Abstract

We describe and characterize a 25 GHz laser frequency comb based on a cavity-filtered erbium fiber mode-locked laser. The comb provides a uniform array of optical frequencies spanning 1450 nm to 1700 nm, and is stabilized by use of a global positioning system referenced atomic clock. This comb was deployed at the 9.2 m Hobby-Eberly telescope at the McDonald Observatory where it was used as a radial velocity calibration source for the fiber-fed Pathfinder near-infrared spectrograph. Stellar targets were observed in three echelle orders over four nights, and radial velocity precision of ∼10 m/s (∼6 MHz) was achieved from the comb-calibrated spectra.

© 2012 OSA

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  2. M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc.380, 839–847 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C.-H. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kartner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s−1,” Nature452, 610–612 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. Osterman, M. Beasley, C. Froning, S. Diddams, L. Hollberg, V. Mbele, and A. Weiner, “A proposed laser frequency comb-based wavelength reference for high-resolution specroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 6693, D. Coulter, ed., 66931G (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. A. Braje, M. S. Kirchner, S. Osterman, T. Fortier, and S. A. Diddams, “Astronomical spectrograph calibration with broad-spectrum frequency combs,” Eur. Phys. J. D48, 57–66 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science321, 1335–1337 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. G. Schettino, E. Oliva, M. Inguscio, C. Baffa, E. Giani, A. Tozzi, and P. Pastor, “Optical frequency comb as a general-purpose and wide-band calibration source for astronomical high resolution infrared spectrographs,” Exp. Astron.31, 69–81 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Wilken, C. Lovis, A. Manescau, T. Steinmetz, L. Pasquini, G. Lo Curto, T. W. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, and T. Udem, “High-precision calibration of spectrographs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc.405, L16–L20 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. J. Benedick, G. Chang, J. R. Birge, L.-J. Chen, A. G. Glenday, C.-H. Li, D. F. Phillips, A. Szentgyorgyi, S. Korzennik, G. Furesz, R. L. Walsworth, and F. X. Kärtner, “Visible wavelength astro-comb,” Opt. Express18, 19175–19184 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. P. Stark, T. Steinmetz, R. A. Probst, H. Hundertmark, T. Wilken, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, P. S. J. Russell, and R. Holzwarth, “14 GHz visible supercontinuum generation: calibration sources for astronomical spectrographs,” Opt. Express19, 15690–15695 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. L. Redman, J. E. Lawler, G. Nave, L. W. Ramsey, and S. Mahadevan, “The infrared spectrum of uranium hollow cathode lamps from 850 nm to 4000 nm: wavenumbers and line identifications from Fourier transform spectra,” Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser.195, 24 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Mahadevan and J. Ge, “The use of absorption cells as a wavelength reference for precision radial velocity measurements in the near-infrared,” Astrophys. J.692, 1590 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. L. W. Ramsey, S. Mahadevan, S. Redman, C. Bender, A. Roy, S. Zonak, S. Sigurdsson, and A. Wolszczan, “The Pathfinder testbed: exploring techniques for achieving precision radial velocities in the near infrared,” Proc. SPIE7735, 773571 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Mahadevan, L. Ramsey, S. Redman, C. Bender, B. Botzer, R. Terrien, S. Osterman, S. Diddams, G. Ycas, F. Quinlan, A. Roy, and S. Zonak, “Precision radial velocities in the near-infrared Y and H bands with the Penn State Pathfinder instrument,” in Am. Astron. Soc.–Meeting Abstracts #217, 43 401.01(2011).
    [PubMed]
  15. T. Wilken, T. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, and M. M. P. Adel, “Low phase noise 250 MHz repetition rate fiber fs laser for frequency comb applications,” in Proceedings of the CLEO/QELS Conference CMR3 (2007).
  16. F. Quinlan, G. Ycas, S. Osterman, and S. A. Diddams, “A 12.5 GHz-spaced optical frequency comb spanning > 400 nm for near-infrared astronomical spectrograph calibration,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.81, 063105 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science288, 635–639 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. M. Hirano, T. Nakanishi, T. Okuno, and M. Onishi, “Silica-based highly nonlinear fibers and their application,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15, 103–113 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  19. T. Sizer, “Increase in laser repetition rate by spectral selection,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron.25, 97–103 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. S. Kirchner, D. A. Braje, T. M. Fortier, A. M. Weiner, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of 20 GHz, sub-40 fs pulses at 960 nm via repetition-rate multiplication,” Opt. Lett.34, 872–874 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. J. Chen, J. W. Sickler, P. Fendel, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kärtner, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Generation of low-timing-jitter femtosecond pulse trains with 2 GHz repetition rate via external repetition rate multiplication,” Opt. Lett.33, 959–961 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. T. Okuno, M. Onishi, T. Kashiwada, S. Ishikawa, and M. Nishimura, “Silica-based functional fibers with enhanced nonlinearity and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.5, 1385 –1391 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  23. G. Chang, C.-H. Li, D. F. Phillips, R. L. Walsworth, and F. X. Kärtner, “Toward a broadband astro-comb: effects of nonlinear spectral broadening in optical fibers,” Opt. Express18, 12736–12747 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. Hänsch, and T. Udem, “Fabry-Pérot filter cavities for wide-spaced frequency combs with large spectral bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt.96, 251–256 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  25. A. Siegman, Lasers (University Science Books, 1986).
  26. C.-H. Li, A. G. Glenday, A. J. Benedick, G. Chang, L.-J. Chen, C. Cramer, P. Fendel, G. Furesz, F. X. Kärtner, S. Korzennik, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “In-situ determination of astro-comb calibrator lines to better than 10 cm s-1,” Opt. Express18, 13239–13249 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. L. W. Ramsey, J. Barnes, S. L. Redman, H. R. A. Jones, A. Wolszczan, S. Bongiorno, L. Engel, and J. Jenkins, “A Pathfinder instrument for precision radial velocities in the near-infrared,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac.120, 887–894 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  28. S. L. Redman, G. G. Ycas, R. Terrien, S. Mahadevan, L. W. Ramsey, C. F. Bender, S. N. Osterman, S. A. Diddams, F. Quinlan, J. E. Lawler, and G. Nave, “A high-resolution atlas of uranium-neon in the H band,” Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser.199, 2 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  29. J. Baudrand and G. A. H. Walker, “Modal noise in high-resolution, fiber-fed apectra: a study and simple cure,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac.113, 851–858 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  30. F. Grupp, “The nature of the fiber noise with the foces spectrograph,” Astron. Astrophys.412, 897–902 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  31. A. Baranne, D. Queloz, M. Mayor, G. Adrianzyk, G. Knispel, D. Kohler, D. Lacroix, J.-P. Meunier, G. Rimbaud, and A. Vin, “ELODIE: A spectrograph for accurate radial velocity measurements.” Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser.119, 373–390 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  32. D. L. Nidever, G. W. Marcy, R. P. Butler, D. A. Fischer, and S. S. Vogt, “Radial velocities for 889 late-type stars,” Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser.141, 503 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  33. F. Bouchy, F. Pepe, and D. Queloz, “Fundamental photon noise limit to radial velocity measurements,” Astron. Astrophys.374, 733–739 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  34. S. Mahadevan, L. Ramsey, J. Wright, M. Endl, S. Redman, C. Bender, A. Roy, S. Zonak, N. Troupe, L. Engel, S. Sigurdsson, A. Wolszczan, and B. Zhao, “The habitable zone planet finder,” Proc. SPIE7735, 227 (2010).

