Abstract

In this paper, to our best knowledge, it is the first time to present a precise simulation and detailed design of angular correlated color temperature (CCT) distribution of white LEDs covering a range of CCT from 2800K to 6500K. An optimized design of packaging structure with a silicone lens covering a phosphor dome performed an extreme small angular CCT deviation of 105K in the simulation and 182K in a corresponding real sample for a white LED with the CCT near 6500K.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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2012

2011

Y. Shuai, Y. Z. He, N. T. Tran, and F. G. Shi, “Angular CCT uniformity of phosphor converted white LEDs: effects of phosphor materials and packaging structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(3), 137–139 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

2009

C. Sommer, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, G. Leising, and F. P. Wenzl, “A detailed study on the requirement for angular homogeneity of phosphor converted high power white LED light sources,” Opt. Mater. 31(6), 837–848 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. Luo, “Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Sun, C. Y. Chen, H. Y. He, C. C. Chen, W. T. Chien, T. X. Lee, and T. H. Yang, “Precise optical modeling for silicate-based white LEDs,” Opt. Express 16(24), 20060–20066 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

T. X. Lee, K. F. Gao, W. T. Chien, and C. C. Sun, “Light extraction analysis for GaN-based LEDs with pyramid array,” Opt. Express 15, 6670–6676 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Xie, N. Hirosaki, N. Kiumra, K. Sakuma, and M. Mitomo, “2-phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes using oxynitride/nitride phosphors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(19), 191101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, H. A. Höppe, F. Stadler, W. Schnick, T. Juestel, and P. Schmidt, “Highly efficient all-nitride phosphor-converted white light emitting diode,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202(9), 1727–1732 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Borbely and S. G. Johnson, “Performance of phosphor-coated light-emitting diode optics in ray-trace simulations,” Opt. Eng. 44(11), 111308 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

S. Neeraj, N. Kijima, and A. K. Cheetham, “Novel red phosphors for solid-state lighting: the system NaM(WO4)2−x(MoO4)x:Eu3+ (M=Gd, Y, Bi),” Chem. Phys. Lett. 387(1-3), 2–6 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

M. Yamada, T. Naitou, K. Izuno, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, M. Kameshima, and T. Mukai, “Red-enhanced whitelight-emitting diode using a new red phosphor,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 2, No.1A/B), L20–L23 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamada, Y. Imai, and K. Ishii, “Optical simulation of light source devices composed of blue LEDs and YAG phosphor,” J. Light Visual Environ. 27(2), 70–74 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000

N. Narendran, N. Maliyagoda, A. Bierman, R. Pysar, and M. Overington, “Characterizing white LEDs for general illumination applications,” Proc. SPIE 3938, 240–248 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

T. Jüstel, H. Nikol, and C. Ronda, “New developments in the field of luminescent materials for lighting and displays,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 37(22), 3084–3103 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995

Z. Y. Ting and C. McGill, “Monte carlo simulation of light-emitting diode light-extraction characteristics,” Opt. Eng. 34(12), 3545–3553 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “Candela-class high-brightness InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure blue-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(13), 1687–1689 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bierman, A.

N. Narendran, N. Maliyagoda, A. Bierman, R. Pysar, and M. Overington, “Characterizing white LEDs for general illumination applications,” Proc. SPIE 3938, 240–248 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Borbely, A.

A. Borbely and S. G. Johnson, “Performance of phosphor-coated light-emitting diode optics in ray-trace simulations,” Opt. Eng. 44(11), 111308 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cheetham, A. K.

S. Neeraj, N. Kijima, and A. K. Cheetham, “Novel red phosphors for solid-state lighting: the system NaM(WO4)2−x(MoO4)x:Eu3+ (M=Gd, Y, Bi),” Chem. Phys. Lett. 387(1-3), 2–6 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. C.

Chen, C. Y.

Chen, F.

Chien, W. T.

Chiu, B. C.

Craford, M. G.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gao, K. F.

Harbers, G.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hartmann, P.

C. Sommer, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, G. Leising, and F. P. Wenzl, “A detailed study on the requirement for angular homogeneity of phosphor converted high power white LED light sources,” Opt. Mater. 31(6), 837–848 (2009).
[CrossRef]

He, H. Y.

He, Y. Z.

Y. Shuai, Y. Z. He, N. T. Tran, and F. G. Shi, “Angular CCT uniformity of phosphor converted white LEDs: effects of phosphor materials and packaging structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(3), 137–139 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hirosaki, N.

R. J. Xie, N. Hirosaki, N. Kiumra, K. Sakuma, and M. Mitomo, “2-phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes using oxynitride/nitride phosphors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(19), 191101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Höppe, H. A.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, H. A. Höppe, F. Stadler, W. Schnick, T. Juestel, and P. Schmidt, “Highly efficient all-nitride phosphor-converted white light emitting diode,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202(9), 1727–1732 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hsiao, S. L.

Hsieh, C. T.

Huang, H. T.

Huang, Y. P.

