Abstract

Herein we describe a photo-alignment layer of improved azimuthal anchoring energy comparable to conventional rubbing method. In order to address the inherent low anchoring stability of photo-alignment layer, we applied embossing technique to conventional photosensitive polymer film, based on the cinnamoyl photoreactive groups, to introduce physical micro-groove effect for additional anchoring energy. From this, 2.5 × 10−4 J/m2 of azimuthal anchoring energy was achieved, which is considered as synergistic effect from both photoinduced chemical interaction and physical microgroove alignment. In this study, we conducted systematic study on change in anchoring energy as a function of both aspect ratio of embossed pattern and UV exposure dose. We also demonstrated fabrication of sophisticated multi-domain structure of LC cells and discussed theoretical interpretation through LC simulation.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  14. M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, “Surface-induced parallel alignment of liquid crystals by linearly polymerized photopolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.31(Part 1, No. 7), 2155–2164 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  24. G. P. Bryan-Brown and I. C. Sage, “Photoinduced ordering and alignment properties of polyvinylcinnamates,” Liq. Cryst.20(6), 825–829 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. Stohr, M. G. Samant, J. Luning, A. C. Callegari, P. Chaudhari, J. P. Doyle, J. A. Lacey, S. A. Lien, S. Purushothaman, and J. L. Speidell, “Liquid crystal alignment on carbonaceous surfaces with orientational order,” Science292(5525), 2299–2302 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. R. Yamaguchi, Y. Goto, and S. Sato, “A novel patterning method of liquid crystal alignment by azimuthal anchoring control,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.41(Part 2, No. 8A), L889–L891 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2011

W. Schenck, D. H. Ko, and E. Samulski, “Liquid crystal alignment on polymer line gratings,” J. Appl. Phys.109(6), 064301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

P. Prompinit, A. S. Achalkumar, J. P. Bramble, R. J. Bushby, C. Wälti, and S. D. Evans, “Controlling liquid crystal alignment using photocleavable cyanobiphenyl self-assembled monolayers,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces2(12), 3686–3692 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. K. Bisoyi and S. Kumar, “Liquid-crystal nanoscience: an emerging avenue of soft self-assembly,” Chem. Soc. Rev.40(1), 306–319 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Nersisyan, N. V. Tabiryan, D. M. Steeves, and B. R. Kimball, “The promise of diffractive waveplates,” Opt. Photonic News21(3), 40–45 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Ahn, Y. C. Jeong, S. Lee, and J. K. Park, “UV-driven in-plane rotation of a liquid crystal director in poly(vinyl cinnamate) films having microscale grooves,” Opt. Lett.35(18), 3141–3143 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

2008

S. S. Sridharamurthy, K. D. Cadwell, N. L. Abbott, and H. Jiang, “A microstructure for the detection of vapor-phase analytes based on orientational transitions of liquid crystals,” Smart Mater. Struct.17(1), 012001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2005

S. Park, C. Padeste, H. Schift, J. Gobrecht, and T. Scharf, “Chemical nanopatterns via nanoimprint lithography for simultaneous control over azimuthal and polar alignment of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)17(11), 1398–1401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Suh, S. J. Choi, and H. H. Lee, “Rigiflex lithography for nanostructure transfer,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)17(12), 1554–1560 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

J. M. Brake, M. K. Daschner, Y. Y. Luk, and N. L. Abbott, “Biomolecular interactions at phospholipid-decorated surfaces of liquid crystals,” Science302(5653), 2094–2097 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Shah and N. L. Abbott, “Orientational transitions of liquid crystals driven by binding of organoamines to carboxylic acids presented at surfaces with nanometer-scale topography,” Langmuir19(2), 275–284 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Z. Ruan, J. R. Sambles, and I. W. Stewart, “Self-organized periodic photonic structure in a nonchiral liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(3), 033901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

J. H. Kim, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “Tristable nematic liquid-crystal device using micropatterned surface alignment,” Nature420(6912), 159–162 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Yamaguchi, Y. Goto, and S. Sato, “A novel patterning method of liquid crystal alignment by azimuthal anchoring control,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.41(Part 2, No. 8A), L889–L891 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