2012

S. L. Redman, G. G. Ycas, R. Terrien, S. Mahadevan, L. W. Ramsey, C. F. Bender, S. N. Osterman, S. A. Diddams, F. Quinlan, J. E. Lawler, and G. Nave, “A high-resolution atlas of uranium-neon in the H band,” Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser.199, 2 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

S. Mahadevan, L. Ramsey, S. Redman, C. Bender, B. Botzer, R. Terrien, S. Osterman, S. Diddams, G. Ycas, F. Quinlan, A. Roy, and S. Zonak, “Precision radial velocities in the near-infrared Y and H bands with the Penn State Pathfinder instrument,” in Am. Astron. Soc.–Meeting Abstracts #217, 43 401.01(2011).
[PubMed]

G. Schettino, E. Oliva, M. Inguscio, C. Baffa, E. Giani, A. Tozzi, and P. Pastor, “Optical frequency comb as a general-purpose and wide-band calibration source for astronomical high resolution infrared spectrographs,” Exp. Astron.31, 69–81 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Redman, J. E. Lawler, G. Nave, L. W. Ramsey, and S. Mahadevan, “The infrared spectrum of uranium hollow cathode lamps from 850 nm to 4000 nm: wavenumbers and line identifications from Fourier transform spectra,” Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser.195, 24 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Stark, T. Steinmetz, R. A. Probst, H. Hundertmark, T. Wilken, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, P. S. J. Russell, and R. Holzwarth, “14 GHz visible supercontinuum generation: calibration sources for astronomical spectrographs,” Opt. Express19, 15690–15695 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

G. Chang, C.-H. Li, D. F. Phillips, R. L. Walsworth, and F. X. Kärtner, “Toward a broadband astro-comb: effects of nonlinear spectral broadening in optical fibers,” Opt. Express18, 12736–12747 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-H. Li, A. G. Glenday, A. J. Benedick, G. Chang, L.-J. Chen, C. Cramer, P. Fendel, G. Furesz, F. X. Kärtner, S. Korzennik, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “In-situ determination of astro-comb calibrator lines to better than 10 cm s-1,” Opt. Express18, 13239–13249 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Benedick, G. Chang, J. R. Birge, L.-J. Chen, A. G. Glenday, C.-H. Li, D. F. Phillips, A. Szentgyorgyi, S. Korzennik, G. Furesz, R. L. Walsworth, and F. X. Kärtner, “Visible wavelength astro-comb,” Opt. Express18, 19175–19184 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Mahadevan, L. Ramsey, J. Wright, M. Endl, S. Redman, C. Bender, A. Roy, S. Zonak, N. Troupe, L. Engel, S. Sigurdsson, A. Wolszczan, and B. Zhao, “The habitable zone planet finder,” Proc. SPIE7735, 227 (2010).

L. W. Ramsey, S. Mahadevan, S. Redman, C. Bender, A. Roy, S. Zonak, S. Sigurdsson, and A. Wolszczan, “The Pathfinder testbed: exploring techniques for achieving precision radial velocities in the near infrared,” Proc. SPIE7735, 773571 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Wilken, C. Lovis, A. Manescau, T. Steinmetz, L. Pasquini, G. Lo Curto, T. W. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, and T. Udem, “High-precision calibration of spectrographs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc.405, L16–L20 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Quinlan, G. Ycas, S. Osterman, and S. A. Diddams, “A 12.5 GHz-spaced optical frequency comb spanning > 400 nm for near-infrared astronomical spectrograph calibration,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.81, 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

M. Hirano, T. Nakanishi, T. Okuno, and M. Onishi, “Silica-based highly nonlinear fibers and their application,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15, 103–113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Mahadevan and J. Ge, “The use of absorption cells as a wavelength reference for precision radial velocity measurements in the near-infrared,” Astrophys. J.692, 1590 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. Hänsch, and T. Udem, “Fabry-Pérot filter cavities for wide-spaced frequency combs with large spectral bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt.96, 251–256 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Kirchner, D. A. Braje, T. M. Fortier, A. M. Weiner, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of 20 GHz, sub-40 fs pulses at 960 nm via repetition-rate multiplication,” Opt. Lett.34, 872–874 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

L. W. Ramsey, J. Barnes, S. L. Redman, H. R. A. Jones, A. Wolszczan, S. Bongiorno, L. Engel, and J. Jenkins, “A Pathfinder instrument for precision radial velocities in the near-infrared,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac.120, 887–894 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, J. W. Sickler, P. Fendel, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kärtner, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Generation of low-timing-jitter femtosecond pulse trains with 2 GHz repetition rate via external repetition rate multiplication,” Opt. Lett.33, 959–961 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-H. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kartner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s−1,” Nature452, 610–612 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Braje, M. S. Kirchner, S. Osterman, T. Fortier, and S. A. Diddams, “Astronomical spectrograph calibration with broad-spectrum frequency combs,” Eur. Phys. J. D48, 57–66 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science321, 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc.380, 839–847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2003

F. Grupp, “The nature of the fiber noise with the foces spectrograph,” Astron. Astrophys.412, 897–902 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

D. L. Nidever, G. W. Marcy, R. P. Butler, D. A. Fischer, and S. S. Vogt, “Radial velocities for 889 late-type stars,” Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser.141, 503 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

F. Bouchy, F. Pepe, and D. Queloz, “Fundamental photon noise limit to radial velocity measurements,” Astron. Astrophys.374, 733–739 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Baudrand and G. A. H. Walker, “Modal noise in high-resolution, fiber-fed apectra: a study and simple cure,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac.113, 851–858 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

T. Okuno, M. Onishi, T. Kashiwada, S. Ishikawa, and M. Nishimura, “Silica-based functional fibers with enhanced nonlinearity and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.5, 1385 –1391 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996

A. Baranne, D. Queloz, M. Mayor, G. Adrianzyk, G. Knispel, D. Kohler, D. Lacroix, J.-P. Meunier, G. Rimbaud, and A. Vin, “ELODIE: A spectrograph for accurate radial velocity measurements.” Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser.119, 373–390 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1989

T. Sizer, “Increase in laser repetition rate by spectral selection,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron.25, 97–103 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Adel, M. M. P.

