Abstract

In this paper the delivery of high power Er:YAG laser pulses through a silica hollow core photonic crystal fibre is demonstrated. The Er:YAG wavelength of 2.94 µm is well beyond the normal transmittance of bulk silica but the unique hollow core guidance allows silica to guide in this regime. We have demonstrated for the first time the ability to deliver high energy pulses through an all-silica fibre at 2.94 µm. These silica fibres are mechanically and chemically robust, biocompatible and have low sensitivity to bending. A maximum pulse energy of 14 mJ at 2.94 µm was delivered through the fibre. This, to our knowledge, is the first time a silica hollow core photonic crystal fibre has been shown to transmit 2.94 μm laser light at a fluence exceeding the thresholds required for modification (e.g. cutting and drilling) of hard biological tissue. Consequently, laser delivery systems based on these fibres have the potential for the realization of novel, minimally-invasive surgical procedures.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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2012

M. Contente, F. de Lima, R. Galo, J. Pécora, L. Bachmann, R. Palma-Dibb, and M. Borsatto, “Temperature rise during Er:YAG cavity preparation of primary enamel,” Lasers Med. Sci. 1, 1–5 (2012).

2009

2008

Y. Nishimoto, M. Otsuki, M. Yamauti, T. Eguchi, Y. Sato, R. M. Foxton, and J. Tagami, “Effect of pulse duration of Er: YAG laser on dentin ablation,” Dent. Mater. J. 27(3), 433–439 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

S. Stübinger, B. von Rechenberg, H. F. Zeilhofer, R. Sader, and C. Landes, “Er:YAG laser osteotomy for removal of impacted teeth: clinical comparison of two techniques,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(7), 583–588 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. J. Scott, R. A. Barton, A. L. Casperson, A. Tchapyjnikov, K. Levin, D. Tran, and N. M. Fried, “Mid-IR germanium oxide fibers for contact erbium laser tissue ablation in endoscopic surgery,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(6), 1709–1714 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

2004

J. D. Shephard, J. D. C. Jones, D. P. Hand, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. S. Russell, and B. J. Mangan, “High energy nanosecond laser pulses delivered single-mode through hollow-core PBG fibers,” Opt. Express 12(4), 717–723 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. M. Fried, Y. B. Yang, C. A. Chaney, and D. Fried, “Transmission of Q-switched erbium:YSGG (lambda=2.79 microm) and erbium:YAG (lambda=2.94 microm) laser radiation through germanium oxide and sapphire optical fibres at high pulse energies,” Lasers Med. Sci. 19(3), 155–160 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Applications of chalcogenide glass optical fibers,” C. R. Chim. 5(12), 873–883 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

J. A. Harrington, “A review of IR transmitting, hollow waveguides,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 19(3), 211–227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Wesendahl, P. Janknecht, B. Ott, and M. Frenz, “Erbium: YAG laser ablation of retinal tissue under perfluorodecaline: determination of laser-tissue interaction in pig eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41(2), 505–512 (2000).
[PubMed]

1999

M. C. Pierce, M. R. Dickinson, and H. Devlin, “Selective photothermal ablation of tissue with a fibre delivered Er: YAG laser,” Proc. SPIE 3601, 362–368 (1999).

1997

U. Hohenleutner, S. Hohenleutner, W. Bäumler, and M. Landthaler, “Fast and effective skin ablation with an Er:YAG laser: determination of ablation rates and thermal damage zones,” Lasers Surg. Med. 20(3), 242–247 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

O. Humbach, H. Fabian, U. Grzesik, U. Haken, and W. Heitmann, “Analysis of OH absorption bands in synthetic silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 203, 19–26 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992

L. J. A. F. Rainer, J. H. Campbell, F. D. DeMarco, M. R. Kozolowski, A. J. Morgan, and M. C. Staggs, “Four-harmonic database of laser-damage testing,” Proc. SPIE 1624, 116–127 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989

J. T. Walsh and T. F. Deutsch, “Er:YAG laser ablation of tissue: measurement of ablation rates,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9(4), 327–337 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aggarwal, I. D.

