Abstract

Multiple-soliton dynamic patterns have been observed experimentally in an erbium-doped fiber ring laser with graphene as a saturable absorber. Under relatively low pumping power we have obtained disordered multiple-solitons, bunched solitons and high order harmonic mode locking by adjusting the orientation of the polarization controllers. With increased pumping power, we have also observed flow of solitons. We have experimentally investigated in detail the conditions under which these patterns form.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  24. S. M. Zhang, F. Y. Lu, X. Y. Dong, P. Shum, X. F. Yang, X. Q. Zhou, Y. D. Gong, and C. Lu, “Passive mode locking at harmonics of the free spectral range of the intracavity filter in a fiber ring laser,” Opt. Lett. 30(21), 2852–2854 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

F. Amrani, M. Salhi, P. Grelu, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, “Universal soliton pattern formations in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 36(9), 1545–1547 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Q. Luo, M. Zhou, Z. P. Cai, C. C. Ye, J. Weng, G. M. Huang, and H. Y. Xu, “Graphene-assisted multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(8), 501–503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (7)

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Q. Wang, E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene- mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano. Res. 3(9), 653–660 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Hendry, P. J. Hale, J. Moger, A. K. Savchenko, and S. A. Mikhailov, “Coherent nonlinear optical response of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(9), 097401 (2010), http://prl.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v105/i9/e097401 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Chouli and P. Grelu, “Soliton rains in a fiber laser: An experimental study,” Phys. Rev. A 81(6), 063829 (2010), http://pra.aps.org/abstract/PRA/v81/i6/e063829 .
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Q. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Amrani, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, “Characterization of soliton compounds in a passively mode-locked high power fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 283(24), 5224–5230 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Amrani, A. Haboucha, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, “Dissipative solitons compounds in a fiber laser. Analogy with the states of the matter,” Appl. Phys. B 99(1-2), 107–114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (5)

S. Chouli and P. Grelu, “Rains of solitons in a fiber laser,” Opt. Express 17(14), 11776–11781 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Amrani, A. Haboucha, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, P. Grelu, and F. Sanchez, “Passively mode-locked erbium-doped double-clad fiber laser operating at the 322nd harmonic,” Opt. Lett. 34(14), 2120–2122 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17630–17635 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Hasan, Z. P. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube– Polymer Composites for Ultrafast Photonics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

D. Y. Tang, W. S. Man, H. Y. Tam, and P. D. Drummond, “Observation of bound states of solitons in a passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 64(3), 033814 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

N. N. Akhmediev, A. Ankiewicz, and J. M. Soto-Crespo, “Multisoliton solutions of the complex ginzburg-landau equation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79(21), 4047–4051 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1991 (1)

B. A. Malomed, “Bound solitons in the nonlinear Schrödinger-Ginzburg-Landau equation,” Phys. Rev. A 44(10), 6954–6957 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Afanasjev, V. V.

Akhmediev, N. N.

Amrani, F.

F. Amrani, M. Salhi, P. Grelu, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, “Universal soliton pattern formations in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 36(9), 1545–1547 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Amrani, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, “Characterization of soliton compounds in a passively mode-locked high power fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 283(24), 5224–5230 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Amrani, A. Haboucha, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, “Dissipative solitons compounds in a fiber laser. Analogy with the states of the matter,” Appl. Phys. B 99(1-2), 107–114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Amrani, A. Haboucha, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, P. Grelu, and F. Sanchez, “Passively mode-locked erbium-doped double-clad fiber laser operating at the 322nd harmonic,” Opt. Lett. 34(14), 2120–2122 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ankiewicz, A.

N. N. Akhmediev, A. Ankiewicz, and J. M. Soto-Crespo, “Multisoliton solutions of the complex ginzburg-landau equation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79(21), 4047–4051 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bao, Q. L.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17630–17635 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Basko, D. M.

Z. P. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Q. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belhache, F.

Bonaccorso, F.

Z. P. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Q. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Hasan, Z. P. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube– Polymer Composites for Ultrafast Photonics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cai, Z. P.

Z. Q. Luo, M. Zhou, Z. P. Cai, C. C. Ye, J. Weng, G. M. Huang, and H. Y. Xu, “Graphene-assisted multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(8), 501–503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chouli, S.

S. Chouli and P. Grelu, “Soliton rains in a fiber laser: An experimental study,” Phys. Rev. A 81(6), 063829 (2010), http://pra.aps.org/abstract/PRA/v81/i6/e063829 .
[CrossRef]

S. Chouli and P. Grelu, “Rains of solitons in a fiber laser,” Opt. Express 17(14), 11776–11781 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dong, X. Y.