T. Wilken, T. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, and M. M. P. Adel, “Low phase noise 250 MHz repetition rate fiber fs laser for frequency comb applications,” in Proceedings of the CLEO/QELS Conference CMR3 (2007).

Adrianzyk, G.

A. Baranne, D. Queloz, M. Mayor, G. Adrianzyk, G. Knispel, D. Kohler, D. Lacroix, J.-P. Meunier, G. Rimbaud, and A. Vin, “ELODIE: A spectrograph for accurate radial velocity measurements.” Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser.119, 373–390 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Araujo-Hauck, C.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. Hänsch, and T. Udem, “Fabry-Pérot filter cavities for wide-spaced frequency combs with large spectral bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt.96, 251–256 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science321, 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc.380, 839–847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Baffa, C.

G. Schettino, E. Oliva, M. Inguscio, C. Baffa, E. Giani, A. Tozzi, and P. Pastor, “Optical frequency comb as a general-purpose and wide-band calibration source for astronomical high resolution infrared spectrographs,” Exp. Astron.31, 69–81 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Baranne, A.

A. Baranne, D. Queloz, M. Mayor, G. Adrianzyk, G. Knispel, D. Kohler, D. Lacroix, J.-P. Meunier, G. Rimbaud, and A. Vin, “ELODIE: A spectrograph for accurate radial velocity measurements.” Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser.119, 373–390 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, J.

L. W. Ramsey, J. Barnes, S. L. Redman, H. R. A. Jones, A. Wolszczan, S. Bongiorno, L. Engel, and J. Jenkins, “A Pathfinder instrument for precision radial velocities in the near-infrared,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac.120, 887–894 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Baudrand, J.

J. Baudrand and G. A. H. Walker, “Modal noise in high-resolution, fiber-fed apectra: a study and simple cure,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac.113, 851–858 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Beasley, M.

S. Osterman, M. Beasley, C. Froning, S. Diddams, L. Hollberg, V. Mbele, and A. Weiner, “A proposed laser frequency comb-based wavelength reference for high-resolution specroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 6693, D. Coulter, ed., 66931G (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bender, C.

S. Mahadevan, L. Ramsey, S. Redman, C. Bender, B. Botzer, R. Terrien, S. Osterman, S. Diddams, G. Ycas, F. Quinlan, A. Roy, and S. Zonak, “Precision radial velocities in the near-infrared Y and H bands with the Penn State Pathfinder instrument,” in Am. Astron. Soc.–Meeting Abstracts #217, 43 401.01(2011).
[PubMed]

S. Mahadevan, L. Ramsey, J. Wright, M. Endl, S. Redman, C. Bender, A. Roy, S. Zonak, N. Troupe, L. Engel, S. Sigurdsson, A. Wolszczan, and B. Zhao, “The habitable zone planet finder,” Proc. SPIE7735, 227 (2010).

L. W. Ramsey, S. Mahadevan, S. Redman, C. Bender, A. Roy, S. Zonak, S. Sigurdsson, and A. Wolszczan, “The Pathfinder testbed: exploring techniques for achieving precision radial velocities in the near infrared,” Proc. SPIE7735, 773571 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bender, C. F.

S. L. Redman, G. G. Ycas, R. Terrien, S. Mahadevan, L. W. Ramsey, C. F. Bender, S. N. Osterman, S. A. Diddams, F. Quinlan, J. E. Lawler, and G. Nave, “A high-resolution atlas of uranium-neon in the H band,” Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser.199, 2 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Benedick, A. J.

Birge, J. R.

Bongiorno, S.

L. W. Ramsey, J. Barnes, S. L. Redman, H. R. A. Jones, A. Wolszczan, S. Bongiorno, L. Engel, and J. Jenkins, “A Pathfinder instrument for precision radial velocities in the near-infrared,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac.120, 887–894 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Botzer, B.

S. Mahadevan, L. Ramsey, S. Redman, C. Bender, B. Botzer, R. Terrien, S. Osterman, S. Diddams, G. Ycas, F. Quinlan, A. Roy, and S. Zonak, “Precision radial velocities in the near-infrared Y and H bands with the Penn State Pathfinder instrument,” in Am. Astron. Soc.–Meeting Abstracts #217, 43 401.01(2011).
[PubMed]

Bouchy, F.

F. Bouchy, F. Pepe, and D. Queloz, “Fundamental photon noise limit to radial velocity measurements,” Astron. Astrophys.374, 733–739 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Braje, D. A.

M. S. Kirchner, D. A. Braje, T. M. Fortier, A. M. Weiner, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of 20 GHz, sub-40 fs pulses at 960 nm via repetition-rate multiplication,” Opt. Lett.34, 872–874 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Braje, M. S. Kirchner, S. Osterman, T. Fortier, and S. A. Diddams, “Astronomical spectrograph calibration with broad-spectrum frequency combs,” Eur. Phys. J. D48, 57–66 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Butler, R. P.

D. L. Nidever, G. W. Marcy, R. P. Butler, D. A. Fischer, and S. S. Vogt, “Radial velocities for 889 late-type stars,” Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser.141, 503 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chang, G.

Chen, J.

Chen, L.-J.

Cramer, C.

Cundiff, S. T.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D’Odorico, S.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science321, 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc.380, 839–847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dekker, H.

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc.380, 839–847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Diddams, S.

S. Mahadevan, L. Ramsey, S. Redman, C. Bender, B. Botzer, R. Terrien, S. Osterman, S. Diddams, G. Ycas, F. Quinlan, A. Roy, and S. Zonak, “Precision radial velocities in the near-infrared Y and H bands with the Penn State Pathfinder instrument,” in Am. Astron. Soc.–Meeting Abstracts #217, 43 401.01(2011).
[PubMed]

S. Osterman, M. Beasley, C. Froning, S. Diddams, L. Hollberg, V. Mbele, and A. Weiner, “A proposed laser frequency comb-based wavelength reference for high-resolution specroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 6693, D. Coulter, ed., 66931G (2007).
[CrossRef]

Diddams, S. A.

