Abstract

We demonstrate for the first time transmission of 54 Gbit/s and 48 Gbit/s over 44 km and 150 km, respectively, utilizing an optical bandwidth of only 3 GHz. We used polarization division multiplexed 512QAM and 256QAM modulation formats in combination with Nyquist pulse shaping having virtually zero roll-off. The resulting spectral efficiencies range up to 18 bit/s/Hz and 16 bit/s/Hz, respectively. Taking into account the overhead required for forward error correction, the occupied signal bandwidth corresponds to net spectral efficiencies of 14.4 bit/s/Hz and 15 bit/s/Hz, which could be achieved in a wavelength division multiplexed network without spectral guard bands.

© 2012 OSA

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2012

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, M. Meyer, D. Hillerkuss, S. Wolf, B. Baeuerle, A. Ludwig, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time Nyquist pulse generation beyond 100 Gbit/s and its relation to OFDM,” Opt. Express 20(1), 317–337 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

2010

G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, P. Poggiolini, and F. Forghieri, “Performance limits of Nyquist-WDM and CO-OFDM in high-speed PM-QPSK systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1129–1131 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Szafraniec, B. Nebendahl, and T. Marshall, “Polarization demultiplexing in Stokes space,” Opt. Express 18(17), 17928–17939 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

2006

T. Mizuochi, “Recent progress in forward error correction and its interplay with transmission impairments,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(4), 544–554 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

1990

C. A. Brackett, “Dense wavelength division multiplexing networks: principles and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Area. Commun. 8(6), 948–964 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1973

S. D. Personick, “Receiver design for digital fiber optic communication systems, I,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 843–874 (1973).

1948

C. E. Shannon, “A mathematical theory of communication,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 27, 623–656 (1948).

1928

H. Nyquist, “Certain topics in telegraph transmission theory,” Trans. Am. Inst. Electr. Eng. 47, 617–644 (1928).

Altenhain, L.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, M. Meyer, S. Wolf, M. Jordan, P. Kleinow, N. Lindenmann, P. Schindler, A. Melikyan, X. Yang, S. Ben-Ezra, B. Nebendahl, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, L. Altenhain, T. Ellermeyer, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Single-laser 32.5 Tbit/s Nyquist WDM transmission,” submitted toOpt. Express.

Andrekson, P. A.

Baeuerle, B.

Bao, H.

Becker, J.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, M. Meyer, D. Hillerkuss, S. Wolf, B. Baeuerle, A. Ludwig, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time Nyquist pulse generation beyond 100 Gbit/s and its relation to OFDM,” Opt. Express 20(1), 317–337 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, D. Hillerkuss, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time OFDM transmitter beyond 100 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12740–12749 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, M. Meyer, S. Wolf, M. Jordan, P. Kleinow, N. Lindenmann, P. Schindler, A. Melikyan, X. Yang, S. Ben-Ezra, B. Nebendahl, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, L. Altenhain, T. Ellermeyer, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Single-laser 32.5 Tbit/s Nyquist WDM transmission,” submitted toOpt. Express.

Ben-Ezra, S.

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, M. Meyer, D. Hillerkuss, S. Wolf, B. Baeuerle, A. Ludwig, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time Nyquist pulse generation beyond 100 Gbit/s and its relation to OFDM,” Opt. Express 20(1), 317–337 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, D. Hillerkuss, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time OFDM transmitter beyond 100 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12740–12749 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, M. Meyer, S. Wolf, M. Jordan, P. Kleinow, N. Lindenmann, P. Schindler, A. Melikyan, X. Yang, S. Ben-Ezra, B. Nebendahl, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, L. Altenhain, T. Ellermeyer, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Single-laser 32.5 Tbit/s Nyquist WDM transmission,” submitted toOpt. Express.

Bosco, G.

