryan, D. M. Steeves, and B. R. Kimball, “The promise of diffractive waveplates,” Opt. Photonic News 21(3), 40–45 (2010).
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M. O’Neill and S. M. Kelly, “Photoinduced surface alignment for liquid crystal displays,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 33(10), R67–R84 (2000).
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P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
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S. Park, C. Padeste, H. Schift, J. Gobrecht, and T. Scharf, “Chemical nanopatterns via nanoimprint lithography for simultaneous control over azimuthal and polar alignment of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 17(11), 1398–1401 (2005).
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Park, J. K.

Park, S.

S. Park, C. Padeste, H. Schift, J. Gobrecht, and T. Scharf, “Chemical nanopatterns via nanoimprint lithography for simultaneous control over azimuthal and polar alignment of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 17(11), 1398–1401 (2005).
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P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Stohr, M. G. Samant, J. Luning, A. C. Callegari, P. Chaudhari, J. P. Doyle, J. A. Lacey, S. A. Lien, S. Purushothaman, and J. L. Speidell, “Liquid crystal alignment on carbonaceous surfaces with orientational order,” Science 292(5525), 2299–2302 (2001).
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H. Qi and T. Hegmann, “Multiple alignment modes for nematic liquid crystals doped with alkylthiol-capped gold nanoparticles,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 1(8), 1731–1738 (2009).
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P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
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P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
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P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
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J. Stohr, M. G. Samant, J. Luning, A. C. Callegari, P. Chaudhari, J. P. Doyle, J. A. Lacey, S. A. Lien, S. Purushothaman, and J. L. Speidell, “Liquid crystal alignment on carbonaceous surfaces with orientational order,” Science 292(5525), 2299–2302 (2001).
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L. Z. Ruan, J. R. Sambles, and I. W. Stewart, “Self-organized periodic photonic structure in a nonchiral liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(3), 033901 (2003).
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W. Schenck, D. H. Ko, and E. Samulski, “Liquid crystal alignment on polymer line gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(6), 064301 (2011).
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R. Yamaguchi, Y. Goto, and S. Sato, “A novel patterning method of liquid crystal alignment by azimuthal anchoring control,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 2, No. 8A), L889–L891 (2002).
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P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
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M. Schadt and H. Seiberle, “Optical patterning of multidomain LCDs,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 5(4), 367–370 (1997).
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M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, and A. Schuster, “Optical patterning of multi-domain liquid-crystal displays with wide viewing angles,” Nature 381(6579), 212–215 (1996).
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M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, “Surface-induced parallel alignment of liquid crystals by linearly polymerized photopolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(Part 1, No. 7), 2155–2164 (1992).
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S. Park, C. Padeste, H. Schift, J. Gobrecht, and T. Scharf, “Chemical nanopatterns via nanoimprint lithography for simultaneous control over azimuthal and polar alignment of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 17(11), 1398–1401 (2005).
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W. Schenck, D. H. Ko, and E. Samulski, “Liquid crystal alignment on polymer line gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(6), 064301 (2011).
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Schift, H.

S. Park, C. Padeste, H. Schift, J. Gobrecht, and T. Scharf, “Chemical nanopatterns via nanoimprint lithography for simultaneous control over azimuthal and polar alignment of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 17(11), 1398–1401 (2005).
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M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, “Surface-induced parallel alignment of liquid crystals by linearly polymerized photopolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(Part 1, No. 7), 2155–2164 (1992).
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Schuster, A.

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, and A. Schuster, “Optical patterning of multi-domain liquid-crystal displays with wide viewing angles,” Nature 381(6579), 212–215 (1996).
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Seiberle, H.

M. Schadt and H. Seiberle, “Optical patterning of multidomain LCDs,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 5(4), 367–370 (1997).
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M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, and A. Schuster, “Optical patterning of multi-domain liquid-crystal displays with wide viewing angles,” Nature 381(6579), 212–215 (1996).
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R. R. Shah and N. L. Abbott, “Orientational transitions of liquid crystals driven by binding of organoamines to carboxylic acids presented at surfaces with nanometer-scale topography,” Langmuir 19(2), 275–284 (2003).
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P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
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P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
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Speidell, J. L.

J. Stohr, M. G. Samant, J. Luning, A. C. Callegari, P. Chaudhari, J. P. Doyle, J. A. Lacey, S. A. Lien, S. Purushothaman, and J. L. Speidell, “Liquid crystal alignment on carbonaceous surfaces with orientational order,” Science 292(5525), 2299–2302 (2001).
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S. R. Nersisyan, N. V. Tabiryan, D. M. Steeves, and B. R. Kimball, “The promise of diffractive waveplates,” Opt. Photonic News 21(3), 40–45 (2010).
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Stewart, I. W.