Drummond, P. D.

D. Y. Tang, W. S. Man, H. Y. Tam, and P. D. Drummond, “Observation of bound states of solitons in a passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 64(3), 033814 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Feng, X.

Ferrari, A. C.

Z. P. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Q. Wang, E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene- mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano. Res. 3(9), 653–660 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Q. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Hasan, Z. P. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube– Polymer Composites for Ultrafast Photonics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gong, Y. D.

Grelu, P.

Grelu, Ph.

Gutty, F.

Haboucha, A.

Hale, P. J.

E. Hendry, P. J. Hale, J. Moger, A. K. Savchenko, and S. A. Mikhailov, “Coherent nonlinear optical response of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(9), 097401 (2010), http://prl.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v105/i9/e097401 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hasan, T.

Z. P. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Q. Wang, E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene- mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano. Res. 3(9), 653–660 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Q. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Hasan, Z. P. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube– Polymer Composites for Ultrafast Photonics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hendry, E.

E. Hendry, P. J. Hale, J. Moger, A. K. Savchenko, and S. A. Mikhailov, “Coherent nonlinear optical response of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(9), 097401 (2010), http://prl.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v105/i9/e097401 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, G. M.

Z. Q. Luo, M. Zhou, Z. P. Cai, C. C. Ye, J. Weng, G. M. Huang, and H. Y. Xu, “Graphene-assisted multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(8), 501–503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kelleher, E. J. R.

Z. P. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Q. Wang, E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene- mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano. Res. 3(9), 653–660 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Knize, R. J.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Komarov, A.

Leblond, H.

F. Amrani, M. Salhi, P. Grelu, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, “Universal soliton pattern formations in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 36(9), 1545–1547 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Amrani, A. Haboucha, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, “Dissipative solitons compounds in a fiber laser. Analogy with the states of the matter,” Appl. Phys. B 99(1-2), 107–114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Amrani, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, “Characterization of soliton compounds in a passively mode-locked high power fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 283(24), 5224–5230 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Amrani, A. Haboucha, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, P. Grelu, and F. Sanchez, “Passively mode-locked erbium-doped double-clad fiber laser operating at the 322nd harmonic,” Opt. Lett. 34(14), 2120–2122 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Haboucha, H. Leblond, M. Salhi, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, “Analysis of soliton pattern formation in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 78(4), 043806 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Haboucha, H. Leblond, M. Salhi, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, “Coherent soliton pattern formation in a fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 33(5), 524–526 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loh, K. P.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17630–17635 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C.

Lu, F. Y.

Luo, Z. Q.

Z. Q. Luo, M. Zhou, Z. P. Cai, C. C. Ye, J. Weng, G. M. Huang, and H. Y. Xu, “Graphene-assisted multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(8), 501–503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Malomed, B. A.

B. A. Malomed, “Bound solitons in the nonlinear Schrödinger-Ginzburg-Landau equation,” Phys. Rev. A 44(10), 6954–6957 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Man, W. S.

D. Y. Tang, W. S. Man, H. Y. Tam, and P. D. Drummond, “Observation of bound states of solitons in a passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 64(3), 033814 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mikhailov, S. A.

E. Hendry, P. J. Hale, J. Moger, A. K. Savchenko, and S. A. Mikhailov, “Coherent nonlinear optical response of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(9), 097401 (2010), http://prl.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v105/i9/e097401 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moger, J.

E. Hendry, P. J. Hale, J. Moger, A. K. Savchenko, and S. A. Mikhailov, “Coherent nonlinear optical response of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(9), 097401 (2010), http://prl.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v105/i9/e097401 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ni, Z. H.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nicolosi, V.

Z. P. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Q. Wang, E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene- mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano. Res. 3(9), 653–660 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Popa, D.

Z. P. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Q. Wang, E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene- mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano. Res. 3(9), 653–660 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Q. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Privitera, G.

Z. P. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Q. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rozhin, A. G.

T. Hasan, Z. P. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube– Polymer Composites for Ultrafast Photonics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Salhi, M.

