Abstract

Swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) is sensitive to sample motion during the wavelength sweep, which leads to image blurring and image artifacts. In line-field and full-field SS-OCT parallelization is achieved by using a line or area detector, respectively. Thus, approximately 1000 lines or images at different wavenumbers are acquired. The sweep duration is identically with the acquisition time of a complete B-scan or volume, rendering parallel SS-OCT more sensitive to motion artifacts than scanning OCT. The effect of axial motion on the measured spectra is similar to the effect of non-balanced group velocity dispersion (GVD) in the interferometer arms. It causes the apparent optical path lengths in the sample arm to vary with the wavenumber. Here we propose the cross-correlation of sub-bandwidth reconstructions (CCSBR) as a new algorithm that is capable of detecting and correcting the artifacts induced by axial motion in line-field or full-field SS-OCT as well as GVD mismatch in any Fourier-domain OCT (FD-OCT) setup. By cross-correlating images which were reconstructed from a limited spectral range of the interference signal, a phase error is determined which is used to correct the spectral modulation prior to the calculation of the A-scans. Performance of the algorithm is demonstrated on in vivo full-field SS-OCT images of skin and scanning FD-OCT of skin and retina.

© 2012 OSA

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References

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2011

2010

2009

M. Mujat, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, and D. X. Hammer, “Swept-source parallel oct,” Proc. SPIE 7168, 71681E (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2006

2005

2004

2003

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, “Optical coherence tomography—principles and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1978

F. J. Harris, “On the use of windows for harmonic analysis with the discrete Fourier transform,” Proc. IEEE 66(1), 51–83 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Aoki, G.

Aquavella, J. V.

Arthaber, H.

Benjamin, W.

W. Benjamin and I. Borish, Borish’s Clinical Refraction (Butterworth-Heinemann/Elsevier, 2006).
[PubMed]

Bizheva, K.

Bonin, T.

Borish, I.

W. Benjamin and I. Borish, Borish’s Clinical Refraction (Butterworth-Heinemann/Elsevier, 2006).
[PubMed]

Bouma, B.

Boyd, S.

Coen, S.

A. Yang, F. Vanholsbeeck, S. Coen, and J. Schroeder, “Chromatic dispersion compensation of an oct system with a programmable spectral filter,” in Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Techniques V, R. Leitgeb and B. Bouma, eds., Vol. 8091 of Proceedings of SPIE-OSA Biomedical Optics (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper 809125.

de Boer, J.

Drexler, W.

B. Považay, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, H. Arthaber, and W. Drexler, “Full-field time-encoded frequency-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 14, 7661–7669 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, “Optical coherence tomography—principles and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Duker, J.

Endo, T.

Fabritius, T.

Fercher, A. F.

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, “Optical coherence tomography—principles and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, R. D.

M. Mujat, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, and D. X. Hammer, “Swept-source parallel oct,” Proc. SPIE 7168, 71681E (2009).
[CrossRef]

Forbes, P.

Franke, G.

Fujimoto, J.

Hagen-Eggert, M.

Hammer, D. X.

M. Mujat, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, and D. X. Hammer, “Swept-source parallel oct,” Proc. SPIE 7168, 71681E (2009).
[CrossRef]

Harris, F. J.

F. J. Harris, “On the use of windows for harmonic analysis with the discrete Fourier transform,” Proc. IEEE 66(1), 51–83 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Hermann, B.

Hillman, T.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, “Optical coherence tomography—principles and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hüttmann, G.

Iftimia, N. V.

M. Mujat, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, and D. X. Hammer, “Swept-source parallel oct,” Proc. SPIE 7168, 71681E (2009).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, M.

Kang, J. U.

Kim, B.-M.

S.-W. Lee and B.-M. Kim, “Line-field optical coherence tomography using frequency-sweeping source,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 50–55 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ko, T.

Koch, P.

Kowalczyk, A.

Lasser, T.

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, “Optical coherence tomography—principles and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.-S.

Lee, S.-W.

S.-W. Lee and B.-M. Kim, “Line-field optical coherence tomography using frequency-sweeping source,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 50–55 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Makita, S.

Malchow, D.

Mujat, M.

M. Mujat, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, and D. X. Hammer, “Swept-source parallel oct,” Proc. SPIE 7168, 71681E (2009).
[CrossRef]

Považay, B.

Puvanathasan, P.

Ren, Z.

