Abstract

The fabrication and characterization of continuously tunable, solution-processed distributed feedback (DFB) lasers in the visible regime is reported. Continuous thin film thickness gradients were achieved by means of horizontal dipping of several conjugated polymer and blended small molecule solutions on cm-scale surface gratings of different periods. We report optically pumped continuously tunable laser emission of 13 nm in the blue, 16 nm in the green and 19 nm in the red spectral region on a single chip respectively. Tuning behavior can be described with the Bragg-equation and the measured thickness profile. The laser threshold is low enough that inexpensive laser diodes can be used as pump sources.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. N. Tessler, G. J. Denton, and R. H. Friend, “Lasing from conjugated-polymer microcavities,” Nature 382(6593), 695–697 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. I. D. W. Samuel and G. A. Turnbull, “Organic semiconductor lasers,” Chem. Rev. 107(4), 1272–1295 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H. H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. S. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241116 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. E. Vasdekis, G. Tsiminis, J.-C. Ribierre, L. O’ Faolain, T. F. Krauss, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Diode pumped distributed Bragg reflector lasers based on a dye-to-polymer energy transfer blend,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9211–9216 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. Karnutsch, M. Stroisch, M. Punke, U. Lemmer, J. Wang, and T. Weimann, “„Laser diode-pumped organic semiconductor lasers utilizing two-dimensional photonic crystal resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(10), 741–743 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Sakata, K. Yamashita, H. Takeuchi, and M. Tomiki, “Diode-pumped distributed-feedback dye laser with an organic–inorganic microcavity,” Appl. Phys. B 92(2), 243–246 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Hybrid optoelectronics: A polymer laser pumped by a nitride light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163306 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. Hide, M. Diaz-Garcia, B. Schwartz, M. Andersson, and A. Heeger, “Semiconducting polymers: a new class of solid-state laser materials,” Science 273(5283), 1833–1836 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. D. McGehee, M. A. Díaz-García, F. Hide, R. Gupta, E. K. Miller, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting polymer distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(13), 1536 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. V. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. Burrows, and S. Forrest, “Laser action in organic semiconductor waveguide and double-heterostructure devices,” Nature 389(6649), 362–364 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, and P. Hinze, “Laser threshold reduction in an all-spiro guest-host system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(10), 1659–1661 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. N. Tsutsumi, A. Fujihara, and D. Hayashi, “Tunable distributed feedback lasing with a threshold in the nanojoule range in an organic guest-host polymeric waveguide,” Appl. Opt. 45(22), 5748–5751 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. K. Suzuki, K. Takahashi, Y. Seida, K. Shimizu, M. Kumagai, and Y. Taniguchi, “A continuously tunable organic solid-state laser based on a flexible distributed-feedback resonator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 2, No. 3A), L249–L251 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. R. Weinberger, G. Langer, A. Pogantsch, A. Haase, E. Zojer, and W. Kern, “Continuously color-tunable rubber laser,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 16(2), 130–133 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. B. Wenger, N. Tétreault, M. E. Welland, and R. H. Friend, “Mechanically tunable conjugated polymer distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(19), 193303 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  16. P. Görrn, M. Lehnhardt, W. Kowalsky, T. Riedl, and S. Wagner, “Elastically tunable self-organized organic lasers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(7), 