F. Amrani, M. Salhi, P. Grelu, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, “Universal soliton pattern formations in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 36(9), 1545–1547 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Amrani, A. Haboucha, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, “Dissipative solitons compounds in a fiber laser. Analogy with the states of the matter,” Appl. Phys. B 99(1-2), 107–114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Amrani, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, “Characterization of soliton compounds in a passively mode-locked high power fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 283(24), 5224–5230 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Amrani, A. Haboucha, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, P. Grelu, and F. Sanchez, “Passively mode-locked erbium-doped double-clad fiber laser operating at the 322nd harmonic,” Opt. Lett. 34(14), 2120–2122 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Haboucha, H. Leblond, M. Salhi, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, “Analysis of soliton pattern formation in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 78(4), 043806 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Haboucha, H. Leblond, M. Salhi, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, “Coherent soliton pattern formation in a fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 33(5), 524–526 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sanchez, F.

F. Amrani, M. Salhi, P. Grelu, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, “Universal soliton pattern formations in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 36(9), 1545–1547 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Amrani, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, “Characterization of soliton compounds in a passively mode-locked high power fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 283(24), 5224–5230 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Amrani, A. Haboucha, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, “Dissipative solitons compounds in a fiber laser. Analogy with the states of the matter,” Appl. Phys. B 99(1-2), 107–114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Amrani, A. Haboucha, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, P. Grelu, and F. Sanchez, “Passively mode-locked erbium-doped double-clad fiber laser operating at the 322nd harmonic,” Opt. Lett. 34(14), 2120–2122 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Haboucha, H. Leblond, M. Salhi, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, “Coherent soliton pattern formation in a fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 33(5), 524–526 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Komarov, A. Haboucha, and F. Sanchez, “Ultrahigh-repetition-rate bound-soliton harmonic passive mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 33(19), 2254–2256 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Haboucha, H. Leblond, M. Salhi, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, “Analysis of soliton pattern formation in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 78(4), 043806 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Savchenko, A. K.

E. Hendry, P. J. Hale, J. Moger, A. K. Savchenko, and S. A. Mikhailov, “Coherent nonlinear optical response of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(9), 097401 (2010), http://prl.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v105/i9/e097401 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, Z. X.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shum, P.

Soto-Crespo, J. M.

Sun, Z. P.

Z. P. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Q. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Q. Wang, E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene- mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano. Res. 3(9), 653–660 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Hasan, Z. P. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube– Polymer Composites for Ultrafast Photonics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tam, H. Y.

X. Feng, H. Y. Tam, and P. K. A. Wai, “Stable and uniform multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser using nonlinear polarization rotation,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8205–8210 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Y. Tang, W. S. Man, H. Y. Tam, and P. D. Drummond, “Observation of bound states of solitons in a passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 64(3), 033814 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tan, P. H.

T. Hasan, Z. P. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube– Polymer Composites for Ultrafast Photonics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tang, D. Y.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17630–17635 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Tang, W. S. Man, H. Y. Tam, and P. D. Drummond, “Observation of bound states of solitons in a passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 64(3), 033814 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Torrisi, F.

Z. P. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Q. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Q. Wang, E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene- mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano. Res. 3(9), 653–660 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Travers, J. C.

Z. P. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Q. Wang, E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene- mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano. Res. 3(9), 653–660 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wai, P. K. A.

Wang, F.

T. Hasan, Z. P. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube– Polymer Composites for Ultrafast Photonics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, F. Q.

Z. P. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Q. Wang, E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene- mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano. Res. 3(9), 653–660 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Q. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Weng, J.

Z. Q. Luo, M. Zhou, Z. P. Cai, C. C. Ye, J. Weng, G. M. Huang, and H. Y. Xu, “Graphene-assisted multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(8), 501–503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xu, H. Y.

Z. Q. Luo, M. Zhou, Z. P. Cai, C. C. Ye, J. Weng, G. M. Huang, and H. Y. Xu, “Graphene-assisted multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(8), 501–503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yan, Y. L.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, X. F.

Ye, C. C.

Z. Q. Luo, M. Zhou, Z. P. Cai, C. C. Ye, J. Weng, G. M. Huang, and H. Y. Xu, “Graphene-assisted multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(8), 501–503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17630–17635 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S. M.

Zhao, L. M.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17630–17635 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, M.

Z. Q. Luo, M. Zhou, Z. P. Cai, C. C. Ye, J. Weng, G. M. Huang, and H. Y. Xu, “Graphene-assisted multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(8), 501–503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, X. Q.