Rolland, J. P.

Sampson, D.

Sattmann, H.

Schroeder, J.

A. Yang, F. Vanholsbeeck, S. Coen, and J. Schroeder, “Chromatic dispersion compensation of an oct system with a programmable spectral filter,” in Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Techniques V, R. Leitgeb and B. Bouma, eds., Vol. 8091 of Proceedings of SPIE-OSA Biomedical Optics (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper 809125.

Srinivasan, V.

Tearney, G.

Unterhuber, A.

Vanholsbeeck, F.

A. Yang, F. Vanholsbeeck, S. Coen, and J. Schroeder, “Chromatic dispersion compensation of an oct system with a programmable spectral filter,” in Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Techniques V, R. Leitgeb and B. Bouma, eds., Vol. 8091 of Proceedings of SPIE-OSA Biomedical Optics (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper 809125.

Wojtkowski, M.

Yadav, R.

Yang, A.

A. Yang, F. Vanholsbeeck, S. Coen, and J. Schroeder, “Chromatic dispersion compensation of an oct system with a programmable spectral filter,” in Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Techniques V, R. Leitgeb and B. Bouma, eds., Vol. 8091 of Proceedings of SPIE-OSA Biomedical Optics (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper 809125.

Yasuno, Y.

Yatagai, T.

Yoon, G.

Yun, S. H.

Zavislan, J. M.

Zhang, K.

Appl. Opt.

Biomed. Opt. Express

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

S.-W. Lee and B.-M. Kim, “Line-field optical coherence tomography using frequency-sweeping source,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 50–55 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. IEEE

F. J. Harris, “On the use of windows for harmonic analysis with the discrete Fourier transform,” Proc. IEEE 66(1), 51–83 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

M. Mujat, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, and D. X. Hammer, “Swept-source parallel oct,” Proc. SPIE 7168, 71681E (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys.

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, “Optical coherence tomography—principles and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other

W. Benjamin and I. Borish, Borish’s Clinical Refraction (Butterworth-Heinemann/Elsevier, 2006).
[PubMed]

A. Yang, F. Vanholsbeeck, S. Coen, and J. Schroeder, “Chromatic dispersion compensation of an oct system with a programmable spectral filter,” in Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Techniques V, R. Leitgeb and B. Bouma, eds., Vol. 8091 of Proceedings of SPIE-OSA Biomedical Optics (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper 809125.

Supplementary Material (2)

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» Media 2: AVI (3352 KB)     

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

B-scans obtained by full-field swept-source OCT of a finger tip with different stabilization and imaging speed. a) Volume scan was acquired in ∼ 1 s, which corresponds to 1,000 fps. The finger was stabilized against a glass plate. No motion artifacts are visible. b) Volume scan of the finger tip was acquired in ∼ 30 ms, which corresponds to 36,000 fps. The finger was stabilized by pushing it against a fixed ring. Axial blurring of the image due to sample motion can be seen.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic representation of the influence of dispersion on an FD-OCT signal and the short-time Fourier transforms. a) Spectrum of the interference from one reflecting surface in the sample. The width of the reconstructed OCT-Signal (point spread function) is determined by the spectral width. b) By dispersion, here visible by a chirp in the sine, the peak in the Fourier transform is broadened and modulated. c)–e) By filtering a small region of the spectrum in which the chirp is neglectable, shifted peaks are restored. However, these peaks are broadened compared to the unchirped case due to the reduced spectral bandwidth introduced by the windowing.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic representation of the algorithm determining the dispersion phase function ϕ(k) by cross-correlation of sub-bandwidth reconstructions (CCSBR). The spectral data are windowed at different center wavenumbers k0 and Fourier transformed to obtain depth information. The resulting OCT images will be shifted for each k0 along the z-axis due to non-constant motion or GVD mismatch. By cross-correlating these OCT images with a reference image at k0 the apparent z-shift of the images and by integration the correcting phase function are extracted.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Fixed pattern removal by filtering the A-scan series. From the B-scans or volume (upper left) the lateral FFT of the analytic A-scans is computed (upper right). Then a mask/high-pass filter is applied (lower right) and the inverse lateral Fourier transform gives the artifact-free image (lower left).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Setup used for full-field SS-OCT measurements.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