Imai, Y.

K. Yamada, Y. Imai, and K. Ishii, “Optical simulation of light source devices composed of blue LEDs and YAG phosphor,” J. Light Visual Environ. 27(2), 70–74 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ishii, K.

K. Yamada, Y. Imai, and K. Ishii, “Optical simulation of light source devices composed of blue LEDs and YAG phosphor,” J. Light Visual Environ. 27(2), 70–74 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Izuno, K.

M. Yamada, T. Naitou, K. Izuno, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, M. Kameshima, and T. Mukai, “Red-enhanced whitelight-emitting diode using a new red phosphor,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 2, No.1A/B), L20–L23 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, S. G.

A. Borbely and S. G. Johnson, “Performance of phosphor-coated light-emitting diode optics in ray-trace simulations,” Opt. Eng. 44(11), 111308 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Juestel, T.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, H. A. Höppe, F. Stadler, W. Schnick, T. Juestel, and P. Schmidt, “Highly efficient all-nitride phosphor-converted white light emitting diode,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202(9), 1727–1732 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jüstel, T.

T. Jüstel, H. Nikol, and C. Ronda, “New developments in the field of luminescent materials for lighting and displays,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 37(22), 3084–3103 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kameshima, M.

M. Yamada, T. Naitou, K. Izuno, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, M. Kameshima, and T. Mukai, “Red-enhanced whitelight-emitting diode using a new red phosphor,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 2, No.1A/B), L20–L23 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kijima, N.

S. Neeraj, N. Kijima, and A. K. Cheetham, “Novel red phosphors for solid-state lighting: the system NaM(WO4)2−x(MoO4)x:Eu3+ (M=Gd, Y, Bi),” Chem. Phys. Lett. 387(1-3), 2–6 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kiumra, N.

R. J. Xie, N. Hirosaki, N. Kiumra, K. Sakuma, and M. Mitomo, “2-phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes using oxynitride/nitride phosphors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(19), 191101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Krames, M. R.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, H. A. Höppe, F. Stadler, W. Schnick, T. Juestel, and P. Schmidt, “Highly efficient all-nitride phosphor-converted white light emitting diode,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202(9), 1727–1732 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, T. X.

Lee, X. H.

Leising, G.

C. Sommer, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, G. Leising, and F. P. Wenzl, “A detailed study on the requirement for angular homogeneity of phosphor converted high power white LED light sources,” Opt. Mater. 31(6), 837–848 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lin, M. C.

Liu, S.

K. Wang, D. Wu, F. Chen, Z. Y. Liu, X. B. Luo, and S. Liu, “Angular color uniformity enhancement of white light-emitting diodes integrated with freeform lenses,” Opt. Lett. 35(11), 1860–1862 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. Luo, “Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. Luo, “Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z. Y.

Lo, Y. C.

Luo, X.

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. Luo, “Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Luo, X. B.

Maliyagoda, N.

N. Narendran, N. Maliyagoda, A. Bierman, R. Pysar, and M. Overington, “Characterizing white LEDs for general illumination applications,” Proc. SPIE 3938, 240–248 (2000).
[CrossRef]

McGill, C.

Z. Y. Ting and C. McGill, “Monte carlo simulation of light-emitting diode light-extraction characteristics,” Opt. Eng. 34(12), 3545–3553 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mitomo, M.

R. J. Xie, N. Hirosaki, N. Kiumra, K. Sakuma, and M. Mitomo, “2-phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes using oxynitride/nitride phosphors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(19), 191101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Moreno, I.

Mueller, G. O.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, H. A. Höppe, F. Stadler, W. Schnick, T. Juestel, and P. Schmidt, “Highly efficient all-nitride phosphor-converted white light emitting diode,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202(9), 1727–1732 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mueller-Mach, R.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, H. A. Höppe, F. Stadler, W. Schnick, T. Juestel, and P. Schmidt, “Highly efficient all-nitride phosphor-converted white light emitting diode,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202(9), 1727–1732 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mukai, T.

M. Yamada, T. Naitou, K. Izuno, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, M. Kameshima, and T. Mukai, “Red-enhanced whitelight-emitting diode using a new red phosphor,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 2, No.1A/B), L20–L23 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “Candela-class high-brightness InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure blue-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(13), 1687–1689 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Murazaki, Y.

M. Yamada, T. Naitou, K. Izuno, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, M. Kameshima, and T. Mukai, “Red-enhanced whitelight-emitting diode using a new red phosphor,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 2, No.1A/B), L20–L23 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Naitou, T.

M. Yamada, T. Naitou, K. Izuno, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, M. Kameshima, and T. Mukai, “Red-enhanced whitelight-emitting diode using a new red phosphor,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 2, No.1A/B), L20–L23 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “Candela-class high-brightness InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure blue-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(13), 1687–1689 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Narendran, N.

N. Narendran, N. Maliyagoda, A. Bierman, R. Pysar, and M. Overington, “Characterizing white LEDs for general illumination applications,” Proc. SPIE 3938, 240–248 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Neeraj, S.

