Abstract

We have developed and experimentally studied a coherent population trapping (CPT) state preparation scheme for atomic clock application with co-propagating left and right circularly polarized lasers. With realization of constructive interference and spin-polarized dark state free in CPT state preparation, we have obtained CPT resonance signal 3 times larger than that of the conventional scheme used in atomic clock. Polarization fluctuations and CPT signal sensitivity to laser power behaviors are both improved with the scheme. Our study reveals that it is a promising candidate for both normal-size and chip-scale CPT atomic clocks.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. G. Alzetta, A. Gozzini, L. Moi, and G. Orriols, “An experimental method for the observation of r.f. transitions and laser beat resonances in oriented Na vapour,” Il Nuovo Cimento B 36, 5–20 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. E. Thomas, P. R. Hemmer, S. Ezekiel, C. C. Leiby, R. H. Picard, and C. R. Willis, “Observation of Ramsey fringes using a stimulated, resonance Raman transition in a sodium atomic beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 867–870 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Kernco Inc., “High Performance Core Clock (HPCC),” http://www.kernco.com/index2.php?page=commercial .
  4. J. Vanier, “Atomic clocks based on coherent population trapping: a review,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 421–442 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Knappe, V. Shah, P. D. D. Schwindt, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L.-A. Liew, and J. Moreland, “A microfabricated atomic clock,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1460–1462 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. F. DeNatale, R. L. Borwick, C. Tsai, P. A. Stupar, Y. Lin, R. A. Newgard, R. W. berquist, and M. Zhu, “Compact, low-power chip-scale atomic clock,” in Position, Location and Navigation Symposium (IEEE, 2008), 67–70.
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Lutwak, “The chip-scale atomic clock - recent developments,” in Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2009), 573–577.
  8. T. Zanon, S. Guerandel, E. de Clercq, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “High contrast Ramsey fringes with coherent-population-trapping pulses in a double lambda atomic system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 193002 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. T. Zanon, S. Tremine, S. Guerandel, F. Dahes, E. de Clercq, A. Clairon, and N. Dimarcq, “Recent results on a pulsed CPT clock,” in Frequency Control Symposium and Exposition (IEEE, 2005), 774–777.
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, and S. A. Zibrov, “On the Unique Possibility of Significantly Increasing the Contrast of Dark Resonances on the D1 Line of 87Rb,” JETP Lett. 82, 398–403 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. A. Zibrov, V. L. Velichanskya, A. S. Zibrov, A. V. Taichenachev, and V. I. Yudin, “Experimental investigation of the dark pseudoresonance on the D1 line of the 87Rb atom excited by a linearly polarized field,” JETP Lett. 82, 477–481 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y.-Y. Jau, E. Miron, A. B. Post, N. N. Kuzma, and W. Happer, “Push-pull optical pumping of pure superposition states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 160802 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Y.-Y. Jau and W. Happer, “Push-pull laser-atomic oscillator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 223001 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. V. Kargapoltsev, J. Kitching, L. Hollberg, A. V. Taichenachev, V. L. Velichansky, and V. I. Yudin, “High-contrast dark resonance in σ+ − σ− optical field,” Laser Phys. Lett. 1, 495–499 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, S. V. Kargapoltsev, R. Wynands, J. Kitching, and L. Hollberg, “High-contrast dark resonances on the D1 line of alkali metals in the field of counterpropagating waves,” JETP Lett. 80, 236–240 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. V. Shah, S. Knappe, P. D. D. Schwindt, V. Gerginov, and J. Kitching, “Compact phase delay technique for increasing the amplitude of coherent population trapping resonances in open Λ systems,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2335–2337 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. M. Rosenbluh, V. Shah, S. Knappe, and J. Kitching, “Differentially detected coherent population trapping resonances excited by orthogonally polarized laser fields,” Opt. Express 14, 6588–6594 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. I. Ben-Aroya and G. Eisenstein, “Characterizing absorption spectrum of natural rubidium by using a directly modulated VCSEL,” in Frequency Control Symposium and Exposition (IEEE, 2005), 602–607.
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. Camparo, M. Huang, and J. Coffer, “Laser polarization noise & CPT atomic clock signals,” in Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2007), 1056–1059.