G. Bosco, V. Curri, A. Carena, P. Poggiolini, and F. Forghieri, “On the performance of Nyquist-WDM terabit superchannels based on PM-BPSK, PM-QPSK, PM-8QAM or PM-16QAM subcarriers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(1), 53–61 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, P. Poggiolini, and F. Forghieri, “Performance limits of Nyquist-WDM and CO-OFDM in high-speed PM-QPSK systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1129–1131 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brackett, C. A.

C. A. Brackett, “Dense wavelength division multiplexing networks: principles and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Area. Commun. 8(6), 948–964 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Carena, A.

G. Bosco, V. Curri, A. Carena, P. Poggiolini, and F. Forghieri, “On the performance of Nyquist-WDM terabit superchannels based on PM-BPSK, PM-QPSK, PM-8QAM or PM-16QAM subcarriers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(1), 53–61 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, P. Poggiolini, and F. Forghieri, “Performance limits of Nyquist-WDM and CO-OFDM in high-speed PM-QPSK systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1129–1131 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cartledge, J. C.

Chang, G. K.

Chen, L.

Chi, N.

Chien, H. C.

Curri, V.

G. Bosco, V. Curri, A. Carena, P. Poggiolini, and F. Forghieri, “On the performance of Nyquist-WDM terabit superchannels based on PM-BPSK, PM-QPSK, PM-8QAM or PM-16QAM subcarriers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(1), 53–61 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, P. Poggiolini, and F. Forghieri, “Performance limits of Nyquist-WDM and CO-OFDM in high-speed PM-QPSK systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1129–1131 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Doerr, C.

Dong, Z.

Downie, J. D.

Dreschmann, M.

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, M. Meyer, D. Hillerkuss, S. Wolf, B. Baeuerle, A. Ludwig, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time Nyquist pulse generation beyond 100 Gbit/s and its relation to OFDM,” Opt. Express 20(1), 317–337 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, D. Hillerkuss, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time OFDM transmitter beyond 100 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12740–12749 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, M. Meyer, S. Wolf, M. Jordan, P. Kleinow, N. Lindenmann, P. Schindler, A. Melikyan, X. Yang, S. Ben-Ezra, B. Nebendahl, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, L. Altenhain, T. Ellermeyer, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Single-laser 32.5 Tbit/s Nyquist WDM transmission,” submitted toOpt. Express.

Ellermeyer, T.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, M. Meyer, S. Wolf, M. Jordan, P. Kleinow, N. Lindenmann, P. Schindler, A. Melikyan, X. Yang, S. Ben-Ezra, B. Nebendahl, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, L. Altenhain, T. Ellermeyer, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Single-laser 32.5 Tbit/s Nyquist WDM transmission,” submitted toOpt. Express.

Forghieri, F.

G. Bosco, V. Curri, A. Carena, P. Poggiolini, and F. Forghieri, “On the performance of Nyquist-WDM terabit superchannels based on PM-BPSK, PM-QPSK, PM-8QAM or PM-16QAM subcarriers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(1), 53–61 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, P. Poggiolini, and F. Forghieri, “Performance limits of Nyquist-WDM and CO-OFDM in high-speed PM-QPSK systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1129–1131 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Freude, W.

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, M. Meyer, D. Hillerkuss, S. Wolf, B. Baeuerle, A. Ludwig, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time Nyquist pulse generation beyond 100 Gbit/s and its relation to OFDM,” Opt. Express 20(1), 317–337 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, D. Hillerkuss, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time OFDM transmitter beyond 100 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12740–12749 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kremp and W. Freude, “Fast Split-Step Wavelet Collocation Method for WDM System Parameter Optimization,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(3), 1491–1502 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, M. Meyer, S. Wolf, M. Jordan, P. Kleinow, N. Lindenmann, P. Schindler, A. Melikyan, X. Yang, S. Ben-Ezra, B. Nebendahl, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, L. Altenhain, T. Ellermeyer, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Single-laser 32.5 Tbit/s Nyquist WDM transmission,” submitted toOpt. Express.