J. Stohr, M. G. Samant, J. Luning, A. C. Callegari, P. Chaudhari, J. P. Doyle, J. A. Lacey, S. A. Lien, S. Purushothaman, and J. L. Speidell, “Liquid crystal alignment on carbonaceous surfaces with orientational order,” Science292(5525), 2299–2302 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. van Haaren, “Wiping out dirty displays,” Nature411(6833), 29–30 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

M. O’Neill and S. M. Kelly, “Photoinduced surface alignment for liquid crystal displays,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.33(10), R67–R84 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

Y. Xia and G. M. Whitesides, “Soft lithography,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.37(5), 550–575 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

M. Schadt and H. Seiberle, “Optical patterning of multidomain LCDs,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.5(4), 367–370 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

G. P. Bryan-Brown and I. C. Sage, “Photoinduced ordering and alignment properties of polyvinylcinnamates,” Liq. Cryst.20(6), 825–829 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, and A. Schuster, “Optical patterning of multi-domain liquid-crystal displays with wide viewing angles,” Nature381(6579), 212–215 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, “Surface-induced parallel alignment of liquid crystals by linearly polymerized photopolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.31(Part 1, No. 7), 2155–2164 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1972

D. W. Berreman, “Solid surface shape and the alignment of an adjacent nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett.28(26), 1683–1686 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Abbott, N. L.

S. S. Sridharamurthy, K. D. Cadwell, N. L. Abbott, and H. Jiang, “A microstructure for the detection of vapor-phase analytes based on orientational transitions of liquid crystals,” Smart Mater. Struct.17(1), 012001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Shah and N. L. Abbott, “Orientational transitions of liquid crystals driven by binding of organoamines to carboxylic acids presented at surfaces with nanometer-scale topography,” Langmuir19(2), 275–284 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Brake, M. K. Daschner, Y. Y. Luk, and N. L. Abbott, “Biomolecular interactions at phospholipid-decorated surfaces of liquid crystals,” Science302(5653), 2094–2097 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Achalkumar, A. S.

P. Prompinit, A. S. Achalkumar, J. P. Bramble, R. J. Bushby, C. Wälti, and S. D. Evans, “Controlling liquid crystal alignment using photocleavable cyanobiphenyl self-assembled monolayers,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces2(12), 3686–3692 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahn, D.

Alkeskjold, T. T.

Andry, P. S.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berreman, D. W.

D. W. Berreman, “Solid surface shape and the alignment of an adjacent nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett.28(26), 1683–1686 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Bisoyi, H. K.

H. K. Bisoyi and S. Kumar, “Liquid-crystal nanoscience: an emerging avenue of soft self-assembly,” Chem. Soc. Rev.40(1), 306–319 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bjarklev, A.

Brake, J. M.

J. M. Brake, M. K. Daschner, Y. Y. Luk, and N. L. Abbott, “Biomolecular interactions at phospholipid-decorated surfaces of liquid crystals,” Science302(5653), 2094–2097 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bramble, J. P.

P. Prompinit, A. S. Achalkumar, J. P. Bramble, R. J. Bushby, C. Wälti, and S. D. Evans, “Controlling liquid crystal alignment using photocleavable cyanobiphenyl self-assembled monolayers,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces2(12), 3686–3692 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bryan-Brown, G. P.

G. P. Bryan-Brown and I. C. Sage, “Photoinduced ordering and alignment properties of polyvinylcinnamates,” Liq. Cryst.20(6), 825–829 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bushby, R. J.

P. Prompinit, A. S. Achalkumar, J. P. Bramble, R. J. Bushby, C. Wälti, and S. D. Evans, “Controlling liquid crystal alignment using photocleavable cyanobiphenyl self-assembled monolayers,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces2(12), 3686–3692 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cadwell, K. D.

S. S. Sridharamurthy, K. D. Cadwell, N. L. Abbott, and H. Jiang, “A microstructure for the detection of vapor-phase analytes based on orientational transitions of liquid crystals,” Smart Mater. Struct.17(1), 012001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cai, C.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Callegari, A.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Callegari, A. C.

J. Stohr, M. G. Samant, J. Luning, A. C. Callegari, P. Chaudhari, J. P. Doyle, J. A. Lacey, S. A. Lien, S. Purushothaman, and J. L. Speidell, “Liquid crystal alignment on carbonaceous surfaces with orientational order,” Science292(5525), 2299–2302 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chaudhari, P.