869–872 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. S. Döring, M. Kollosche, T. Rabe, J. Stumpe, and G. Kofod, “Electrically tunable polymer DFB laser,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(37), 4265–4269 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. S. Klinkhammer, T. Woggon, U. Geyer, C. Vannahme, T. Mappes, S. Dehm, and U. Lemmer, “A continuously tunable low-threshold organic semiconductor distributed feedback laser fabricated by rotating shadow mask evaporation,” Appl. Phys. B 97(4), 787–791 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Stroisch, T. Woggon, C. Teiwes-Morin, S. Klinkhammer, K. Forberich, A. Gombert, M. Gerken, and U. Lemmer, “Intermediate high index layer for laser mode tuning in organic semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5890–5895 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, G. Ade, D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, and W. Kowalsky, “A continuously tunable organic DFB laser,” Microelectron. Eng. 78-79, 364–368 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  21. F. B. Arango, M. B. Christiansen, M. Gersborg-Hansen, and A. Kristensen, “Optofluidic tuning of photonic crystal band edge lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(22), 223503 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  22. T. Voss, D. Scheel, and W. Schade, “A microchip-laser-pumped DFB-polymer-dye laser,” Appl. Phys. B 73(2), 105–109 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  23. R. Ozaki, T. Shinpo, K. Yoshino, M. Ozaki, and H. Moritake, “Tunable liquid crystal laser using distributed feedback cavity fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Express 1(1), 012003 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  24. S. Klinkhammer, N. Heussner, K. Huska, T. Bocksrocker, F. Geislhöringer, C. Vannahme, T. Mappes, and U. Lemmer, “Voltage-controlled tuning of an organic semiconductor distributed feedback laser using liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(2), 023307 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  25. T. Woggon, S. Klinkhammer, and U. Lemmer, “Compact spectroscopy system based on tunable organic semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 99(1-2), 47–51 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  26. S. Klinkhammer, T. Woggon, C. Vannahme, T. Mappes, and U. Lemmer, “Optical spectroscopy with organic semiconductor lasers,” Proc. SPIE 7722, 77221I, 77221I-10 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  27. B. Park and M. Y. Han, “Organic light-emitting devices fabricated using a premetered coating process,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21362–21369 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. C. Ge, M. Lu, X. Jian, Y. Tan, and B. T. Cunningham, “Large-area organic distributed feedback laser fabricated by nanoreplica molding and horizontal dipping,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12980–12991 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. L. D. Landau and V. G. Levich, “Dragging of a liquid by a moving plate,” Acta Phys. URSS 17, 42–54 (1942).
  30. M. Lehnhardt, T. Riedl, T. Weimann, and W. Kowalsky, “Impact of triplet absorption and triplet-singlet annihilation on the dynamics of optically pumped organic solid-state lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 81(16), 165206 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  31. T. Aimono, Y. Kawamura, K. Goushi, H. Yamamoto, H. Sasabe, and C. Adachi, “100% fluorescence efficiency of 4,4'-bis[(N-carbazole)styryl]biphenyl in a solid film and the very low amplified spontaneous emission threshold,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071110 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  32. A. Boudrioua, P. A. Hobson, B. Matterson, I. D. W. Samuel, and W. L. Barnes, “Birefringence and dispersion of the light emitting polymer MEH-PPV,” Synth. Met. 111-112, 545–547 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  33. M. Campoy-Quiles, G. Heliotis, R. Xia, M. Ariu, M. Pintani, P. Etchegoin, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Ellipsometric characterization of the optical constants of polyfluorene gain media,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(6), 925–933 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (3)