Gnauck, A. H.

Gruner-Nielsen, L.

Hillerkuss, D.

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, M. Meyer, D. Hillerkuss, S. Wolf, B. Baeuerle, A. Ludwig, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time Nyquist pulse generation beyond 100 Gbit/s and its relation to OFDM,” Opt. Express 20(1), 317–337 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, D. Hillerkuss, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time OFDM transmitter beyond 100 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12740–12749 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, M. Meyer, S. Wolf, M. Jordan, P. Kleinow, N. Lindenmann, P. Schindler, A. Melikyan, X. Yang, S. Ben-Ezra, B. Nebendahl, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, L. Altenhain, T. Ellermeyer, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Single-laser 32.5 Tbit/s Nyquist WDM transmission,” submitted toOpt. Express.

Ho, K.-P.

K.-P. Ho, “Error probability of DPSK signals with cross-phase modulation induced nonlinear phase noise,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 10(2), 421–427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huebner, M.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, M. Meyer, D. Hillerkuss, S. Wolf, B. Baeuerle, A. Ludwig, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time Nyquist pulse generation beyond 100 Gbit/s and its relation to OFDM,” Opt. Express 20(1), 317–337 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, D. Hillerkuss, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time OFDM transmitter beyond 100 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12740–12749 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, M. Meyer, S. Wolf, M. Jordan, P. Kleinow, N. Lindenmann, P. Schindler, A. Melikyan, X. Yang, S. Ben-Ezra, B. Nebendahl, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, L. Altenhain, T. Ellermeyer, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Single-laser 32.5 Tbit/s Nyquist WDM transmission,” submitted toOpt. Express.

Hurley, J. E.

Jiang, Y.

Johannisson, P.

Jordan, M.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, M. Meyer, S. Wolf, M. Jordan, P. Kleinow, N. Lindenmann, P. Schindler, A. Melikyan, X. Yang, S. Ben-Ezra, B. Nebendahl, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, L. Altenhain, T. Ellermeyer, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Single-laser 32.5 Tbit/s Nyquist WDM transmission,” submitted toOpt. Express.

Josten, A.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Karar, A. S.

Karlsson, M.

Kim, J.

Kleinow, P.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, M. Meyer, S. Wolf, M. Jordan, P. Kleinow, N. Lindenmann, P. Schindler, A. Melikyan, X. Yang, S. Ben-Ezra, B. Nebendahl, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, L. Altenhain, T. Ellermeyer, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Single-laser 32.5 Tbit/s Nyquist WDM transmission,” submitted toOpt. Express.

Koenig, S.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Koos, C.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, M. Meyer, D. Hillerkuss, S. Wolf, B. Baeuerle, A. Ludwig, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time Nyquist pulse generation beyond 100 Gbit/s and its relation to OFDM,” Opt. Express 20(1), 317–337 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, D. Hillerkuss, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time OFDM transmitter beyond 100 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12740–12749 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, M. Meyer, S. Wolf, M. Jordan, P. Kleinow, N. Lindenmann, P. Schindler, A. Melikyan, X. Yang, S. Ben-Ezra, B. Nebendahl, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, L. Altenhain, T. Ellermeyer, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Single-laser 32.5 Tbit/s Nyquist WDM transmission,” submitted toOpt. Express.

Kremp, T.

Leuthold, J.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, M. Meyer, D. Hillerkuss, S. Wolf, B. Baeuerle, A. Ludwig, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time Nyquist pulse generation beyond 100 Gbit/s and its relation to OFDM,” Opt. Express 20(1), 317–337 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, D. Hillerkuss, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time OFDM transmitter beyond 100 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12740–12749 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Zhu, L. E. Nelson, S. Stulz, A. H. Gnauck, C. Doerr, J. Leuthold, L. Gruner-Nielsen, M. O. Pedersen, J. Kim, and R. L. Lingle., “High spectral density long-haul 40-Gb/s transmission using CSRZ-DPSK format,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(1), 208–214 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, M. Meyer, S. Wolf, M. Jordan, P. Kleinow, N. Lindenmann, P. Schindler, A. Melikyan, X. Yang, S. Ben-Ezra, B. Nebendahl, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, L. Altenhain, T. Ellermeyer, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Single-laser 32.5 Tbit/s Nyquist WDM transmission,” submitted toOpt. Express.