2007

Y.-Y. Jau and W. Happer, “Push-pull laser-atomic oscillator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 223001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

J. Vanier, “Atomic clocks based on coherent population trapping: a review,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 421–442 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Zanon, S. Guerandel, E. de Clercq, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “High contrast Ramsey fringes with coherent-population-trapping pulses in a double lambda atomic system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 193002 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, and S. A. Zibrov, “On the Unique Possibility of Significantly Increasing the Contrast of Dark Resonances on the D1 Line of 87Rb,” JETP Lett. 82, 398–403 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Zibrov, V. L. Velichanskya, A. S. Zibrov, A. V. Taichenachev, and V. I. Yudin, “Experimental investigation of the dark pseudoresonance on the D1 line of the 87Rb atom excited by a linearly polarized field,” JETP Lett. 82, 477–481 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

Y.-Y. Jau, E. Miron, A. B. Post, N. N. Kuzma, and W. Happer, “Push-pull optical pumping of pure superposition states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 160802 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Knappe, V. Shah, P. D. D. Schwindt, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L.-A. Liew, and J. Moreland, “A microfabricated atomic clock,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1460–1462 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Kargapoltsev, J. Kitching, L. Hollberg, A. V. Taichenachev, V. L. Velichansky, and V. I. Yudin, “High-contrast dark resonance in σ+ − σ− optical field,” Laser Phys. Lett. 1, 495–499 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, S. V. Kargapoltsev, R. Wynands, J. Kitching, and L. Hollberg, “High-contrast dark resonances on the D1 line of alkali metals in the field of counterpropagating waves,” JETP Lett. 80, 236–240 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1982

J. E. Thomas, P. R. Hemmer, S. Ezekiel, C. C. Leiby, R. H. Picard, and C. R. Willis, “Observation of Ramsey fringes using a stimulated, resonance Raman transition in a sodium atomic beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 867–870 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1976

G. Alzetta, A. Gozzini, L. Moi, and G. Orriols, “An experimental method for the observation of r.f. transitions and laser beat resonances in oriented Na vapour,” Il Nuovo Cimento B 36, 5–20 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Alzetta, G.

G. Alzetta, A. Gozzini, L. Moi, and G. Orriols, “An experimental method for the observation of r.f. transitions and laser beat resonances in oriented Na vapour,” Il Nuovo Cimento B 36, 5–20 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Ben-Aroya, I.

I. Ben-Aroya and G. Eisenstein, “Characterizing absorption spectrum of natural rubidium by using a directly modulated VCSEL,” in Frequency Control Symposium and Exposition (IEEE, 2005), 602–607.
[CrossRef]

berquist, R. W.

J. F. DeNatale, R. L. Borwick, C. Tsai, P. A. Stupar, Y. Lin, R. A. Newgard, R. W. berquist, and M. Zhu, “Compact, low-power chip-scale atomic clock,” in Position, Location and Navigation Symposium (IEEE, 2008), 67–70.
[CrossRef]

Borwick, R. L.

J. F. DeNatale, R. L. Borwick, C. Tsai, P. A. Stupar, Y. Lin, R. A. Newgard, R. W. berquist, and M. Zhu, “Compact, low-power chip-scale atomic clock,” in Position, Location and Navigation Symposium (IEEE, 2008), 67–70.
[CrossRef]

Camparo, J.

J. Camparo, M. Huang, and J. Coffer, “Laser polarization noise & CPT atomic clock signals,” in Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2007), 1056–1059.

Clairon, A.

T. Zanon, S. Guerandel, E. de Clercq, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “High contrast Ramsey fringes with coherent-population-trapping pulses in a double lambda atomic system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 193002 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Zanon, S. Tremine, S. Guerandel, F. Dahes, E. de Clercq, A. Clairon, and N. Dimarcq, “Recent results on a pulsed CPT clock,” in Frequency Control Symposium and Exposition (IEEE, 2005), 774–777.
[CrossRef]

Coffer, J.