B-Scan from a volumetric full-field SS-OCT image of the finger tip. For one volume scan, images at 1024 wavelengths were acquired with 36,000 fps. Although the finger was stabilized by a ring, the acquisition time of 28 ms was not short enough to prevent motion induced blurring (a). Multiplication prior the Fourier transform with the phase correction, which was determined by CCSBR, restores the original resolution and enhances the sharpness of the image (b). The apparent depth of the image structure’s extracted motion curve shows changes of over 14 pixel during the scan (c). A-Scans across the tissue surface in the original and the corrected images show the effect of motion compensation of the signal (d).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

B-Scan from a volumetric full-field SS-OCT image of the finger tip which was measured at 4,000 fps in 260 ms. The finger was also stabilized by a ring. Severe artifacts and blurring are visible (a). Though the numerical motion reduction improves image quality it was not able to fully restore image quality (b). An apparent z-movement of nearly 100 pixel are observed (c). A-Scans from the original and the corrected data show the loss of the depth resolution (d).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

OCT image of the finger tip measured with a scanning OCT with 16 mm of SF57 in the reference in order to create the GVD mismatch of 1.9 fs/mm. Considerable blurring of the surface reflection and the sweat ducts is observed (a). Using the correlation of sub-bandwidth reconstructed images to determine the correction function image quality is completely restored (b). An improvement in the FWHM of the finger surface can be seen in the A-scan (c, d).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Demonstration of the effects of GVD mismatch and its correction by CCSBR for in vivo ultra-high resolution OCT of the retina. The GVD in the reference was matched for an average normal sighted person. a) Uncorrected B-scan of the retina of a normal sighted eye. Although the GVD mismatch is expected to be low, slight blurring of the axial structures is visible. b) Corrected image of the same data set. A slight improvement of the axial structures is visible ( Media 1). c) Uncorrected B-scan of the retina of a −15 dpt myopic eye. Image quality is severely degraded by blurring of axial structures. d) Corrected B-scan of the myopic eye using the phase errors ϕ(k) determined from the normal sighted eye. Residual blurring is still visible. e) Individual correction improves sharpness of the axial structures and borders ( Media 2).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Point-spread function (PSF) obtained by imaging a mirror covered by 20 mm of water. a) A suitable calibration was obtained by imaging the mirror in two different positions [11] and the resulting GVD mismatch corrected PSF is compared to the PSF corrected by the phase function obtained using CCSBR and to the original uncorrected PSF. The PSFs obtained using calibration and CCSBR are basically indistinguishable. b) The obtained phase functions of both approaches.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Properties of Methods to Determine GVD Mismatch between Sample and Reference Arm

Equations (7)

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I D ( k ) S ( k ) 𝕉 d z f ( z ) e i 2 k z ,
I D disp ( k ) S ( k ) 𝕉 d z f ( z ) e i 2 k ( z + z disp ( k ) ) = S ( k ) e i ϕ ( k ) 𝕉 d z f ( z ) e i 2 k z
ϕ ( k ) = ϕ ( k 0 + Δ k ) = ϕ ( k 0 ) + k ϕ ( k ) | k = k 0 Δ k + 𝒪 ( Δ k 2 )
f rec ( z ) 𝒡 1 [ S ( k ) ] * 𝒡 1 [ 𝕉 d z f ( z ) e i 2 k z i ϕ ( k 0 ) i k ϕ ( k ) | k = k 0 ( k k 0 ) ] . = 𝒡 1 [ S ( k ) ] * e i ( ϕ ( k 0 ) + k ϕ ( k ) | k = k 0 k 0 ) f ( z 2 + k ϕ ( k ) | k = k 0 ) ,
STFT k 0 [ I D disp ( k ) ] = 𝒡 1 [ w ( k k 0 ) I D disp ( k ) ] 𝒡 1 [ w ( k k 0 ) S ( k ) 𝕉 d z f ( z ) e i 2 k z i ϕ ( k ) ] = e i ( ϕ ( k 0 ) + k ϕ ( k ) | k = k 0 k 0 ) × { ( e i k 0 z 𝒡 1 [ w ( k ) S ( k ) ] ) * f ( z 2 + k ϕ ( k ) | k = k 0 ) } .
k ϕ ( k ) | k = k 0 Δ z ( k 0 ) = arg max z ( | STFT k 0 [ I D disp ( k ) ] | | STFT k 0 [ I D disp ( k ) ] | ) ( z ) ,
ϕ ( k ) d k Δ z ( k ) + C .

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