Lindenmann, N.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, M. Meyer, S. Wolf, M. Jordan, P. Kleinow, N. Lindenmann, P. Schindler, A. Melikyan, X. Yang, S. Ben-Ezra, B. Nebendahl, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, L. Altenhain, T. Ellermeyer, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Single-laser 32.5 Tbit/s Nyquist WDM transmission,” submitted toOpt. Express.

Lingle, R. L.

Ludwig, A.

Marshall, T.

Melikyan, A.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, M. Meyer, S. Wolf, M. Jordan, P. Kleinow, N. Lindenmann, P. Schindler, A. Melikyan, X. Yang, S. Ben-Ezra, B. Nebendahl, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, L. Altenhain, T. Ellermeyer, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Single-laser 32.5 Tbit/s Nyquist WDM transmission,” submitted toOpt. Express.

Meyer, J.

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, M. Meyer, D. Hillerkuss, S. Wolf, B. Baeuerle, A. Ludwig, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time Nyquist pulse generation beyond 100 Gbit/s and its relation to OFDM,” Opt. Express 20(1), 317–337 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, D. Hillerkuss, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time OFDM transmitter beyond 100 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12740–12749 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, M. Meyer, S. Wolf, M. Jordan, P. Kleinow, N. Lindenmann, P. Schindler, A. Melikyan, X. Yang, S. Ben-Ezra, B. Nebendahl, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, L. Altenhain, T. Ellermeyer, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Single-laser 32.5 Tbit/s Nyquist WDM transmission,” submitted toOpt. Express.

Meyer, M.

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, M. Meyer, D. Hillerkuss, S. Wolf, B. Baeuerle, A. Ludwig, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time Nyquist pulse generation beyond 100 Gbit/s and its relation to OFDM,” Opt. Express 20(1), 317–337 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, M. Meyer, S. Wolf, M. Jordan, P. Kleinow, N. Lindenmann, P. Schindler, A. Melikyan, X. Yang, S. Ben-Ezra, B. Nebendahl, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, L. Altenhain, T. Ellermeyer, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Single-laser 32.5 Tbit/s Nyquist WDM transmission,” submitted toOpt. Express.

Mizuochi, T.

T. Mizuochi, “Recent progress in forward error correction and its interplay with transmission impairments,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(4), 544–554 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Moeller, M.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, M. Meyer, S. Wolf, M. Jordan, P. Kleinow, N. Lindenmann, P. Schindler, A. Melikyan, X. Yang, S. Ben-Ezra, B. Nebendahl, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, L. Altenhain, T. Ellermeyer, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Single-laser 32.5 Tbit/s Nyquist WDM transmission,” submitted toOpt. Express.

Nebendahl, B.

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, M. Meyer, D. Hillerkuss, S. Wolf, B. Baeuerle, A. Ludwig, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time Nyquist pulse generation beyond 100 Gbit/s and its relation to OFDM,” Opt. Express 20(1), 317–337 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, D. Hillerkuss, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time OFDM transmitter beyond 100 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12740–12749 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Szafraniec, B. Nebendahl, and T. Marshall, “Polarization demultiplexing in Stokes space,” Opt. Express 18(17), 17928–17939 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, M. Meyer, S. Wolf, M. Jordan, P. Kleinow, N. Lindenmann, P. Schindler, A. Melikyan, X. Yang, S. Ben-Ezra, B. Nebendahl, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, L. Altenhain, T. Ellermeyer, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Single-laser 32.5 Tbit/s Nyquist WDM transmission,” submitted toOpt. Express.