P. Görrn, M. Lehnhardt, W. Kowalsky, T. Riedl, and S. Wagner, “Elastically tunable self-organized organic lasers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(7), 869–872 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Döring, M. Kollosche, T. Rabe, J. Stumpe, and G. Kofod, “Electrically tunable polymer DFB laser,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(37), 4265–4269 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Klinkhammer, N. Heussner, K. Huska, T. Bocksrocker, F. Geislhöringer, C. Vannahme, T. Mappes, and U. Lemmer, “Voltage-controlled tuning of an organic semiconductor distributed feedback laser using liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(2), 023307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (6)

T. Woggon, S. Klinkhammer, and U. Lemmer, “Compact spectroscopy system based on tunable organic semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 99(1-2), 47–51 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Klinkhammer, T. Woggon, C. Vannahme, T. Mappes, and U. Lemmer, “Optical spectroscopy with organic semiconductor lasers,” Proc. SPIE 7722, 77221I, 77221I-10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Wenger, N. Tétreault, M. E. Welland, and R. H. Friend, “Mechanically tunable conjugated polymer distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(19), 193303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Ge, M. Lu, X. Jian, Y. Tan, and B. T. Cunningham, “Large-area organic distributed feedback laser fabricated by nanoreplica molding and horizontal dipping,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12980–12991 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lehnhardt, T. Riedl, T. Weimann, and W. Kowalsky, “Impact of triplet absorption and triplet-singlet annihilation on the dynamics of optically pumped organic solid-state lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 81(16), 165206 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Stroisch, T. Woggon, C. Teiwes-Morin, S. Klinkhammer, K. Forberich, A. Gombert, M. Gerken, and U. Lemmer, “Intermediate high index layer for laser mode tuning in organic semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5890–5895 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

S. Klinkhammer, T. Woggon, U. Geyer, C. Vannahme, T. Mappes, S. Dehm, and U. Lemmer, “A continuously tunable low-threshold organic semiconductor distributed feedback laser fabricated by rotating shadow mask evaporation,” Appl. Phys. B 97(4), 787–791 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Park and M. Y. Han, “Organic light-emitting devices fabricated using a premetered coating process,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21362–21369 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

R. Ozaki, T. Shinpo, K. Yoshino, M. Ozaki, and H. Moritake, “Tunable liquid crystal laser using distributed feedback cavity fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Express 1(1), 012003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Sakata, K. Yamashita, H. Takeuchi, and M. Tomiki, “Diode-pumped distributed-feedback dye laser with an organic–inorganic microcavity,” Appl. Phys. B 92(2), 243–246 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Hybrid optoelectronics: A polymer laser pumped by a nitride light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

I. D. W. Samuel and G. A. Turnbull, “Organic semiconductor lasers,” Chem. Rev. 107(4), 1272–1295 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Karnutsch, M. Stroisch, M. Punke, U. Lemmer, J. Wang, and T. Weimann, “„Laser diode-pumped organic semiconductor lasers utilizing two-dimensional photonic crystal resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(10), 741–743 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. B. Arango, M. B. Christiansen, M. Gersborg-Hansen, and A. Kristensen, “Optofluidic tuning of photonic crystal band edge lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(22), 223503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

2005 (3)

J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, G. Ade, D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, and W. Kowalsky, “A continuously tunable organic DFB laser,” Microelectron. Eng. 78-79, 364–368 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Aimono, Y. Kawamura, K. Goushi, H. Yamamoto, H. Sasabe, and C. Adachi, “100% fluorescence efficiency of 4,4'-bis[(N-carbazole)styryl]biphenyl in a solid film and the very low amplified spontaneous emission threshold,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Campoy-Quiles, G. Heliotis, R. Xia, M. Ariu, M. Pintani, P. Etchegoin, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Ellipsometric characterization of the optical constants of polyfluorene gain media,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(6), 925–933 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, and P. Hinze, “Laser threshold reduction in an all-spiro guest-host system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(10), 1659–1661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Weinberger, G. Langer, A. Pogantsch, A. Haase, E. Zojer, and W. Kern, “Continuously color-tunable rubber laser,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 16(2), 130–133 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

K. Suzuki, K. Takahashi, Y. Seida, K. Shimizu, M. Kumagai, and Y. Taniguchi, “A continuously tunable organic solid-state laser based on a flexible distributed-feedback resonator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 2, No. 3A), L249–L251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

T. Voss, D. Scheel, and W. Schade, “A microchip-laser-pumped DFB-polymer-dye laser,” Appl. Phys. B 73(2), 105–109 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

A. Boudrioua, P. A. Hobson, B. Matterson, I. D. W. Samuel, and W. L. Barnes, “Birefringence and dispersion of the light emitting polymer MEH-PPV,” Synth. Met. 111-112, 545–547 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

M. D. McGehee, M. A. Díaz-García, F. Hide, R. Gupta, E. K. Miller, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting polymer distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(13), 1536 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

V. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. Burrows, and S. Forrest, “Laser action in organic semiconductor waveguide and double-heterostructure devices,” Nature 389(6649), 362–364 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

F. Hide, M. Diaz-Garcia, B. Schwartz, M. Andersson, and A. Heeger, “Semiconducting polymers: a new class of solid-state laser materials,” Science 273(5283), 1833–1836 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. Tessler, G. J. Denton, and R. H. Friend, “Lasing from conjugated-polymer microcavities,” Nature 382(6593), 695–697 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1942 (1)

L. D. Landau and V. G. Levich, “Dragging of a liquid by a moving plate,” Acta Phys. URSS 17, 42–54 (1942).

Adachi, C.