ACS Nano (1)

Z. P. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Q. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (1)

T. Hasan, Z. P. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube– Polymer Composites for Ultrafast Photonics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

F. Amrani, A. Haboucha, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, “Dissipative solitons compounds in a fiber laser. Analogy with the states of the matter,” Appl. Phys. B 99(1-2), 107–114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Z. Q. Luo, M. Zhou, Z. P. Cai, C. C. Ye, J. Weng, G. M. Huang, and H. Y. Xu, “Graphene-assisted multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(8), 501–503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nano. Res. (1)

Z. P. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Q. Wang, E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene- mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano. Res. 3(9), 653–660 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

F. Amrani, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, “Characterization of soliton compounds in a passively mode-locked high power fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 283(24), 5224–5230 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (8)

S. M. Zhang, F. Y. Lu, X. Y. Dong, P. Shum, X. F. Yang, X. Q. Zhou, Y. D. Gong, and C. Lu, “Passive mode locking at harmonics of the free spectral range of the intracavity filter in a fiber ring laser,” Opt. Lett. 30(21), 2852–2854 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Amrani, M. Salhi, P. Grelu, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, “Universal soliton pattern formations in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 36(9), 1545–1547 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. V. Afanasjev and N. N. Akhmediev, “Soliton interaction and bound states in amplified-damped fiber systems,” Opt. Lett. 20(19), 1970–1972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Grelu, F. Belhache, F. Gutty, and J. M. Soto-Crespo, “Phase-locked soliton pairs in a stretched-pulse fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 27(11), 966–968 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Soto-Crespo, N. N. Akhmediev, Ph. Grelu, and F. Belhache, “Quantized separations of phase-locked soliton pairs in fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 28(19), 1757–1759 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Komarov, A. Haboucha, and F. Sanchez, “Ultrahigh-repetition-rate bound-soliton harmonic passive mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 33(19), 2254–2256 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Haboucha, H. Leblond, M. Salhi, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, “Coherent soliton pattern formation in a fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 33(5), 524–526 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Amrani, A. Haboucha, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, P. Grelu, and F. Sanchez, “Passively mode-locked erbium-doped double-clad fiber laser operating at the 322nd harmonic,” Opt. Lett. 34(14), 2120–2122 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. A (4)

A. Haboucha, H. Leblond, M. Salhi, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, “Analysis of soliton pattern formation in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 78(4), 043806 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Malomed, “Bound solitons in the nonlinear Schrödinger-Ginzburg-Landau equation,” Phys. Rev. A 44(10), 6954–6957 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Y. Tang, W. S. Man, H. Y. Tam, and P. D. Drummond, “Observation of bound states of solitons in a passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 64(3), 033814 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Chouli and P. Grelu, “Soliton rains in a fiber laser: An experimental study,” Phys. Rev. A 81(6), 063829 (2010), http://pra.aps.org/abstract/PRA/v81/i6/e063829 .
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

N. N. Akhmediev, A. Ankiewicz, and J. M. Soto-Crespo, “Multisoliton solutions of the complex ginzburg-landau equation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79(21), 4047–4051 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Hendry, P. J. Hale, J. Moger, A. K. Savchenko, and S. A. Mikhailov, “Coherent nonlinear optical response of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(9), 097401 (2010), http://prl.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v105/i9/e097401 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MOV (3287 KB)     

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. WDM: wavelength division multiplexer. EDF: Erbium-doped fiber. PC: polarization controller. PI-ISO: polarization-independent isolator. OC: output coupler.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Production and characterization of graphene mode locker. (a) Graphene wafers in FeCl3 solution. (b) Graphene film floating on the surface of deionized water. (c) Adjustment of the position of the fiber end face to contact the graphene film. (d) Graphene film coating on the pigtail cross-section. (e) Optical image of fiber pinhole coated with graphene. (f) AFM image of graphene on the fiber core. (g) Raman spectra of the graphene film.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Autocorrelation trace of soliton. Disordered multiple solitons occupy all the cavity (b) and part of the cavity (c). (d) Optical spectrum of the disordered multiple solitons.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Spectrum of bunched solitons. (b) Soliton bunching with many solitons. (c) 2nd harmonic mode locking of soliton bunch.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Spectrum of high order harmonic mode locking. (b) The15th harmonic (repetition frequency is 0.16 GHz) with a pumping power of 65.3 mW. (c) The 46th harmonic (repetition frequency is 0.49 GHz) with a pumping power of 162.4 mW.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Video recording of the flow of solitons (Media 1). (b) Oscilloscope trace of the condensed phase with a pump power of 170 mW. (c) Spectrum of the condensed solitons phase. (d) Autocorrelation trace of the condensed phase.

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