J. Camparo, M. Huang, and J. Coffer, “Laser polarization noise & CPT atomic clock signals,” in Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2007), 1056–1059.

Dahes, F.

T. Zanon, S. Tremine, S. Guerandel, F. Dahes, E. de Clercq, A. Clairon, and N. Dimarcq, “Recent results on a pulsed CPT clock,” in Frequency Control Symposium and Exposition (IEEE, 2005), 774–777.
[CrossRef]

de Clercq, E.

T. Zanon, S. Guerandel, E. de Clercq, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “High contrast Ramsey fringes with coherent-population-trapping pulses in a double lambda atomic system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 193002 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Zanon, S. Tremine, S. Guerandel, F. Dahes, E. de Clercq, A. Clairon, and N. Dimarcq, “Recent results on a pulsed CPT clock,” in Frequency Control Symposium and Exposition (IEEE, 2005), 774–777.
[CrossRef]

DeNatale, J. F.

J. F. DeNatale, R. L. Borwick, C. Tsai, P. A. Stupar, Y. Lin, R. A. Newgard, R. W. berquist, and M. Zhu, “Compact, low-power chip-scale atomic clock,” in Position, Location and Navigation Symposium (IEEE, 2008), 67–70.
[CrossRef]

Dimarcq, N.

T. Zanon, S. Guerandel, E. de Clercq, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “High contrast Ramsey fringes with coherent-population-trapping pulses in a double lambda atomic system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 193002 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Zanon, S. Tremine, S. Guerandel, F. Dahes, E. de Clercq, A. Clairon, and N. Dimarcq, “Recent results on a pulsed CPT clock,” in Frequency Control Symposium and Exposition (IEEE, 2005), 774–777.
[CrossRef]

Eisenstein, G.

I. Ben-Aroya and G. Eisenstein, “Characterizing absorption spectrum of natural rubidium by using a directly modulated VCSEL,” in Frequency Control Symposium and Exposition (IEEE, 2005), 602–607.
[CrossRef]

Ezekiel, S.

J. E. Thomas, P. R. Hemmer, S. Ezekiel, C. C. Leiby, R. H. Picard, and C. R. Willis, “Observation of Ramsey fringes using a stimulated, resonance Raman transition in a sodium atomic beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 867–870 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Gerginov, V.

Gozzini, A.

G. Alzetta, A. Gozzini, L. Moi, and G. Orriols, “An experimental method for the observation of r.f. transitions and laser beat resonances in oriented Na vapour,” Il Nuovo Cimento B 36, 5–20 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Guerandel, S.

T. Zanon, S. Guerandel, E. de Clercq, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “High contrast Ramsey fringes with coherent-population-trapping pulses in a double lambda atomic system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 193002 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Zanon, S. Tremine, S. Guerandel, F. Dahes, E. de Clercq, A. Clairon, and N. Dimarcq, “Recent results on a pulsed CPT clock,” in Frequency Control Symposium and Exposition (IEEE, 2005), 774–777.
[CrossRef]

Happer, W.

Y.-Y. Jau and W. Happer, “Push-pull laser-atomic oscillator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 223001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y.-Y. Jau, E. Miron, A. B. Post, N. N. Kuzma, and W. Happer, “Push-pull optical pumping of pure superposition states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 160802 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hemmer, P. R.

J. E. Thomas, P. R. Hemmer, S. Ezekiel, C. C. Leiby, R. H. Picard, and C. R. Willis, “Observation of Ramsey fringes using a stimulated, resonance Raman transition in a sodium atomic beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 867–870 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hollberg, L.

S. Knappe, V. Shah, P. D. D. Schwindt, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L.-A. Liew, and J. Moreland, “A microfabricated atomic clock,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1460–1462 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Kargapoltsev, J. Kitching, L. Hollberg, A. V. Taichenachev, V. L. Velichansky, and V. I. Yudin, “High-contrast dark resonance in σ+ − σ− optical field,” Laser Phys. Lett. 1, 495–499 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, S. V. Kargapoltsev, R. Wynands, J. Kitching, and L. Hollberg, “High-contrast dark resonances on the D1 line of alkali metals in the field of counterpropagating waves,” JETP Lett. 80, 236–240 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Holleville, D.