T. Aimono, Y. Kawamura, K. Goushi, H. Yamamoto, H. Sasabe, and C. Adachi, “100% fluorescence efficiency of 4,4'-bis[(N-carbazole)styryl]biphenyl in a solid film and the very low amplified spontaneous emission threshold,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ade, G.

J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, G. Ade, D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, and W. Kowalsky, “A continuously tunable organic DFB laser,” Microelectron. Eng. 78-79, 364–368 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Aimono, T.

T. Aimono, Y. Kawamura, K. Goushi, H. Yamamoto, H. Sasabe, and C. Adachi, “100% fluorescence efficiency of 4,4'-bis[(N-carbazole)styryl]biphenyl in a solid film and the very low amplified spontaneous emission threshold,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Andersson, M.

F. Hide, M. Diaz-Garcia, B. Schwartz, M. Andersson, and A. Heeger, “Semiconducting polymers: a new class of solid-state laser materials,” Science 273(5283), 1833–1836 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Arango, F. B.

F. B. Arango, M. B. Christiansen, M. Gersborg-Hansen, and A. Kristensen, “Optofluidic tuning of photonic crystal band edge lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(22), 223503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ariu, M.

M. Campoy-Quiles, G. Heliotis, R. Xia, M. Ariu, M. Pintani, P. Etchegoin, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Ellipsometric characterization of the optical constants of polyfluorene gain media,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(6), 925–933 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

A. Boudrioua, P. A. Hobson, B. Matterson, I. D. W. Samuel, and W. L. Barnes, “Birefringence and dispersion of the light emitting polymer MEH-PPV,” Synth. Met. 111-112, 545–547 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Becker, E.

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, and P. Hinze, “Laser threshold reduction in an all-spiro guest-host system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(10), 1659–1661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bocksrocker, T.

S. Klinkhammer, N. Heussner, K. Huska, T. Bocksrocker, F. Geislhöringer, C. Vannahme, T. Mappes, and U. Lemmer, “Voltage-controlled tuning of an organic semiconductor distributed feedback laser using liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(2), 023307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Boudrioua, A.

A. Boudrioua, P. A. Hobson, B. Matterson, I. D. W. Samuel, and W. L. Barnes, “Birefringence and dispersion of the light emitting polymer MEH-PPV,” Synth. Met. 111-112, 545–547 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, D. D. C.

M. Campoy-Quiles, G. Heliotis, R. Xia, M. Ariu, M. Pintani, P. Etchegoin, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Ellipsometric characterization of the optical constants of polyfluorene gain media,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(6), 925–933 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bulovic, V.

V. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. Burrows, and S. Forrest, “Laser action in organic semiconductor waveguide and double-heterostructure devices,” Nature 389(6649), 362–364 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, P.

V. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. Burrows, and S. Forrest, “Laser action in organic semiconductor waveguide and double-heterostructure devices,” Nature 389(6649), 362–364 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Campoy-Quiles, M.

M. Campoy-Quiles, G. Heliotis, R. Xia, M. Ariu, M. Pintani, P. Etchegoin, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Ellipsometric characterization of the optical constants of polyfluorene gain media,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(6), 925–933 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Christiansen, M. B.

F. B. Arango, M. B. Christiansen, M. Gersborg-Hansen, and A. Kristensen, “Optofluidic tuning of photonic crystal band edge lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(22), 223503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, B. T.

Dehm, S.