Nelson, L. E.

Nyquist, H.

H. Nyquist, “Certain topics in telegraph transmission theory,” Trans. Am. Inst. Electr. Eng. 47, 617–644 (1928).

Oehler, A.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, M. Meyer, S. Wolf, M. Jordan, P. Kleinow, N. Lindenmann, P. Schindler, A. Melikyan, X. Yang, S. Ben-Ezra, B. Nebendahl, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, L. Altenhain, T. Ellermeyer, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Single-laser 32.5 Tbit/s Nyquist WDM transmission,” submitted toOpt. Express.

Parmigiani, F.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, M. Meyer, S. Wolf, M. Jordan, P. Kleinow, N. Lindenmann, P. Schindler, A. Melikyan, X. Yang, S. Ben-Ezra, B. Nebendahl, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, L. Altenhain, T. Ellermeyer, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Single-laser 32.5 Tbit/s Nyquist WDM transmission,” submitted toOpt. Express.

Pedersen, M. O.

Personick, S. D.

S. D. Personick, “Receiver design for digital fiber optic communication systems, I,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 843–874 (1973).

Petropoulos, P.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, M. Meyer, S. Wolf, M. Jordan, P. Kleinow, N. Lindenmann, P. Schindler, A. Melikyan, X. Yang, S. Ben-Ezra, B. Nebendahl, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, L. Altenhain, T. Ellermeyer, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Single-laser 32.5 Tbit/s Nyquist WDM transmission,” submitted toOpt. Express.

Poggiolini, P.

G. Bosco, V. Curri, A. Carena, P. Poggiolini, and F. Forghieri, “On the performance of Nyquist-WDM terabit superchannels based on PM-BPSK, PM-QPSK, PM-8QAM or PM-16QAM subcarriers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(1), 53–61 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, P. Poggiolini, and F. Forghieri, “Performance limits of Nyquist-WDM and CO-OFDM in high-speed PM-QPSK systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1129–1131 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Resan, B.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, M. Meyer, S. Wolf, M. Jordan, P. Kleinow, N. Lindenmann, P. Schindler, A. Melikyan, X. Yang, S. Ben-Ezra, B. Nebendahl, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, L. Altenhain, T. Ellermeyer, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Single-laser 32.5 Tbit/s Nyquist WDM transmission,” submitted toOpt. Express.

Roberts, K.

Schindler, P.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, M. Meyer, S. Wolf, M. Jordan, P. Kleinow, N. Lindenmann, P. Schindler, A. Melikyan, X. Yang, S. Ben-Ezra, B. Nebendahl, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, L. Altenhain, T. Ellermeyer, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Single-laser 32.5 Tbit/s Nyquist WDM transmission,” submitted toOpt. Express.

Schmogrow, R.

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, M. Meyer, D. Hillerkuss, S. Wolf, B. Baeuerle, A. Ludwig, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time Nyquist pulse generation beyond 100 Gbit/s and its relation to OFDM,” Opt. Express 20(1), 317–337 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, D. Hillerkuss, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time OFDM transmitter beyond 100 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12740–12749 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, M. Meyer, S. Wolf, M. Jordan, P. Kleinow, N. Lindenmann, P. Schindler, A. Melikyan, X. Yang, S. Ben-Ezra, B. Nebendahl, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, L. Altenhain, T. Ellermeyer, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Single-laser 32.5 Tbit/s Nyquist WDM transmission,” submitted toOpt. Express.

Shannon, C. E.

C. E. Shannon, “A mathematical theory of communication,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 27, 623–656 (1948).

Shieh, W.

Sjödin, M.

Stulz, S.

Szafraniec, B.

Tang, Y.

Weingarten, K.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, M. Meyer, S. Wolf, M. Jordan, P. Kleinow, N. Lindenmann, P. Schindler, A. Melikyan, X. Yang, S. Ben-Ezra, B. Nebendahl, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, L. Altenhain, T. Ellermeyer, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Single-laser 32.5 Tbit/s Nyquist WDM transmission,” submitted toOpt. Express.