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Applications of chalcogenide glass optical fibers,” C. R. Chim. 5(12), 873–883 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bachmann, L.

M. Contente, F. de Lima, R. Galo, J. Pécora, L. Bachmann, R. Palma-Dibb, and M. Borsatto, “Temperature rise during Er:YAG cavity preparation of primary enamel,” Lasers Med. Sci. 1, 1–5 (2012).

Barton, R. A.

N. J. Scott, R. A. Barton, A. L. Casperson, A. Tchapyjnikov, K. Levin, D. Tran, and N. M. Fried, “Mid-IR germanium oxide fibers for contact erbium laser tissue ablation in endoscopic surgery,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(6), 1709–1714 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bäumler, W.

U. Hohenleutner, S. Hohenleutner, W. Bäumler, and M. Landthaler, “Fast and effective skin ablation with an Er:YAG laser: determination of ablation rates and thermal damage zones,” Lasers Surg. Med. 20(3), 242–247 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borsatto, M.

M. Contente, F. de Lima, R. Galo, J. Pécora, L. Bachmann, R. Palma-Dibb, and M. Borsatto, “Temperature rise during Er:YAG cavity preparation of primary enamel,” Lasers Med. Sci. 1, 1–5 (2012).

Bouwmans, G.

Bowden, B. F.

Campbell, J. H.

L. J. A. F. Rainer, J. H. Campbell, F. D. DeMarco, M. R. Kozolowski, A. J. Morgan, and M. C. Staggs, “Four-harmonic database of laser-damage testing,” Proc. SPIE 1624, 116–127 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Casperson, A. L.

N. J. Scott, R. A. Barton, A. L. Casperson, A. Tchapyjnikov, K. Levin, D. Tran, and N. M. Fried, “Mid-IR germanium oxide fibers for contact erbium laser tissue ablation in endoscopic surgery,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(6), 1709–1714 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chaney, C. A.

N. M. Fried, Y. B. Yang, C. A. Chaney, and D. Fried, “Transmission of Q-switched erbium:YSGG (lambda=2.79 microm) and erbium:YAG (lambda=2.94 microm) laser radiation through germanium oxide and sapphire optical fibres at high pulse energies,” Lasers Med. Sci. 19(3), 155–160 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Contente, M.

M. Contente, F. de Lima, R. Galo, J. Pécora, L. Bachmann, R. Palma-Dibb, and M. Borsatto, “Temperature rise during Er:YAG cavity preparation of primary enamel,” Lasers Med. Sci. 1, 1–5 (2012).

Couny, F.

de Lima, F.

M. Contente, F. de Lima, R. Galo, J. Pécora, L. Bachmann, R. Palma-Dibb, and M. Borsatto, “Temperature rise during Er:YAG cavity preparation of primary enamel,” Lasers Med. Sci. 1, 1–5 (2012).

Delmonte, T.

A. Urich, T. Delmonte, R. R. J. Maier, D. P. Hand, and J. D. Shephard, “Towards implementation of hollow core fibres for surgical applications,” Proc. SPIE12, 78940W (2011).

DeMarco, F. D.

L. J. A. F. Rainer, J. H. Campbell, F. D. DeMarco, M. R. Kozolowski, A. J. Morgan, and M. C. Staggs, “Four-harmonic database of laser-damage testing,” Proc. SPIE 1624, 116–127 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Deutsch, T. F.

J. T. Walsh and T. F. Deutsch, “Er:YAG laser ablation of tissue: measurement of ablation rates,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9(4), 327–337 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devlin, H.

M. C. Pierce, M. R. Dickinson, and H. Devlin, “Selective photothermal ablation of tissue with a fibre delivered Er: YAG laser,” Proc. SPIE 3601, 362–368 (1999).

Dickinson, M. R.