S. Klinkhammer, T. Woggon, U. Geyer, C. Vannahme, T. Mappes, S. Dehm, and U. Lemmer, “A continuously tunable low-threshold organic semiconductor distributed feedback laser fabricated by rotating shadow mask evaporation,” Appl. Phys. B 97(4), 787–791 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Denton, G. J.

N. Tessler, G. J. Denton, and R. H. Friend, “Lasing from conjugated-polymer microcavities,” Nature 382(6593), 695–697 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Diaz-Garcia, M.

F. Hide, M. Diaz-Garcia, B. Schwartz, M. Andersson, and A. Heeger, “Semiconducting polymers: a new class of solid-state laser materials,” Science 273(5283), 1833–1836 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Díaz-García, M. A.

M. D. McGehee, M. A. Díaz-García, F. Hide, R. Gupta, E. K. Miller, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting polymer distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(13), 1536 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dobbertin, T.

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, and P. Hinze, “Laser threshold reduction in an all-spiro guest-host system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(10), 1659–1661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Döring, S.

S. Döring, M. Kollosche, T. Rabe, J. Stumpe, and G. Kofod, “Electrically tunable polymer DFB laser,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(37), 4265–4269 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Etchegoin, P.

M. Campoy-Quiles, G. Heliotis, R. Xia, M. Ariu, M. Pintani, P. Etchegoin, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Ellipsometric characterization of the optical constants of polyfluorene gain media,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(6), 925–933 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Farrell, T.

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H. H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. S. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Forberich, K.

Forrest, S.

V. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. Burrows, and S. Forrest, “Laser action in organic semiconductor waveguide and double-heterostructure devices,” Nature 389(6649), 362–364 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Friend, R. H.

B. Wenger, N. Tétreault, M. E. Welland, and R. H. Friend, “Mechanically tunable conjugated polymer distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(19), 193303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Tessler, G. J. Denton, and R. H. Friend, “Lasing from conjugated-polymer microcavities,” Nature 382(6593), 695–697 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fujihara, A.

Ge, C.

Geislhöringer, F.

S. Klinkhammer, N. Heussner, K. Huska, T. Bocksrocker, F. Geislhöringer, C. Vannahme, T. Mappes, and U. Lemmer, “Voltage-controlled tuning of an organic semiconductor distributed feedback laser using liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(2), 023307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gerken, M.

Gersborg-Hansen, M.

F. B. Arango, M. B. Christiansen, M. Gersborg-Hansen, and A. Kristensen, “Optofluidic tuning of photonic crystal band edge lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(22), 223503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Geyer, U.

S. Klinkhammer, T. Woggon, U. Geyer, C. Vannahme, T. Mappes, S. Dehm, and U. Lemmer, “A continuously tunable low-threshold organic semiconductor distributed feedback laser fabricated by rotating shadow mask evaporation,” Appl. Phys. B 97(4), 787–791 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gombert, A.

Görrn, P.

P. Görrn, M. Lehnhardt, W. Kowalsky, T. Riedl, and S. Wagner, “Elastically tunable self-organized organic lasers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(7), 869–872 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goushi, K.

T. Aimono, Y. Kawamura, K. Goushi, H. Yamamoto, H. Sasabe, and C. Adachi, “100% fluorescence efficiency of 4,4'-bis[(N-carbazole)styryl]biphenyl in a solid film and the very low amplified spontaneous emission threshold,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, R.

M. D. McGehee, M. A. Díaz-García, F. Hide, R. Gupta, E. K. Miller, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting polymer distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(13), 1536 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Haase, A.

M. R. Weinberger, G. Langer, A. Pogantsch, A. Haase, E. Zojer, and W. Kern, “Continuously color-tunable rubber laser,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 16(2), 130–133 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Han, M. Y.

Hayashi, D.

Heeger, A.

F. Hide, M. Diaz-Garcia, B. Schwartz, M. Andersson, and A. Heeger, “Semiconducting polymers: a new class of solid-state laser materials,” Science 273(5283), 1833–1836 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Heeger, A. J.