S. L. Redman, G. G. Ycas, R. Terrien, S. Mahadevan, L. W. Ramsey, C. F. Bender, S. N. Osterman, S. A. Diddams, F. Quinlan, J. E. Lawler, and G. Nave, “A high-resolution atlas of uranium-neon in the H band,” Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser.199, 2 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Quinlan, G. Ycas, S. Osterman, and S. A. Diddams, “A 12.5 GHz-spaced optical frequency comb spanning > 400 nm for near-infrared astronomical spectrograph calibration,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.81, 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Kirchner, D. A. Braje, T. M. Fortier, A. M. Weiner, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of 20 GHz, sub-40 fs pulses at 960 nm via repetition-rate multiplication,” Opt. Lett.34, 872–874 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Braje, M. S. Kirchner, S. Osterman, T. Fortier, and S. A. Diddams, “Astronomical spectrograph calibration with broad-spectrum frequency combs,” Eur. Phys. J. D48, 57–66 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Endl, M.

S. Mahadevan, L. Ramsey, J. Wright, M. Endl, S. Redman, C. Bender, A. Roy, S. Zonak, N. Troupe, L. Engel, S. Sigurdsson, A. Wolszczan, and B. Zhao, “The habitable zone planet finder,” Proc. SPIE7735, 227 (2010).

Engel, L.

S. Mahadevan, L. Ramsey, J. Wright, M. Endl, S. Redman, C. Bender, A. Roy, S. Zonak, N. Troupe, L. Engel, S. Sigurdsson, A. Wolszczan, and B. Zhao, “The habitable zone planet finder,” Proc. SPIE7735, 227 (2010).

L. W. Ramsey, J. Barnes, S. L. Redman, H. R. A. Jones, A. Wolszczan, S. Bongiorno, L. Engel, and J. Jenkins, “A Pathfinder instrument for precision radial velocities in the near-infrared,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac.120, 887–894 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fendel, P.

Fischer, D.

C. Lovis and D. Fischer, Radial Velocity Techniques for Exoplanets (University of Arizona Press, 2010), 27–53.

Fischer, D. A.

D. L. Nidever, G. W. Marcy, R. P. Butler, D. A. Fischer, and S. S. Vogt, “Radial velocities for 889 late-type stars,” Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser.141, 503 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, M.

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc.380, 839–847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fortier, T.

D. A. Braje, M. S. Kirchner, S. Osterman, T. Fortier, and S. A. Diddams, “Astronomical spectrograph calibration with broad-spectrum frequency combs,” Eur. Phys. J. D48, 57–66 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fortier, T. M.

Froning, C.

S. Osterman, M. Beasley, C. Froning, S. Diddams, L. Hollberg, V. Mbele, and A. Weiner, “A proposed laser frequency comb-based wavelength reference for high-resolution specroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 6693, D. Coulter, ed., 66931G (2007).
[CrossRef]

Furesz, G.

Ge, J.

S. Mahadevan and J. Ge, “The use of absorption cells as a wavelength reference for precision radial velocity measurements in the near-infrared,” Astrophys. J.692, 1590 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Giani, E.

G. Schettino, E. Oliva, M. Inguscio, C. Baffa, E. Giani, A. Tozzi, and P. Pastor, “Optical frequency comb as a general-purpose and wide-band calibration source for astronomical high resolution infrared spectrographs,” Exp. Astron.31, 69–81 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Glenday, A. G.

Grupp, F.

F. Grupp, “The nature of the fiber noise with the foces spectrograph,” Astron. Astrophys.412, 897–902 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hänsch, T.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. Hänsch, and T. Udem, “Fabry-Pérot filter cavities for wide-spaced frequency combs with large spectral bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt.96, 251–256 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Wilken, T. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, and M. M. P. Adel, “Low phase noise 250 MHz repetition rate fiber fs laser for frequency comb applications,” in Proceedings of the CLEO/QELS Conference CMR3 (2007).

Hänsch, T. W.

S. P. Stark, T. Steinmetz, R. A. Probst, H. Hundertmark, T. Wilken, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, P. S. J. Russell, and R. Holzwarth, “14 GHz visible supercontinuum generation: calibration sources for astronomical spectrographs,” Opt. Express19, 15690–15695 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Wilken, C. Lovis, A. Manescau, T. Steinmetz, L. Pasquini, G. Lo Curto, T. W. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, and T. Udem, “High-precision calibration of spectrographs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc.405, L16–L20 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, J. W. Sickler, P. Fendel, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kärtner, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Generation of low-timing-jitter femtosecond pulse trains with 2 GHz repetition rate via external repetition rate multiplication,” Opt. Lett.33, 959–961 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science321, 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc.380, 839–847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hirano, M.

M. Hirano, T. Nakanishi, T. Okuno, and M. Onishi, “Silica-based highly nonlinear fibers and their application,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15, 103–113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hollberg, L.

M. S. Kirchner, D. A. Braje, T. M. Fortier, A. M. Weiner, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of 20 GHz, sub-40 fs pulses at 960 nm via repetition-rate multiplication,” Opt. Lett.34, 872–874 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Osterman, M. Beasley, C. Froning, S. Diddams, L. Hollberg, V. Mbele, and A. Weiner, “A proposed laser frequency comb-based wavelength reference for high-resolution specroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 6693, D. Coulter, ed., 66931G (2007).
[CrossRef]

Holzwarth, R.

S. P. Stark, T. Steinmetz, R. A. Probst, H. Hundertmark, T. Wilken, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, P. S. J. Russell, and R. Holzwarth, “14 GHz visible supercontinuum generation: calibration sources for astronomical spectrographs,” Opt. Express19, 15690–15695 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Wilken, C. Lovis, A. Manescau, T. Steinmetz, L. Pasquini, G. Lo Curto, T. W. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, and T. Udem, “High-precision calibration of spectrographs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc.405, L16–L20 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. Hänsch, and T. Udem, “Fabry-Pérot filter cavities for wide-spaced frequency combs with large spectral bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt.96, 251–256 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, J. W. Sickler, P. Fendel, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kärtner, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Generation of low-timing-jitter femtosecond pulse trains with 2 GHz repetition rate via external repetition rate multiplication,” Opt. Lett.33, 959–961 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science321, 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc.380, 839–847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Wilken, T. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, and M. M. P. Adel, “Low phase noise 250 MHz repetition rate fiber fs laser for frequency comb applications,” in Proceedings of the CLEO/QELS Conference CMR3 (2007).

Hundertmark, H.

Inguscio, M.

G. Schettino, E. Oliva, M. Inguscio, C. Baffa, E. Giani, A. Tozzi, and P. Pastor, “Optical frequency comb as a general-purpose and wide-band calibration source for astronomical high resolution infrared spectrographs,” Exp. Astron.31, 69–81 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

Ishikawa, S.