T. Zanon, S. Guerandel, E. de Clercq, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “High contrast Ramsey fringes with coherent-population-trapping pulses in a double lambda atomic system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 193002 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, M.

J. Camparo, M. Huang, and J. Coffer, “Laser polarization noise & CPT atomic clock signals,” in Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2007), 1056–1059.

Jau, Y.-Y.

Y.-Y. Jau and W. Happer, “Push-pull laser-atomic oscillator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 223001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y.-Y. Jau, E. Miron, A. B. Post, N. N. Kuzma, and W. Happer, “Push-pull optical pumping of pure superposition states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 160802 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kargapoltsev, S. V.

S. V. Kargapoltsev, J. Kitching, L. Hollberg, A. V. Taichenachev, V. L. Velichansky, and V. I. Yudin, “High-contrast dark resonance in σ+ − σ− optical field,” Laser Phys. Lett. 1, 495–499 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, S. V. Kargapoltsev, R. Wynands, J. Kitching, and L. Hollberg, “High-contrast dark resonances on the D1 line of alkali metals in the field of counterpropagating waves,” JETP Lett. 80, 236–240 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kitching, J.

M. Rosenbluh, V. Shah, S. Knappe, and J. Kitching, “Differentially detected coherent population trapping resonances excited by orthogonally polarized laser fields,” Opt. Express 14, 6588–6594 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Shah, S. Knappe, P. D. D. Schwindt, V. Gerginov, and J. Kitching, “Compact phase delay technique for increasing the amplitude of coherent population trapping resonances in open Λ systems,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2335–2337 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Knappe, V. Shah, P. D. D. Schwindt, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L.-A. Liew, and J. Moreland, “A microfabricated atomic clock,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1460–1462 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Kargapoltsev, J. Kitching, L. Hollberg, A. V. Taichenachev, V. L. Velichansky, and V. I. Yudin, “High-contrast dark resonance in σ+ − σ− optical field,” Laser Phys. Lett. 1, 495–499 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, S. V. Kargapoltsev, R. Wynands, J. Kitching, and L. Hollberg, “High-contrast dark resonances on the D1 line of alkali metals in the field of counterpropagating waves,” JETP Lett. 80, 236–240 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Knappe, S.

Kuzma, N. N.

Y.-Y. Jau, E. Miron, A. B. Post, N. N. Kuzma, and W. Happer, “Push-pull optical pumping of pure superposition states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 160802 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leiby, C. C.

J. E. Thomas, P. R. Hemmer, S. Ezekiel, C. C. Leiby, R. H. Picard, and C. R. Willis, “Observation of Ramsey fringes using a stimulated, resonance Raman transition in a sodium atomic beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 867–870 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Liew, L.-A.

S. Knappe, V. Shah, P. D. D. Schwindt, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L.-A. Liew, and J. Moreland, “A microfabricated atomic clock,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1460–1462 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y.

J. F. DeNatale, R. L. Borwick, C. Tsai, P. A. Stupar, Y. Lin, R. A. Newgard, R. W. berquist, and M. Zhu, “Compact, low-power chip-scale atomic clock,” in Position, Location and Navigation Symposium (IEEE, 2008), 67–70.
[CrossRef]

Lutwak, R.

R. Lutwak, “The chip-scale atomic clock - recent developments,” in Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2009), 573–577.

Miron, E.

Y.-Y. Jau, E. Miron, A. B. Post, N. N. Kuzma, and W. Happer, “Push-pull optical pumping of pure superposition states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 160802 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moi, L.

G. Alzetta, A. Gozzini, L. Moi, and G. Orriols, “An experimental method for the observation of r.f. transitions and laser beat resonances in oriented Na vapour,” Il Nuovo Cimento B 36, 5–20 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Moreland, J.