M. D. McGehee, M. A. Díaz-García, F. Hide, R. Gupta, E. K. Miller, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting polymer distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(13), 1536 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Heliotis, G.

M. Campoy-Quiles, G. Heliotis, R. Xia, M. Ariu, M. Pintani, P. Etchegoin, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Ellipsometric characterization of the optical constants of polyfluorene gain media,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(6), 925–933 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Heussner, N.

S. Klinkhammer, N. Heussner, K. Huska, T. Bocksrocker, F. Geislhöringer, C. Vannahme, T. Mappes, and U. Lemmer, “Voltage-controlled tuning of an organic semiconductor distributed feedback laser using liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(2), 023307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hide, F.

M. D. McGehee, M. A. Díaz-García, F. Hide, R. Gupta, E. K. Miller, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting polymer distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(13), 1536 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Hide, M. Diaz-Garcia, B. Schwartz, M. Andersson, and A. Heeger, “Semiconducting polymers: a new class of solid-state laser materials,” Science 273(5283), 1833–1836 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hinze, P.

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H. H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. S. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, G. Ade, D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, and W. Kowalsky, “A continuously tunable organic DFB laser,” Microelectron. Eng. 78-79, 364–368 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, and P. Hinze, “Laser threshold reduction in an all-spiro guest-host system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(10), 1659–1661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hobson, P. A.

A. Boudrioua, P. A. Hobson, B. Matterson, I. D. W. Samuel, and W. L. Barnes, “Birefringence and dispersion of the light emitting polymer MEH-PPV,” Synth. Met. 111-112, 545–547 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Huska, K.

S. Klinkhammer, N. Heussner, K. Huska, T. Bocksrocker, F. Geislhöringer, C. Vannahme, T. Mappes, and U. Lemmer, “Voltage-controlled tuning of an organic semiconductor distributed feedback laser using liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(2), 023307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jian, X.

Johannes, H. H.

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H. H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. S. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Johannes, H.-H.

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, and P. Hinze, “Laser threshold reduction in an all-spiro guest-host system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(10), 1659–1661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Karnutsch, C.

C. Karnutsch, M. Stroisch, M. Punke, U. Lemmer, J. Wang, and T. Weimann, “„Laser diode-pumped organic semiconductor lasers utilizing two-dimensional photonic crystal resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(10), 741–743 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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T. Aimono, Y. Kawamura, K. Goushi, H. Yamamoto, H. Sasabe, and C. Adachi, “100% fluorescence efficiency of 4,4'-bis[(N-carbazole)styryl]biphenyl in a solid film and the very low amplified spontaneous emission threshold,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kern, W.

M. R. Weinberger, G. Langer, A. Pogantsch, A. Haase, E. Zojer, and W. Kern, “Continuously color-tunable rubber laser,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 16(2), 130–133 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Klinkhammer, S.

S. Klinkhammer, N. Heussner, K. Huska, T. Bocksrocker, F. Geislhöringer, C. Vannahme, T. Mappes, and U. Lemmer, “Voltage-controlled tuning of an organic semiconductor distributed feedback laser using liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(2), 023307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Woggon, S. Klinkhammer, and U. Lemmer, “Compact spectroscopy system based on tunable organic semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 99(1-2), 47–51 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Klinkhammer, T. Woggon, C. Vannahme, T. Mappes, and U. Lemmer, “Optical spectroscopy with organic semiconductor lasers,” Proc. SPIE 7722, 77221I, 77221I-10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Stroisch, T. Woggon, C. Teiwes-Morin, S. Klinkhammer, K. Forberich, A. Gombert, M. Gerken, and U. Lemmer, “Intermediate high index layer for laser mode tuning in organic semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5890–5895 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Klinkhammer, T. Woggon, U. Geyer, C. Vannahme, T. Mappes, S. Dehm, and U. Lemmer, “A continuously tunable low-threshold organic semiconductor distributed feedback laser fabricated by rotating shadow mask evaporation,” Appl. Phys. B 97(4), 787–791 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kofod, G.