T. Okuno, M. Onishi, T. Kashiwada, S. Ishikawa, and M. Nishimura, “Silica-based functional fibers with enhanced nonlinearity and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.5, 1385 –1391 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jenkins, J.

L. W. Ramsey, J. Barnes, S. L. Redman, H. R. A. Jones, A. Wolszczan, S. Bongiorno, L. Engel, and J. Jenkins, “A Pathfinder instrument for precision radial velocities in the near-infrared,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac.120, 887–894 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jones, D. J.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, H. R. A.

L. W. Ramsey, J. Barnes, S. L. Redman, H. R. A. Jones, A. Wolszczan, S. Bongiorno, L. Engel, and J. Jenkins, “A Pathfinder instrument for precision radial velocities in the near-infrared,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac.120, 887–894 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kartner, F. X.

C.-H. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kartner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s−1,” Nature452, 610–612 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kärtner, F. X.

Kashiwada, T.

T. Okuno, M. Onishi, T. Kashiwada, S. Ishikawa, and M. Nishimura, “Silica-based functional fibers with enhanced nonlinearity and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.5, 1385 –1391 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kentischer, T.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science321, 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kirchner, M. S.

M. S. Kirchner, D. A. Braje, T. M. Fortier, A. M. Weiner, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of 20 GHz, sub-40 fs pulses at 960 nm via repetition-rate multiplication,” Opt. Lett.34, 872–874 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Braje, M. S. Kirchner, S. Osterman, T. Fortier, and S. A. Diddams, “Astronomical spectrograph calibration with broad-spectrum frequency combs,” Eur. Phys. J. D48, 57–66 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Knispel, G.

A. Baranne, D. Queloz, M. Mayor, G. Adrianzyk, G. Knispel, D. Kohler, D. Lacroix, J.-P. Meunier, G. Rimbaud, and A. Vin, “ELODIE: A spectrograph for accurate radial velocity measurements.” Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser.119, 373–390 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kohler, D.

A. Baranne, D. Queloz, M. Mayor, G. Adrianzyk, G. Knispel, D. Kohler, D. Lacroix, J.-P. Meunier, G. Rimbaud, and A. Vin, “ELODIE: A spectrograph for accurate radial velocity measurements.” Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser.119, 373–390 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Korzennik, S.

Lacroix, D.

A. Baranne, D. Queloz, M. Mayor, G. Adrianzyk, G. Knispel, D. Kohler, D. Lacroix, J.-P. Meunier, G. Rimbaud, and A. Vin, “ELODIE: A spectrograph for accurate radial velocity measurements.” Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser.119, 373–390 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lawler, J. E.

S. L. Redman, G. G. Ycas, R. Terrien, S. Mahadevan, L. W. Ramsey, C. F. Bender, S. N. Osterman, S. A. Diddams, F. Quinlan, J. E. Lawler, and G. Nave, “A high-resolution atlas of uranium-neon in the H band,” Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser.199, 2 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Redman, J. E. Lawler, G. Nave, L. W. Ramsey, and S. Mahadevan, “The infrared spectrum of uranium hollow cathode lamps from 850 nm to 4000 nm: wavenumbers and line identifications from Fourier transform spectra,” Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser.195, 24 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.-H.

Lo Curto, G.

T. Wilken, C. Lovis, A. Manescau, T. Steinmetz, L. Pasquini, G. Lo Curto, T. W. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, and T. Udem, “High-precision calibration of spectrographs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc.405, L16–L20 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lovis, C.

T. Wilken, C. Lovis, A. Manescau, T. Steinmetz, L. Pasquini, G. Lo Curto, T. W. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, and T. Udem, “High-precision calibration of spectrographs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc.405, L16–L20 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Lovis and D. Fischer, Radial Velocity Techniques for Exoplanets (University of Arizona Press, 2010), 27–53.

Mahadevan, S.

S. L. Redman, G. G. Ycas, R. Terrien, S. Mahadevan, L. W. Ramsey, C. F. Bender, S. N. Osterman, S. A. Diddams, F. Quinlan, J. E. Lawler, and G. Nave, “A high-resolution atlas of uranium-neon in the H band,” Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser.199, 2 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Redman, J. E. Lawler, G. Nave, L. W. Ramsey, and S. Mahadevan, “The infrared spectrum of uranium hollow cathode lamps from 850 nm to 4000 nm: wavenumbers and line identifications from Fourier transform spectra,” Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser.195, 24 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Mahadevan, L. Ramsey, S. Redman, C. Bender, B. Botzer, R. Terrien, S. Osterman, S. Diddams, G. Ycas, F. Quinlan, A. Roy, and S. Zonak, “Precision radial velocities in the near-infrared Y and H bands with the Penn State Pathfinder instrument,” in Am. Astron. Soc.–Meeting Abstracts #217, 43 401.01(2011).
[PubMed]

S. Mahadevan, L. Ramsey, J. Wright, M. Endl, S. Redman, C. Bender, A. Roy, S. Zonak, N. Troupe, L. Engel, S. Sigurdsson, A. Wolszczan, and B. Zhao, “The habitable zone planet finder,” Proc. SPIE7735, 227 (2010).

L. W. Ramsey, S. Mahadevan, S. Redman, C. Bender, A. Roy, S. Zonak, S. Sigurdsson, and A. Wolszczan, “The Pathfinder testbed: exploring techniques for achieving precision radial velocities in the near infrared,” Proc. SPIE7735, 773571 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Mahadevan and J. Ge, “The use of absorption cells as a wavelength reference for precision radial velocity measurements in the near-infrared,” Astrophys. J.692, 1590 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Manescau, A.

T. Wilken, C. Lovis, A. Manescau, T. Steinmetz, L. Pasquini, G. Lo Curto, T. W. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, and T. Udem, “High-precision calibration of spectrographs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc.405, L16–L20 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science321, 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc.380, 839–847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Marcy, G. W.

D. L. Nidever, G. W. Marcy, R. P. Butler, D. A. Fischer, and S. S. Vogt, “Radial velocities for 889 late-type stars,” Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser.141, 503 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mayor, M.

A. Baranne, D. Queloz, M. Mayor, G. Adrianzyk, G. Knispel, D. Kohler, D. Lacroix, J.-P. Meunier, G. Rimbaud, and A. Vin, “ELODIE: A spectrograph for accurate radial velocity measurements.” Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser.119, 373–390 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mbele, V.

S. Osterman, M. Beasley, C. Froning, S. Diddams, L. Hollberg, V. Mbele, and A. Weiner, “A proposed laser frequency comb-based wavelength reference for high-resolution specroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 6693, D. Coulter, ed., 66931G (2007).
[CrossRef]

Meunier, J.-P.