M. C. Pierce, M. R. Dickinson, and H. Devlin, “Selective photothermal ablation of tissue with a fibre delivered Er: YAG laser,” Proc. SPIE 3601, 362–368 (1999).

Eguchi, T.

Y. Nishimoto, M. Otsuki, M. Yamauti, T. Eguchi, Y. Sato, R. M. Foxton, and J. Tagami, “Effect of pulse duration of Er: YAG laser on dentin ablation,” Dent. Mater. J. 27(3), 433–439 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fabian, H.

O. Humbach, H. Fabian, U. Grzesik, U. Haken, and W. Heitmann, “Analysis of OH absorption bands in synthetic silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 203, 19–26 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Frenz, M.

T. Wesendahl, P. Janknecht, B. Ott, and M. Frenz, “Erbium: YAG laser ablation of retinal tissue under perfluorodecaline: determination of laser-tissue interaction in pig eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41(2), 505–512 (2000).
[PubMed]

Fried, D.

N. M. Fried, Y. B. Yang, C. A. Chaney, and D. Fried, “Transmission of Q-switched erbium:YSGG (lambda=2.79 microm) and erbium:YAG (lambda=2.94 microm) laser radiation through germanium oxide and sapphire optical fibres at high pulse energies,” Lasers Med. Sci. 19(3), 155–160 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fried, N. M.

N. J. Scott, R. A. Barton, A. L. Casperson, A. Tchapyjnikov, K. Levin, D. Tran, and N. M. Fried, “Mid-IR germanium oxide fibers for contact erbium laser tissue ablation in endoscopic surgery,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(6), 1709–1714 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Fried, Y. B. Yang, C. A. Chaney, and D. Fried, “Transmission of Q-switched erbium:YSGG (lambda=2.79 microm) and erbium:YAG (lambda=2.94 microm) laser radiation through germanium oxide and sapphire optical fibres at high pulse energies,” Lasers Med. Sci. 19(3), 155–160 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galo, R.

M. Contente, F. de Lima, R. Galo, J. Pécora, L. Bachmann, R. Palma-Dibb, and M. Borsatto, “Temperature rise during Er:YAG cavity preparation of primary enamel,” Lasers Med. Sci. 1, 1–5 (2012).

George, A. K.

Grzesik, U.

O. Humbach, H. Fabian, U. Grzesik, U. Haken, and W. Heitmann, “Analysis of OH absorption bands in synthetic silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 203, 19–26 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Haken, U.

O. Humbach, H. Fabian, U. Grzesik, U. Haken, and W. Heitmann, “Analysis of OH absorption bands in synthetic silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 203, 19–26 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hand, D. P.

Harrington, J. A.

Heitmann, W.

O. Humbach, H. Fabian, U. Grzesik, U. Haken, and W. Heitmann, “Analysis of OH absorption bands in synthetic silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 203, 19–26 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hohenleutner, S.

U. Hohenleutner, S. Hohenleutner, W. Bäumler, and M. Landthaler, “Fast and effective skin ablation with an Er:YAG laser: determination of ablation rates and thermal damage zones,” Lasers Surg. Med. 20(3), 242–247 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hohenleutner, U.

U. Hohenleutner, S. Hohenleutner, W. Bäumler, and M. Landthaler, “Fast and effective skin ablation with an Er:YAG laser: determination of ablation rates and thermal damage zones,” Lasers Surg. Med. 20(3), 242–247 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Humbach, O.

O. Humbach, H. Fabian, U. Grzesik, U. Haken, and W. Heitmann, “Analysis of OH absorption bands in synthetic silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 203, 19–26 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Janknecht, P.

T. Wesendahl, P. Janknecht, B. Ott, and M. Frenz, “Erbium: YAG laser ablation of retinal tissue under perfluorodecaline: determination of laser-tissue interaction in pig eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41(2), 505–512 (2000).
[PubMed]

Jones, J. D. C.

Knight, J. C.

Kozolowski, M. R.