S. Neeraj, N. Kijima, and A. K. Cheetham, “Novel red phosphors for solid-state lighting: the system NaM(WO4)2−x(MoO4)x:Eu3+ (M=Gd, Y, Bi),” Chem. Phys. Lett. 387(1-3), 2–6 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nikol, H.

T. Jüstel, H. Nikol, and C. Ronda, “New developments in the field of luminescent materials for lighting and displays,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 37(22), 3084–3103 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Overington, M.

N. Narendran, N. Maliyagoda, A. Bierman, R. Pysar, and M. Overington, “Characterizing white LEDs for general illumination applications,” Proc. SPIE 3938, 240–248 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pachler, P.

C. Sommer, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, G. Leising, and F. P. Wenzl, “A detailed study on the requirement for angular homogeneity of phosphor converted high power white LED light sources,” Opt. Mater. 31(6), 837–848 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pysar, R.

N. Narendran, N. Maliyagoda, A. Bierman, R. Pysar, and M. Overington, “Characterizing white LEDs for general illumination applications,” Proc. SPIE 3938, 240–248 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ronda, C.

T. Jüstel, H. Nikol, and C. Ronda, “New developments in the field of luminescent materials for lighting and displays,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 37(22), 3084–3103 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sakuma, K.

R. J. Xie, N. Hirosaki, N. Kiumra, K. Sakuma, and M. Mitomo, “2-phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes using oxynitride/nitride phosphors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(19), 191101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, P.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, H. A. Höppe, F. Stadler, W. Schnick, T. Juestel, and P. Schmidt, “Highly efficient all-nitride phosphor-converted white light emitting diode,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202(9), 1727–1732 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schnick, W.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, H. A. Höppe, F. Stadler, W. Schnick, T. Juestel, and P. Schmidt, “Highly efficient all-nitride phosphor-converted white light emitting diode,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202(9), 1727–1732 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schweighart, M.

C. Sommer, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, G. Leising, and F. P. Wenzl, “A detailed study on the requirement for angular homogeneity of phosphor converted high power white LED light sources,” Opt. Mater. 31(6), 837–848 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Senoh, M.

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “Candela-class high-brightness InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure blue-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(13), 1687–1689 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shchekin, O. B.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shi, F. G.

Y. Shuai, Y. Z. He, N. T. Tran, and F. G. Shi, “Angular CCT uniformity of phosphor converted white LEDs: effects of phosphor materials and packaging structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(3), 137–139 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shuai, Y.

Y. Shuai, Y. Z. He, N. T. Tran, and F. G. Shi, “Angular CCT uniformity of phosphor converted white LEDs: effects of phosphor materials and packaging structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(3), 137–139 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sommer, C.

C. Sommer, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, G. Leising, and F. P. Wenzl, “A detailed study on the requirement for angular homogeneity of phosphor converted high power white LED light sources,” Opt. Mater. 31(6), 837–848 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stadler, F.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, H. A. Höppe, F. Stadler, W. Schnick, T. Juestel, and P. Schmidt, “Highly efficient all-nitride phosphor-converted white light emitting diode,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202(9), 1727–1732 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C. C.

Tamaki, H.

M. Yamada, T. Naitou, K. Izuno, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, M. Kameshima, and T. Mukai, “Red-enhanced whitelight-emitting diode using a new red phosphor,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 2, No.1A/B), L20–L23 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tasch, S.

C. Sommer, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, G. Leising, and F. P. Wenzl, “A detailed study on the requirement for angular homogeneity of phosphor converted high power white LED light sources,” Opt. Mater. 31(6), 837–848 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ting, Z. Y.

Z. Y. Ting and C. McGill, “Monte carlo simulation of light-emitting diode light-extraction characteristics,” Opt. Eng. 34(12), 3545–3553 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tran, N. T.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The angular CCT variation for three commercial high-power white LED.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Two possible ways to perform low spatial CCT deviation. (a) A phosphor plate with an LED die emitting collimating lights. (b) A phosphor dome with an LED die as small as a point source.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simulation of both ACCTD and packaging efficiency of the white LEDs without lens, where the number in the figure is the CCT of the LED.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The geometry of the white LED in the simulation.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Simulation of both ACCTD and packaging efficiency of the white LEDs with silicone lens, where the number in the figure is the CCT of the LED.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Simulation of the optimized ACCTD based on the white LEDs with silicone lens, where the number in the figure is the CCT of the LED.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The picture of one of the white LED with designed packaging structure.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The measured result of ACCTD for the LEDs with different CCTs. The lowest three CCT were performed by the white LEDs with two phosphors.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

The average measured ACCTD for the LEDs with different CCTs.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

The lowest ACCTD for the LEDs with different CCTs in experimental measurement.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

The simulation for ACCTD as a function of the extended thickness of the phosphor dome.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

The angular CCT distribution of the simulated and a real white LED with extended thickness of the phosphor dome.

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