A. Baranne, D. Queloz, M. Mayor, G. Adrianzyk, G. Knispel, D. Kohler, D. Lacroix, J.-P. Meunier, G. Rimbaud, and A. Vin, “ELODIE: A spectrograph for accurate radial velocity measurements.” Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser.119, 373–390 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, M. T.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science321, 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc.380, 839–847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nakanishi, T.

M. Hirano, T. Nakanishi, T. Okuno, and M. Onishi, “Silica-based highly nonlinear fibers and their application,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15, 103–113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nave, G.

S. L. Redman, G. G. Ycas, R. Terrien, S. Mahadevan, L. W. Ramsey, C. F. Bender, S. N. Osterman, S. A. Diddams, F. Quinlan, J. E. Lawler, and G. Nave, “A high-resolution atlas of uranium-neon in the H band,” Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser.199, 2 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Redman, J. E. Lawler, G. Nave, L. W. Ramsey, and S. Mahadevan, “The infrared spectrum of uranium hollow cathode lamps from 850 nm to 4000 nm: wavenumbers and line identifications from Fourier transform spectra,” Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser.195, 24 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nidever, D. L.

D. L. Nidever, G. W. Marcy, R. P. Butler, D. A. Fischer, and S. S. Vogt, “Radial velocities for 889 late-type stars,” Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser.141, 503 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nishimura, M.

T. Okuno, M. Onishi, T. Kashiwada, S. Ishikawa, and M. Nishimura, “Silica-based functional fibers with enhanced nonlinearity and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.5, 1385 –1391 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Okuno, T.

M. Hirano, T. Nakanishi, T. Okuno, and M. Onishi, “Silica-based highly nonlinear fibers and their application,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15, 103–113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Okuno, M. Onishi, T. Kashiwada, S. Ishikawa, and M. Nishimura, “Silica-based functional fibers with enhanced nonlinearity and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.5, 1385 –1391 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Oliva, E.

G. Schettino, E. Oliva, M. Inguscio, C. Baffa, E. Giani, A. Tozzi, and P. Pastor, “Optical frequency comb as a general-purpose and wide-band calibration source for astronomical high resolution infrared spectrographs,” Exp. Astron.31, 69–81 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Onishi, M.

M. Hirano, T. Nakanishi, T. Okuno, and M. Onishi, “Silica-based highly nonlinear fibers and their application,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15, 103–113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Okuno, M. Onishi, T. Kashiwada, S. Ishikawa, and M. Nishimura, “Silica-based functional fibers with enhanced nonlinearity and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.5, 1385 –1391 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Osterman, S.

S. Mahadevan, L. Ramsey, S. Redman, C. Bender, B. Botzer, R. Terrien, S. Osterman, S. Diddams, G. Ycas, F. Quinlan, A. Roy, and S. Zonak, “Precision radial velocities in the near-infrared Y and H bands with the Penn State Pathfinder instrument,” in Am. Astron. Soc.–Meeting Abstracts #217, 43 401.01(2011).
[PubMed]

F. Quinlan, G. Ycas, S. Osterman, and S. A. Diddams, “A 12.5 GHz-spaced optical frequency comb spanning > 400 nm for near-infrared astronomical spectrograph calibration,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.81, 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Braje, M. S. Kirchner, S. Osterman, T. Fortier, and S. A. Diddams, “Astronomical spectrograph calibration with broad-spectrum frequency combs,” Eur. Phys. J. D48, 57–66 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Osterman, M. Beasley, C. Froning, S. Diddams, L. Hollberg, V. Mbele, and A. Weiner, “A proposed laser frequency comb-based wavelength reference for high-resolution specroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 6693, D. Coulter, ed., 66931G (2007).
[CrossRef]

Osterman, S. N.

S. L. Redman, G. G. Ycas, R. Terrien, S. Mahadevan, L. W. Ramsey, C. F. Bender, S. N. Osterman, S. A. Diddams, F. Quinlan, J. E. Lawler, and G. Nave, “A high-resolution atlas of uranium-neon in the H band,” Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser.199, 2 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pasquini, L.

T. Wilken, C. Lovis, A. Manescau, T. Steinmetz, L. Pasquini, G. Lo Curto, T. W. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, and T. Udem, “High-precision calibration of spectrographs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc.405, L16–L20 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

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G. Schettino, E. Oliva, M. Inguscio, C. Baffa, E. Giani, A. Tozzi, and P. Pastor, “Optical frequency comb as a general-purpose and wide-band calibration source for astronomical high resolution infrared spectrographs,” Exp. Astron.31, 69–81 (2011).
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F. Bouchy, F. Pepe, and D. Queloz, “Fundamental photon noise limit to radial velocity measurements,” Astron. Astrophys.374, 733–739 (2001).
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Probst, R. A.

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F. Bouchy, F. Pepe, and D. Queloz, “Fundamental photon noise limit to radial velocity measurements,” Astron. Astrophys.374, 733–739 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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S. L. Redman, G. G. Ycas, R. Terrien, S. Mahadevan, L. W. Ramsey, C. F. Bender, S. N. Osterman, S. A. Diddams, F. Quinlan, J. E. Lawler, and G. Nave, “A high-resolution atlas of uranium-neon in the H band,” Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser.199, 2 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Mahadevan, L. Ramsey, S. Redman, C. Bender, B. Botzer, R. Terrien, S. Osterman, S. Diddams, G. Ycas, F. Quinlan, A. Roy, and S. Zonak, “Precision radial velocities in the near-infrared Y and H bands with the Penn State Pathfinder instrument,” in Am. Astron. Soc.–Meeting Abstracts #217, 43 401.01(2011).
[PubMed]

F. Quinlan, G. Ycas, S. Osterman, and S. A. Diddams, “A 12.5 GHz-spaced optical frequency comb spanning > 400 nm for near-infrared astronomical spectrograph calibration,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.81, 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. Mahadevan, L. Ramsey, S. Redman, C. Bender, B. Botzer, R. Terrien, S. Osterman, S. Diddams, G. Ycas, F. Quinlan, A. Roy, and S. Zonak, “Precision radial velocities in the near-infrared Y and H bands with the Penn State Pathfinder instrument,” in Am. Astron. Soc.–Meeting Abstracts #217, 43 401.01(2011).
[PubMed]