L. J. A. F. Rainer, J. H. Campbell, F. D. DeMarco, M. R. Kozolowski, A. J. Morgan, and M. C. Staggs, “Four-harmonic database of laser-damage testing,” Proc. SPIE 1624, 116–127 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Landes, C.

S. Stübinger, B. von Rechenberg, H. F. Zeilhofer, R. Sader, and C. Landes, “Er:YAG laser osteotomy for removal of impacted teeth: clinical comparison of two techniques,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(7), 583–588 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Landthaler, M.

U. Hohenleutner, S. Hohenleutner, W. Bäumler, and M. Landthaler, “Fast and effective skin ablation with an Er:YAG laser: determination of ablation rates and thermal damage zones,” Lasers Surg. Med. 20(3), 242–247 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levin, K.

N. J. Scott, R. A. Barton, A. L. Casperson, A. Tchapyjnikov, K. Levin, D. Tran, and N. M. Fried, “Mid-IR germanium oxide fibers for contact erbium laser tissue ablation in endoscopic surgery,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(6), 1709–1714 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Foxton, R.

Y. Nishimoto, M. Otsuki, M. Yamauti, T. Eguchi, Y. Sato, R. M. Foxton, and J. Tagami, “Effect of pulse duration of Er: YAG laser on dentin ablation,” Dent. Mater. J. 27(3), 433–439 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Macpherson, W. N.

Maier, R. R. J.

Mangan, B. J.

Mohebbi, M.

Morgan, A. J.

L. J. A. F. Rainer, J. H. Campbell, F. D. DeMarco, M. R. Kozolowski, A. J. Morgan, and M. C. Staggs, “Four-harmonic database of laser-damage testing,” Proc. SPIE 1624, 116–127 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nishimoto, Y.

Y. Nishimoto, M. Otsuki, M. Yamauti, T. Eguchi, Y. Sato, R. M. Foxton, and J. Tagami, “Effect of pulse duration of Er: YAG laser on dentin ablation,” Dent. Mater. J. 27(3), 433–439 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Otsuki, M.

Y. Nishimoto, M. Otsuki, M. Yamauti, T. Eguchi, Y. Sato, R. M. Foxton, and J. Tagami, “Effect of pulse duration of Er: YAG laser on dentin ablation,” Dent. Mater. J. 27(3), 433–439 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ott, B.

T. Wesendahl, P. Janknecht, B. Ott, and M. Frenz, “Erbium: YAG laser ablation of retinal tissue under perfluorodecaline: determination of laser-tissue interaction in pig eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41(2), 505–512 (2000).
[PubMed]

Palma-Dibb, R.

M. Contente, F. de Lima, R. Galo, J. Pécora, L. Bachmann, R. Palma-Dibb, and M. Borsatto, “Temperature rise during Er:YAG cavity preparation of primary enamel,” Lasers Med. Sci. 1, 1–5 (2012).

Parry, J. P.

Pécora, J.

M. Contente, F. de Lima, R. Galo, J. Pécora, L. Bachmann, R. Palma-Dibb, and M. Borsatto, “Temperature rise during Er:YAG cavity preparation of primary enamel,” Lasers Med. Sci. 1, 1–5 (2012).

Pierce, M. C.

M. C. Pierce, M. R. Dickinson, and H. Devlin, “Selective photothermal ablation of tissue with a fibre delivered Er: YAG laser,” Proc. SPIE 3601, 362–368 (1999).

Rainer, L. J. A. F.

L. J. A. F. Rainer, J. H. Campbell, F. D. DeMarco, M. R. Kozolowski, A. J. Morgan, and M. C. Staggs, “Four-harmonic database of laser-damage testing,” Proc. SPIE 1624, 116–127 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, P. J.

Russell, P. S.

Russell, P. S. J.

Sader, R.

S. Stübinger, B. von Rechenberg, H. F. Zeilhofer, R. Sader, and C. Landes, “Er:YAG laser osteotomy for removal of impacted teeth: clinical comparison of two techniques,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(7), 583–588 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sanghera, J. S.