Winter, M.

Wolf, S.

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, M. Meyer, D. Hillerkuss, S. Wolf, B. Baeuerle, A. Ludwig, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time Nyquist pulse generation beyond 100 Gbit/s and its relation to OFDM,” Opt. Express 20(1), 317–337 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, M. Meyer, S. Wolf, M. Jordan, P. Kleinow, N. Lindenmann, P. Schindler, A. Melikyan, X. Yang, S. Ben-Ezra, B. Nebendahl, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, L. Altenhain, T. Ellermeyer, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Single-laser 32.5 Tbit/s Nyquist WDM transmission,” submitted toOpt. Express.

Wymeersch, H.

Yang, X.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, M. Meyer, S. Wolf, M. Jordan, P. Kleinow, N. Lindenmann, P. Schindler, A. Melikyan, X. Yang, S. Ben-Ezra, B. Nebendahl, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, L. Altenhain, T. Ellermeyer, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Single-laser 32.5 Tbit/s Nyquist WDM transmission,” submitted toOpt. Express.

Yu, J.

Zhu, B.

Bell Syst. Tech. J.

S. D. Personick, “Receiver design for digital fiber optic communication systems, I,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 843–874 (1973).

C. E. Shannon, “A mathematical theory of communication,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 27, 623–656 (1948).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

K.-P. Ho, “Error probability of DPSK signals with cross-phase modulation induced nonlinear phase noise,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 10(2), 421–427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Area. Commun.

C. A. Brackett, “Dense wavelength division multiplexing networks: principles and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Area. Commun. 8(6), 948–964 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

T. Mizuochi, “Recent progress in forward error correction and its interplay with transmission impairments,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(4), 544–554 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, P. Poggiolini, and F. Forghieri, “Performance limits of Nyquist-WDM and CO-OFDM in high-speed PM-QPSK systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1129–1131 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Opt. Express

B. Szafraniec, B. Nebendahl, and T. Marshall, “Polarization demultiplexing in Stokes space,” Opt. Express 18(17), 17928–17939 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, M. Meyer, S. Wolf, M. Jordan, P. Kleinow, N. Lindenmann, P. Schindler, A. Melikyan, X. Yang, S. Ben-Ezra, B. Nebendahl, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, L. Altenhain, T. Ellermeyer, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Single-laser 32.5 Tbit/s Nyquist WDM transmission,” submitted toOpt. Express.

J. C. Cartledge, J. D. Downie, J. E. Hurley, A. S. Karar, Y. Jiang, and K. Roberts, “Pulse shaping for 112 Gbit/s polarization multiplexed 16-QAM signals using a 21 GSa/s DAC,” Opt. Express 19(26), B628–B635 (2011).
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W. Shieh, H. Bao, and Y. Tang, “Coherent optical OFDM: theory and design,” Opt. Express 16(2), 841–859 (2008).
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R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, D. Hillerkuss, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time OFDM transmitter beyond 100 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12740–12749 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sjödin, P. Johannisson, H. Wymeersch, P. A. Andrekson, and M. Karlsson, “Comparison of polarization-switched QPSK and polarization-multiplexed QPSK at 30 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7839–7846 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, M. Meyer, D. Hillerkuss, S. Wolf, B. Baeuerle, A. Ludwig, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time Nyquist pulse generation beyond 100 Gbit/s and its relation to OFDM,” Opt. Express 20(1), 317–337 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Dong, J. Yu, H. C. Chien, N. Chi, L. Chen, and G. K. Chang, “Ultra-dense WDM-PON delivering carrier-centralized Nyquist-WDM uplink with digital coherent detection,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11100–11105 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trans. Am. Inst. Electr. Eng.