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S. L. Redman, G. G. Ycas, R. Terrien, S. Mahadevan, L. W. Ramsey, C. F. Bender, S. N. Osterman, S. A. Diddams, F. Quinlan, J. E. Lawler, and G. Nave, “A high-resolution atlas of uranium-neon in the H band,” Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser.199, 2 (2012).
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S. L. Redman, J. E. Lawler, G. Nave, L. W. Ramsey, and S. Mahadevan, “The infrared spectrum of uranium hollow cathode lamps from 850 nm to 4000 nm: wavenumbers and line identifications from Fourier transform spectra,” Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser.195, 24 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Ramsey, S. Mahadevan, S. Redman, C. Bender, A. Roy, S. Zonak, S. Sigurdsson, and A. Wolszczan, “The Pathfinder testbed: exploring techniques for achieving precision radial velocities in the near infrared,” Proc. SPIE7735, 773571 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Ramsey, J. Barnes, S. L. Redman, H. R. A. Jones, A. Wolszczan, S. Bongiorno, L. Engel, and J. Jenkins, “A Pathfinder instrument for precision radial velocities in the near-infrared,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac.120, 887–894 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science288, 635–639 (2000).
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S. Mahadevan, L. Ramsey, S. Redman, C. Bender, B. Botzer, R. Terrien, S. Osterman, S. Diddams, G. Ycas, F. Quinlan, A. Roy, and S. Zonak, “Precision radial velocities in the near-infrared Y and H bands with the Penn State Pathfinder instrument,” in Am. Astron. Soc.–Meeting Abstracts #217, 43 401.01(2011).
[PubMed]

S. Mahadevan, L. Ramsey, J. Wright, M. Endl, S. Redman, C. Bender, A. Roy, S. Zonak, N. Troupe, L. Engel, S. Sigurdsson, A. Wolszczan, and B. Zhao, “The habitable zone planet finder,” Proc. SPIE7735, 227 (2010).

L. W. Ramsey, S. Mahadevan, S. Redman, C. Bender, A. Roy, S. Zonak, S. Sigurdsson, and A. Wolszczan, “The Pathfinder testbed: exploring techniques for achieving precision radial velocities in the near infrared,” Proc. SPIE7735, 773571 (2010).
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S. L. Redman, G. G. Ycas, R. Terrien, S. Mahadevan, L. W. Ramsey, C. F. Bender, S. N. Osterman, S. A. Diddams, F. Quinlan, J. E. Lawler, and G. Nave, “A high-resolution atlas of uranium-neon in the H band,” Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser.199, 2 (2012).
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S. L. Redman, J. E. Lawler, G. Nave, L. W. Ramsey, and S. Mahadevan, “The infrared spectrum of uranium hollow cathode lamps from 850 nm to 4000 nm: wavenumbers and line identifications from Fourier transform spectra,” Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser.195, 24 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Ramsey, J. Barnes, S. L. Redman, H. R. A. Jones, A. Wolszczan, S. Bongiorno, L. Engel, and J. Jenkins, “A Pathfinder instrument for precision radial velocities in the near-infrared,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac.120, 887–894 (2008).
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S. Mahadevan, L. Ramsey, S. Redman, C. Bender, B. Botzer, R. Terrien, S. Osterman, S. Diddams, G. Ycas, F. Quinlan, A. Roy, and S. Zonak, “Precision radial velocities in the near-infrared Y and H bands with the Penn State Pathfinder instrument,” in Am. Astron. Soc.–Meeting Abstracts #217, 43 401.01(2011).
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G. Schettino, E. Oliva, M. Inguscio, C. Baffa, E. Giani, A. Tozzi, and P. Pastor, “Optical frequency comb as a general-purpose and wide-band calibration source for astronomical high resolution infrared spectrographs,” Exp. Astron.31, 69–81 (2011).
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T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science321, 1335–1337 (2008).
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L. W. Ramsey, S. Mahadevan, S. Redman, C. Bender, A. Roy, S. Zonak, S. Sigurdsson, and A. Wolszczan, “The Pathfinder testbed: exploring techniques for achieving precision radial velocities in the near infrared,” Proc. SPIE7735, 773571 (2010).
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S. Mahadevan, L. Ramsey, S. Redman, C. Bender, B. Botzer, R. Terrien, S. Osterman, S. Diddams, G. Ycas, F. Quinlan, A. Roy, and S. Zonak, “Precision radial velocities in the near-infrared Y and H bands with the Penn State Pathfinder instrument,” in Am. Astron. Soc.–Meeting Abstracts #217, 43 401.01(2011).
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S. Mahadevan, L. Ramsey, J. Wright, M. Endl, S. Redman, C. Bender, A. Roy, S. Zonak, N. Troupe, L. Engel, S. Sigurdsson, A. Wolszczan, and B. Zhao, “The habitable zone planet finder,” Proc. SPIE7735, 227 (2010).

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S. P. Stark, T. Steinmetz, R. A. Probst, H. Hundertmark, T. Wilken, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, P. S. J. Russell, and R. Holzwarth, “14 GHz visible supercontinuum generation: calibration sources for astronomical spectrographs,” Opt. Express19, 15690–15695 (2011).
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T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. Hänsch, and T. Udem, “Fabry-Pérot filter cavities for wide-spaced frequency combs with large spectral bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt.96, 251–256 (2009).
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S. Mahadevan, L. Ramsey, J. Wright, M. Endl, S. Redman, C. Bender, A. Roy, S. Zonak, N. Troupe, L. Engel, S. Sigurdsson, A. Wolszczan, and B. Zhao, “The habitable zone planet finder,” Proc. SPIE7735, 227 (2010).

L. W. Ramsey, S. Mahadevan, S. Redman, C. Bender, A. Roy, S. Zonak, S. Sigurdsson, and A. Wolszczan, “The Pathfinder testbed: exploring techniques for achieving precision radial velocities in the near infrared,” Proc. SPIE7735, 773571 (2010).
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S. Mahadevan, L. Ramsey, J. Wright, M. Endl, S. Redman, C. Bender, A. Roy, S. Zonak, N. Troupe, L. Engel, S. Sigurdsson, A. Wolszczan, and B. Zhao, “The habitable zone planet finder,” Proc. SPIE7735, 227 (2010).

Ycas, G.

S. Mahadevan, L. Ramsey, S. Redman, C. Bender, B. Botzer, R. Terrien, S. Osterman, S. Diddams, G. Ycas, F. Quinlan, A. Roy, and S. Zonak, “Precision radial velocities in the near-infrared Y and H bands with the Penn State Pathfinder instrument,” in Am. Astron. Soc.–Meeting Abstracts #217, 43 401.01(2011).
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S. L. Redman, G. G. Ycas, R. Terrien, S. Mahadevan, L. W. Ramsey, C. F. Bender, S. N. Osterman, S. A. Diddams, F. Quinlan, J. E. Lawler, and G. Nave, “A high-resolution atlas of uranium-neon in the H band,” Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser.199, 2 (2012).
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S. Mahadevan, L. Ramsey, J. Wright, M. Endl, S. Redman, C. Bender, A. Roy, S. Zonak, N. Troupe, L. Engel, S. Sigurdsson, A. Wolszczan, and B. Zhao, “The habitable zone planet finder,” Proc. SPIE7735, 227 (2010).