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Applications of chalcogenide glass optical fibers,” C. R. Chim. 5(12), 873–883 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sato, Y.

Y. Nishimoto, M. Otsuki, M. Yamauti, T. Eguchi, Y. Sato, R. M. Foxton, and J. Tagami, “Effect of pulse duration of Er: YAG laser on dentin ablation,” Dent. Mater. J. 27(3), 433–439 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scott, N. J.

N. J. Scott, R. A. Barton, A. L. Casperson, A. Tchapyjnikov, K. Levin, D. Tran, and N. M. Fried, “Mid-IR germanium oxide fibers for contact erbium laser tissue ablation in endoscopic surgery,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(6), 1709–1714 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, L. B.

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Applications of chalcogenide glass optical fibers,” C. R. Chim. 5(12), 873–883 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shephard, J. D.

Staggs, M. C.

L. J. A. F. Rainer, J. H. Campbell, F. D. DeMarco, M. R. Kozolowski, A. J. Morgan, and M. C. Staggs, “Four-harmonic database of laser-damage testing,” Proc. SPIE 1624, 116–127 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Stephens, T. J.

Stübinger, S.

S. Stübinger, B. von Rechenberg, H. F. Zeilhofer, R. Sader, and C. Landes, “Er:YAG laser osteotomy for removal of impacted teeth: clinical comparison of two techniques,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(7), 583–588 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tagami, J.

Y. Nishimoto, M. Otsuki, M. Yamauti, T. Eguchi, Y. Sato, R. M. Foxton, and J. Tagami, “Effect of pulse duration of Er: YAG laser on dentin ablation,” Dent. Mater. J. 27(3), 433–439 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tchapyjnikov, A.

N. J. Scott, R. A. Barton, A. L. Casperson, A. Tchapyjnikov, K. Levin, D. Tran, and N. M. Fried, “Mid-IR germanium oxide fibers for contact erbium laser tissue ablation in endoscopic surgery,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(6), 1709–1714 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tran, D.

N. J. Scott, R. A. Barton, A. L. Casperson, A. Tchapyjnikov, K. Levin, D. Tran, and N. M. Fried, “Mid-IR germanium oxide fibers for contact erbium laser tissue ablation in endoscopic surgery,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(6), 1709–1714 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Urich, A.

A. Urich, T. Delmonte, R. R. J. Maier, D. P. Hand, and J. D. Shephard, “Towards implementation of hollow core fibres for surgical applications,” Proc. SPIE12, 78940W (2011).

von Rechenberg, B.

S. Stübinger, B. von Rechenberg, H. F. Zeilhofer, R. Sader, and C. Landes, “Er:YAG laser osteotomy for removal of impacted teeth: clinical comparison of two techniques,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(7), 583–588 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walsh, J. T.

J. T. Walsh and T. F. Deutsch, “Er:YAG laser ablation of tissue: measurement of ablation rates,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9(4), 327–337 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wesendahl, T.

T. Wesendahl, P. Janknecht, B. Ott, and M. Frenz, “Erbium: YAG laser ablation of retinal tissue under perfluorodecaline: determination of laser-tissue interaction in pig eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41(2), 505–512 (2000).
[PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SEM picture of the HC-PCF used in this paper, the core diameter is 24 µm, the pitch is ~8 µm and the PCF region is ~135 µm across.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Loss spectrum for the 2.94µm fibre measured by a cutback technique from an initially 5m long fibre sample in three steps of 1 m each.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Bulk attenuation for dry silica (Suprasil F300) used for the fabrication of the HC-PCF, from [14].

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

a) Temporal profile of the laser pulse b) Spatial beam profile of the laser.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optical microscopy image of catastrophic damage at the launch end of the fibre. Most of the periodic structure is destroyed.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Near- and far-field beam profiles. a): near-field profile at the fibre end with b) associated line scan (images are magnified); c) far-field profile at a distance of 4 cm from the fibre output end with d) associated line scan.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Ablation Thresholds for Different Tissue Types

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