L. Z. Ruan, J. R. Sambles, and I. W. Stewart, “Self-organized periodic photonic structure in a nonchiral liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(3), 033901 (2003).
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J. Stohr, M. G. Samant, J. Luning, A. C. Callegari, P. Chaudhari, J. P. Doyle, J. A. Lacey, S. A. Lien, S. Purushothaman, and J. L. Speidell, “Liquid crystal alignment on carbonaceous surfaces with orientational order,” Science 292(5525), 2299–2302 (2001).
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P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
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D. Suh, S. J. Choi, and H. H. Lee, “Rigiflex lithography for nanostructure transfer,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 17(12), 1554–1560 (2005).
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S. R. Nersisyan, N. V. Tabiryan, D. M. Steeves, and B. R. Kimball, “The promise of diffractive waveplates,” Opt. Photonic News 21(3), 40–45 (2010).
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J. van Haaren, “Wiping out dirty displays,” Nature 411(6833), 29–30 (2001).
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P. Prompinit, A. S. Achalkumar, J. P. Bramble, R. J. Bushby, C. Wälti, and S. D. Evans, “Controlling liquid crystal alignment using photocleavable cyanobiphenyl self-assembled monolayers,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(12), 3686–3692 (2010).
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R. Yamaguchi, Y. Goto, and S. Sato, “A novel patterning method of liquid crystal alignment by azimuthal anchoring control,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 2, No. 8A), L889–L891 (2002).
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P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
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ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (2)

P. Prompinit, A. S. Achalkumar, J. P. Bramble, R. J. Bushby, C. Wälti, and S. D. Evans, “Controlling liquid crystal alignment using photocleavable cyanobiphenyl self-assembled monolayers,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(12), 3686–3692 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Qi and T. Hegmann, “Multiple alignment modes for nematic liquid crystals doped with alkylthiol-capped gold nanoparticles,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 1(8), 1731–1738 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (2)

S. Park, C. Padeste, H. Schift, J. Gobrecht, and T. Scharf, “Chemical nanopatterns via nanoimprint lithography for simultaneous control over azimuthal and polar alignment of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 17(11), 1398–1401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Suh, S. J. Choi, and H. H. Lee, “Rigiflex lithography for nanostructure transfer,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 17(12), 1554–1560 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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J. Appl. Phys. (1)

W. Schenck, D. H. Ko, and E. Samulski, “Liquid crystal alignment on polymer line gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(6), 064301 (2011).
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J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

M. O’Neill and S. M. Kelly, “Photoinduced surface alignment for liquid crystal displays,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 33(10), R67–R84 (2000).
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J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (1)

M. Schadt and H. Seiberle, “Optical patterning of multidomain LCDs,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 5(4), 367–370 (1997).
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Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

R. Yamaguchi, Y. Goto, and S. Sato, “A novel patterning method of liquid crystal alignment by azimuthal anchoring control,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 2, No. 8A), L889–L891 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, “Surface-induced parallel alignment of liquid crystals by linearly polymerized photopolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(Part 1, No. 7), 2155–2164 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (1)

R. R. Shah and N. L. Abbott, “Orientational transitions of liquid crystals driven by binding of organoamines to carboxylic acids presented at surfaces with nanometer-scale topography,” Langmuir 19(2), 275–284 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liq. Cryst. (1)

G. P. Bryan-Brown and I. C. Sage, “Photoinduced ordering and alignment properties of polyvinylcinnamates,” Liq. Cryst. 20(6), 825–829 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nature (4)

J. van Haaren, “Wiping out dirty displays,” Nature 411(6833), 29–30 (2001).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic illustration of the solvent-assisted micromolding method: (a) PVCi is spin-coated and baked. (b) The PDMS mold with the desired topography is swollen by the solvent and place on the PVCi film. (c) The micro-patterned PVCi solidifies as the solvent dissipates and evaporates. (d) The PDMS mold is removed to reveal the polymer pattern. (e) After the formation of relief structure on the alignment layer, irradiation of linear polarized UV light (LPUVL) generates anisotropic interactiosn between PVCi and LC interface with increase in photo-induced dimers. The generation of photo-induced dimers is perpendicular to LPUVL direction.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Four different patterned PVCi alignment layers: (a) Feature sizes of the alignment layer. (b) AFM images of the patterned PVCi alignment layers and determined Wa without UV irradiation (Wa: azimuthal anchoring energy).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Azimuthal anchoring energies of PVCi as a function of UV exposure dose.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Results of change in azimuthal anchoring energy of surface patterned PVCi as a function of UV exposure dose.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The theoretical relationship between Wa and Φt, denoted as solid line. (note that dash line indicates 90 degree of twist angle)

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The LC alignment patterning by using anchoring control. (a) Configuration of LC cells fabricated with patterned PVCi alignment layer. (b) Micrographs of the photomask used in this study. (c) Optical microscope photograph of the patterned LC cell between crossed polarizers. The size of each square is 100 µm. Double-headed arrows show the directions of polarizer and analyzer.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

LC simulation of effective twist angle of LCs between alignments as a function of different azimuthal anchoring energies, correlating well with experimental result.

Equations (1)

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F= 1 2 K 22 Φ t 2 d + 1 2 Wa sin 2 (ΔΦ)

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