H. Nyquist, “Certain topics in telegraph transmission theory,” Trans. Am. Inst. Electr. Eng. 47, 617–644 (1928).

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N. Bergano, “Wavelength division multiplexing in long-haul transmission systems,” Frontiers in Optics, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper FMF4.

X. Zhou, L. Nelson, P. Magill, B. Zhu, and D. Peckham, “8x450-Gb/s, 50-GHz-spaced, PDM-32QAM transmission over 400km and one 50GHz-grid ROADM,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper PDPB3.

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C. Xia and W. Rosenkranz, “Electrical dispersion compensation for different modulation formats with optical filtering,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper OWR2.

S. Okamoto, K. Toyoda, T. Omiya, K. Kasai, M. Yoshida, and M. Nakazawa, “512 QAM (54 Gbit/s) coherent optical transmission over 150 km with an optical bandwidth of 4.1 GHz,” in 36th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC2010), paper PD2.3.

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R. Schmogrow, S. Wolf, B. Baeuerle, D. Hillerkuss, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Nyquist frequency division multiplexing for optical communications,” submitted to Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics 2012.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of elementary impulse and corresponding spectrum along with signal spectrum in one polarization only. (a) sinc-shaped Nyquist impulse and rectangular spectrum. (b) Power spectrum of sinc-shaped Nyquist-pulses belonging to a random sequence of constellation points, measured with a coherent receiver and in one polarization. The 14 dB signal bandwidth is 3 GHz for a symbol rate of 3 GBd. The noise floor is due to signal quantization. The out-of-band suppression is more than 36dB.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmission setup. (a) An optical transmitter based on an Agilent arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) generates, with the help of a narrow-linewidth fiber laser (laser 1), a variety of Nyquist sinc-pulses. The inset shows a schematic eye-diagram for a two-level zero roll-off Nyquist signal. The optical signal is split, de-correlated, and recombined in orthogonal polarizations to emulate polarization division multiplexing (PDM). Several fiber spans are inserted in-between two EDFAs before the signal is received by an Agilent optical modulation analyzer (OMA) using a second narrow-linewidth fiber laser (laser 2). (b) Several ULAF based transmission links that were used for our experiments. (c) Several SSMF based transmission links that were used for our experiments.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental results for transmitted 256QAM and 512QAM signals. The first row shows the measured EVM of the two polarizations transmitted over a SSMF (red), an ULAF (blue), and back-to-back (b2b) (black). Limits of BER suitable for error-free transmission employing state-of-the-art FEC algorithms are indicated by dashed horizontal lines. (a) EVM performance of Nyquist shaped PDM-256QAM data for different fiber spans. (b) EVM performance of sinc-shaped PDM-512QAM data for different fiber spans. (c) Constellation diagrams for PDM-256QAM and (d) PDM-512QAM signals. Both polarizations are plotted within a single constellation diagram. The color coding refers to the type of fiber used for transmission.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic and measured probability density functions (PDF) approximated by histograms of measured error vectors. (a) PDF of two neighboring symbols (blue and red) along the inphase axis for the real part of the electric field, along with their bell-shaped PDF of the error vectors. For non-data aided reception, the required decision threshold could lead to false symbol assignments. For BER ≤ 10−2 this effect is negligible [24]. (b) Histograms approximating a representative PDF both for real and imaginary part of all normalized error vectors of a 256QAM constellation diagram. Upper row: Back-to-back (b2b) transmission, lower row: 150 km ULAF. (c) Histograms approximating a representative PDF both for real and imaginary part of all normalized error vectors of a 512QAM constellation diagram. Upper row: Back-to-back (b2b) transmission, lower row: 44 km ULAF.

Equations (4)

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B= 1 T s ( 1+β ).
C=B log 2 ( 1+SNR ).
SE max =C/B = log 2 ( 1+SNR ).
BER 1 L 1 log 2 L erfc[ 3 log 2 L ( L 2 1 ) ( k EVM m ) 2 log 2 M ].

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