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S. Mahadevan, L. Ramsey, S. Redman, C. Bender, B. Botzer, R. Terrien, S. Osterman, S. Diddams, G. Ycas, F. Quinlan, A. Roy, and S. Zonak, “Precision radial velocities in the near-infrared Y and H bands with the Penn State Pathfinder instrument,” in Am. Astron. Soc.–Meeting Abstracts #217, 43 401.01(2011).
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S. L. Redman, G. G. Ycas, R. Terrien, S. Mahadevan, L. W. Ramsey, C. F. Bender, S. N. Osterman, S. A. Diddams, F. Quinlan, J. E. Lawler, and G. Nave, “A high-resolution atlas of uranium-neon in the H band,” Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser.199, 2 (2012).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the laser frequency comb. The 250 MHz passively mode-locked erbium fiber laser is stabilized by locking the repetition rate frep and carrier-envelope off-set frequency fceo to a global-positioning system (GPS) disciplined rubidium clock. Light from the mode-locked laser is sent through the Fabry-Perot cavity (mirrors M1 and M2) with mode-matching between the cavity and single-mode fiber provided by lenses L1L4. The transmitted light is amplified to 1.4 W, then sent through a second, identical Fabry-Perot cavity. The pulse is re-compressed and spectral broadening is achieved using 50 m of highly-nonlinear fiber (HNLF). Mode identification is achieved by measuring the beat of a single comb mode with a wavemeter-calibrated CW laser diode (LD) using a photodiode (PD) and radio-frequency spectrum analyzer (RFSA).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Supercontinuum spectra generated with 25 GHz pulses in a variety of highly nonlinear optical fibers (HNLFs) at different launch powers. Insets: zoom-in between 1560 nm and 1561 nm, showing the resolved 25 GHz-spaced comb modes. The dynamic range of the measurement, and any apparent asymmetry in the lines, is limited by the optical spectrum analyzer used for the measurement. At the input of the fiber, the pulses have a duration of 300 fs, as determined by nonlinear autocorrelation. The energy per pulse is varied from 3 pJ (narrow spectra, foreground) to 8 pJ (broad spectra, background), corresponding to 80 mW–200 mW average power. The lengths and dispersion parameters of the fibers are HNLF-1: 100 m, −0.14 ps/nm/km at 1550 nm, HNLF-2: 50 m, +0.3 ps/nm/km at 1550 nm, HNLF-3: 48 m, +6.7 ps/nm/km at 1550 nm, HNLF-4: 100 m, +2.5 ps/nm/km at 1550 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

a.) Optical spectrum obtained by analyzing 45 individual heterodyne measurements of the calibration spectrum with a tunable CW laser. Within the 50 dB – 55 dB dynamic range of this measurement, no spurious optical modes between comb teeth were detected other than nearest-neighbor modes offset by 250 MHz and 500 MHz. The noise floor indicated is an estimate, defined by the the mode of the detected RF power from each measurement from 1–25 GHz. b.) Radio-frequency spectrum from heterodyne of LFC with CW laser tuned near 1621 nm. Peaks determined to be in the optical spectrum are marked from below by arrows.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured apparent shifts (circles) of 25 GHz comb mode centers and side-mode suppression (squares), derived from optical heterodyne measurements. Data were taken by measuring the heterodyne beat of a tunable CW laser with single modes of broadened comb from 1400 nm to 1625 nm and apparent shifts were calculated by using the weighted average of the comb mode and nearest-neighbor side-modes. Enclosed in rectangles are the three wavelength regions observed by the Pathfinder spectrograph. Data were taken with CW laser tuned to both the high- and low-frequency sides of each mode, and the side mode amplitudes from the two measurements were averaged. Note that the line-center shift, which depends upon not only the degree of side-mode suppression but also on asymmetry, mirrors the side-mode suppression.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured effect of the lock point of the first filter cavity on the supercontinuum after the HNLF. The first filter cavity was locked to 10 different transmission peaks (top) and the side-modes were measured at 1439 nm (stars), 1566 nm (circles), and 1625 nm (squares.) The measurement shows that the choice of lock point has no strong influence on the side-mode suppression, asymmetry, or shift of line center. The uncertainty in these measurements is ± 2 dB, due to amplitude noise of the frequency comb and frequency noise of the CW laser.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

a.) Schematic of the coupling of light sources into Pathfinder spectrograph. Free-space beam splitters direct the different calibration sources – LFC, U/Ne, and Th/Ar –into the two calibration fibers. A commercial paint shaker is used as a fiber agitator to mitigate modal noise from the multimode fibers. b.) A photograph of the laser frequency comb calibrator in the spectrograph room at the Hobby-Eberly telescope at the McDonald Observatory. The electronics rack, left, houses the laser drivers, electronics for servo loops, and other electronics. The optics breadboard, right, holds the mode-locked laser, f – 2f interferometer, two filter cavities, and fiber-optic components. The entire optics breadboard is enclosed within a wood-foam acoustic enclosure. c.) Image from focal-plane array of Pathfinder spectrograph showing light from both the laser frequency comb and the star HD168723. Echelle orders 37, 38, and 39 are visible, with wavelengths of 1536.6 nm to 1543.9 nm, 1577.1 nm to 1584.6 nm, and 1619.7 nm to 1627.4 nm. d.) Line out showing the 25 GHz laser frequency comb over a single echelle order.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Radial Velocities were calculated from one order for the star Eta Cas using a binary mask cross-correlation similar to that described in Ref. [31], with the correlation mask generated from an NSO FTS atlas of the solar spectrum. We only included the deep stellar absorption lines, well separated from telluric features, as part of the correlation. This returns not only the relative velocity of Eta Cas for every night, but also the ‘absolute velocity’ of the star since the wavelength solution is referenced to the frequency comb, and the mask is referenced to the solar velocity. The ‘absolute velocity’ we measure is entirely consistent with the velocities for Eta Cas reported by Nidever et al. [32] (8314 m/s), exhibiting only a ∼25 m/s difference even though different analysis techniques and entirely different stellar lines at very different wavelengths are used in both cases. The error bars shown in the figure are photon noise limited error bars, calculated using the theoretical prescription of Bouchy, Pepe, and Queloz [33].

Equations (2)

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f n = n × f rep + f ceo ,
f apparent = i = N N A i ( f 0 + i × 250 MHZ ) A i

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