S. Knappe, V. Shah, P. D. D. Schwindt, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L.-A. Liew, and J. Moreland, “A microfabricated atomic clock,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1460–1462 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Newgard, R. A.

J. F. DeNatale, R. L. Borwick, C. Tsai, P. A. Stupar, Y. Lin, R. A. Newgard, R. W. berquist, and M. Zhu, “Compact, low-power chip-scale atomic clock,” in Position, Location and Navigation Symposium (IEEE, 2008), 67–70.
[CrossRef]

Orriols, G.

G. Alzetta, A. Gozzini, L. Moi, and G. Orriols, “An experimental method for the observation of r.f. transitions and laser beat resonances in oriented Na vapour,” Il Nuovo Cimento B 36, 5–20 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Picard, R. H.

J. E. Thomas, P. R. Hemmer, S. Ezekiel, C. C. Leiby, R. H. Picard, and C. R. Willis, “Observation of Ramsey fringes using a stimulated, resonance Raman transition in a sodium atomic beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 867–870 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Post, A. B.

Y.-Y. Jau, E. Miron, A. B. Post, N. N. Kuzma, and W. Happer, “Push-pull optical pumping of pure superposition states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 160802 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosenbluh, M.

Schwindt, P. D. D.

V. Shah, S. Knappe, P. D. D. Schwindt, V. Gerginov, and J. Kitching, “Compact phase delay technique for increasing the amplitude of coherent population trapping resonances in open Λ systems,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2335–2337 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Knappe, V. Shah, P. D. D. Schwindt, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L.-A. Liew, and J. Moreland, “A microfabricated atomic clock,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1460–1462 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shah, V.

Stupar, P. A.

J. F. DeNatale, R. L. Borwick, C. Tsai, P. A. Stupar, Y. Lin, R. A. Newgard, R. W. berquist, and M. Zhu, “Compact, low-power chip-scale atomic clock,” in Position, Location and Navigation Symposium (IEEE, 2008), 67–70.
[CrossRef]

Taichenachev, A. V.

A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, and S. A. Zibrov, “On the Unique Possibility of Significantly Increasing the Contrast of Dark Resonances on the D1 Line of 87Rb,” JETP Lett. 82, 398–403 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Zibrov, V. L. Velichanskya, A. S. Zibrov, A. V. Taichenachev, and V. I. Yudin, “Experimental investigation of the dark pseudoresonance on the D1 line of the 87Rb atom excited by a linearly polarized field,” JETP Lett. 82, 477–481 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, S. V. Kargapoltsev, R. Wynands, J. Kitching, and L. Hollberg, “High-contrast dark resonances on the D1 line of alkali metals in the field of counterpropagating waves,” JETP Lett. 80, 236–240 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Kargapoltsev, J. Kitching, L. Hollberg, A. V. Taichenachev, V. L. Velichansky, and V. I. Yudin, “High-contrast dark resonance in σ+ − σ− optical field,” Laser Phys. Lett. 1, 495–499 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, J. E.

J. E. Thomas, P. R. Hemmer, S. Ezekiel, C. C. Leiby, R. H. Picard, and C. R. Willis, “Observation of Ramsey fringes using a stimulated, resonance Raman transition in a sodium atomic beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 867–870 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Tremine, S.

T. Zanon, S. Tremine, S. Guerandel, F. Dahes, E. de Clercq, A. Clairon, and N. Dimarcq, “Recent results on a pulsed CPT clock,” in Frequency Control Symposium and Exposition (IEEE, 2005), 774–777.
[CrossRef]

Tsai, C.

J. F. DeNatale, R. L. Borwick, C. Tsai, P. A. Stupar, Y. Lin, R. A. Newgard, R. W. berquist, and M. Zhu, “Compact, low-power chip-scale atomic clock,” in Position, Location and Navigation Symposium (IEEE, 2008), 67–70.
[CrossRef]

Vanier, J.

J. Vanier, “Atomic clocks based on coherent population trapping: a review,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 421–442 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Velichansky, V. L.