J. Stohr, M. G. Samant, J. Luning, A. C. Callegari, P. Chaudhari, J. P. Doyle, J. A. Lacey, S. A. Lien, S. Purushothaman, and J. L. Speidell, “Liquid crystal alignment on carbonaceous surfaces with orientational order,” Science292(5525), 2299–2302 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chigrinov, V.

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, “Surface-induced parallel alignment of liquid crystals by linearly polymerized photopolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.31(Part 1, No. 7), 2155–2164 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S. J.

D. Suh, S. J. Choi, and H. H. Lee, “Rigiflex lithography for nanostructure transfer,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)17(12), 1554–1560 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Daschner, M. K.

J. M. Brake, M. K. Daschner, Y. Y. Luk, and N. L. Abbott, “Biomolecular interactions at phospholipid-decorated surfaces of liquid crystals,” Science302(5653), 2094–2097 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doyle, J.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doyle, J. P.

J. Stohr, M. G. Samant, J. Luning, A. C. Callegari, P. Chaudhari, J. P. Doyle, J. A. Lacey, S. A. Lien, S. Purushothaman, and J. L. Speidell, “Liquid crystal alignment on carbonaceous surfaces with orientational order,” Science292(5525), 2299–2302 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evans, S. D.

P. Prompinit, A. S. Achalkumar, J. P. Bramble, R. J. Bushby, C. Wälti, and S. D. Evans, “Controlling liquid crystal alignment using photocleavable cyanobiphenyl self-assembled monolayers,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces2(12), 3686–3692 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galligan, E.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gobrecht, J.

S. Park, C. Padeste, H. Schift, J. Gobrecht, and T. Scharf, “Chemical nanopatterns via nanoimprint lithography for simultaneous control over azimuthal and polar alignment of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)17(11), 1398–1401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Goto, Y.

R. Yamaguchi, Y. Goto, and S. Sato, “A novel patterning method of liquid crystal alignment by azimuthal anchoring control,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.41(Part 2, No. 8A), L889–L891 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hegmann, T.

H. Qi and T. Hegmann, “Multiple alignment modes for nematic liquid crystals doped with alkylthiol-capped gold nanoparticles,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces1(8), 1731–1738 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heo, Y.

Hougham, G.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeong, Y. C.

Jiang, H.

S. S. Sridharamurthy, K. D. Cadwell, N. L. Abbott, and H. Jiang, “A microstructure for the detection of vapor-phase analytes based on orientational transitions of liquid crystals,” Smart Mater. Struct.17(1), 012001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

John, R.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Katoh, Y.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kelly, S. M.

M. O’Neill and S. M. Kelly, “Photoinduced surface alignment for liquid crystal displays,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.33(10), R67–R84 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. H.

J. H. Kim, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “Tristable nematic liquid-crystal device using micropatterned surface alignment,” Nature420(6912), 159–162 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimball, B. R.

S. R. Nersisyan, N. V. Tabiryan, D. M. Steeves, and B. R. Kimball, “The promise of diffractive waveplates,” Opt. Photonic News21(3), 40–45 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ko, D. H.

W. Schenck, D. H. Ko, and E. Samulski, “Liquid crystal alignment on polymer line gratings,” J. Appl. Phys.109(6), 064301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kozinkov, V.

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, “Surface-induced parallel alignment of liquid crystals by linearly polymerized photopolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.31(Part 1, No. 7), 2155–2164 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, S.

H. K. Bisoyi and S. Kumar, “Liquid-crystal nanoscience: an emerging avenue of soft self-assembly,” Chem. Soc. Rev.40(1), 306–319 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lacey, J.

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S. Park, C. Padeste, H. Schift, J. Gobrecht, and T. Scharf, “Chemical nanopatterns via nanoimprint lithography for simultaneous control over azimuthal and polar alignment of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)17(11), 1398–1401 (2005).
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S. Park, C. Padeste, H. Schift, J. Gobrecht, and T. Scharf, “Chemical nanopatterns via nanoimprint lithography for simultaneous control over azimuthal and polar alignment of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)17(11), 1398–1401 (2005).
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