A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, and S. A. Zibrov, “On the Unique Possibility of Significantly Increasing the Contrast of Dark Resonances on the D1 Line of 87Rb,” JETP Lett. 82, 398–403 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Kargapoltsev, J. Kitching, L. Hollberg, A. V. Taichenachev, V. L. Velichansky, and V. I. Yudin, “High-contrast dark resonance in σ+ − σ− optical field,” Laser Phys. Lett. 1, 495–499 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, S. V. Kargapoltsev, R. Wynands, J. Kitching, and L. Hollberg, “High-contrast dark resonances on the D1 line of alkali metals in the field of counterpropagating waves,” JETP Lett. 80, 236–240 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Velichanskya, V. L.

S. A. Zibrov, V. L. Velichanskya, A. S. Zibrov, A. V. Taichenachev, and V. I. Yudin, “Experimental investigation of the dark pseudoresonance on the D1 line of the 87Rb atom excited by a linearly polarized field,” JETP Lett. 82, 477–481 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Willis, C. R.

J. E. Thomas, P. R. Hemmer, S. Ezekiel, C. C. Leiby, R. H. Picard, and C. R. Willis, “Observation of Ramsey fringes using a stimulated, resonance Raman transition in a sodium atomic beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 867–870 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Wynands, R.

A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, S. V. Kargapoltsev, R. Wynands, J. Kitching, and L. Hollberg, “High-contrast dark resonances on the D1 line of alkali metals in the field of counterpropagating waves,” JETP Lett. 80, 236–240 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yudin, V. I.

S. A. Zibrov, V. L. Velichanskya, A. S. Zibrov, A. V. Taichenachev, and V. I. Yudin, “Experimental investigation of the dark pseudoresonance on the D1 line of the 87Rb atom excited by a linearly polarized field,” JETP Lett. 82, 477–481 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, and S. A. Zibrov, “On the Unique Possibility of Significantly Increasing the Contrast of Dark Resonances on the D1 Line of 87Rb,” JETP Lett. 82, 398–403 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Kargapoltsev, J. Kitching, L. Hollberg, A. V. Taichenachev, V. L. Velichansky, and V. I. Yudin, “High-contrast dark resonance in σ+ − σ− optical field,” Laser Phys. Lett. 1, 495–499 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, S. V. Kargapoltsev, R. Wynands, J. Kitching, and L. Hollberg, “High-contrast dark resonances on the D1 line of alkali metals in the field of counterpropagating waves,” JETP Lett. 80, 236–240 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zanon, T.

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T. Zanon, S. Tremine, S. Guerandel, F. Dahes, E. de Clercq, A. Clairon, and N. Dimarcq, “Recent results on a pulsed CPT clock,” in Frequency Control Symposium and Exposition (IEEE, 2005), 774–777.
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T. Zanon, S. Tremine, S. Guerandel, F. Dahes, E. de Clercq, A. Clairon, and N. Dimarcq, “Recent results on a pulsed CPT clock,” in Frequency Control Symposium and Exposition (IEEE, 2005), 774–777.
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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Experimental setup for LRCPL scheme. Mirror1 and mirror2 are mounted on a single-axis platform. ND filter: Neutral Density filter, PBS: Polarizing Beam Splitter, FM: Frequency Modulation, DC servo: Direct Current servo. (b) Working energy levels related to D1 line transition in 87Rb atoms, with which two Λ-type configurations can be realized.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The dependence of contrast on phase difference ΔΦ. The experimental data were recorded by adjusting ΔΦ from −π to π with increment of 2π/11, the increment corresponds to moving the platform by 2 mm. The experimental laser intensity is 15 μW/mm2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Typical CPT resonances produced by the two schemes. The top panel shows prevail scheme signal. The contrast obtained with LRCPL scheme in the bottom panel is 3 times larger than that with conventional one. The laser intensity is 29μW/mm2 (measured right after ND filter in Fig. 1(a)). (b) Correction slope versus laser intensity for two schemes. In comparison with conventional scheme, correction slope for LRCPL scheme is obviously larger.

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