S. Döring, M. Kollosche, T. Rabe, J. Stumpe, and G. Kofod, “Electrically tunable polymer DFB laser,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(37), 4265–4269 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kollosche, M.

S. Döring, M. Kollosche, T. Rabe, J. Stumpe, and G. Kofod, “Electrically tunable polymer DFB laser,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(37), 4265–4269 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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P. Görrn, M. Lehnhardt, W. Kowalsky, T. Riedl, and S. Wagner, “Elastically tunable self-organized organic lasers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(7), 869–872 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lehnhardt, T. Riedl, T. Weimann, and W. Kowalsky, “Impact of triplet absorption and triplet-singlet annihilation on the dynamics of optically pumped organic solid-state lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 81(16), 165206 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H. H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. S. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, G. Ade, D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, and W. Kowalsky, “A continuously tunable organic DFB laser,” Microelectron. Eng. 78-79, 364–368 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, and P. Hinze, “Laser threshold reduction in an all-spiro guest-host system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(10), 1659–1661 (2004).
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D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, and P. Hinze, “Laser threshold reduction in an all-spiro guest-host system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(10), 1659–1661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kumagai, M.

K. Suzuki, K. Takahashi, Y. Seida, K. Shimizu, M. Kumagai, and Y. Taniguchi, “A continuously tunable organic solid-state laser based on a flexible distributed-feedback resonator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 2, No. 3A), L249–L251 (2003).
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L. D. Landau and V. G. Levich, “Dragging of a liquid by a moving plate,” Acta Phys. URSS 17, 42–54 (1942).

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M. R. Weinberger, G. Langer, A. Pogantsch, A. Haase, E. Zojer, and W. Kern, “Continuously color-tunable rubber laser,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 16(2), 130–133 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lehnhardt, M.

P. Görrn, M. Lehnhardt, W. Kowalsky, T. Riedl, and S. Wagner, “Elastically tunable self-organized organic lasers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(7), 869–872 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lehnhardt, T. Riedl, T. Weimann, and W. Kowalsky, “Impact of triplet absorption and triplet-singlet annihilation on the dynamics of optically pumped organic solid-state lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 81(16), 165206 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lemmer, U.

S. Klinkhammer, N. Heussner, K. Huska, T. Bocksrocker, F. Geislhöringer, C. Vannahme, T. Mappes, and U. Lemmer, “Voltage-controlled tuning of an organic semiconductor distributed feedback laser using liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(2), 023307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Woggon, S. Klinkhammer, and U. Lemmer, “Compact spectroscopy system based on tunable organic semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 99(1-2), 47–51 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Stroisch, T. Woggon, C. Teiwes-Morin, S. Klinkhammer, K. Forberich, A. Gombert, M. Gerken, and U. Lemmer, “Intermediate high index layer for laser mode tuning in organic semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5890–5895 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Klinkhammer, T. Woggon, C. Vannahme, T. Mappes, and U. Lemmer, “Optical spectroscopy with organic semiconductor lasers,” Proc. SPIE 7722, 77221I, 77221I-10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Klinkhammer, T. Woggon, U. Geyer, C. Vannahme, T. Mappes, S. Dehm, and U. Lemmer, “A continuously tunable low-threshold organic semiconductor distributed feedback laser fabricated by rotating shadow mask evaporation,” Appl. Phys. B 97(4), 787–791 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Karnutsch, M. Stroisch, M. Punke, U. Lemmer, J. Wang, and T. Weimann, “„Laser diode-pumped organic semiconductor lasers utilizing two-dimensional photonic crystal resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(10), 741–743 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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L. D. Landau and V. G. Levich, “Dragging of a liquid by a moving plate,” Acta Phys. URSS 17, 42–54 (1942).

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S. Klinkhammer, N. Heussner, K. Huska, T. Bocksrocker, F. Geislhöringer, C. Vannahme, T. Mappes, and U. Lemmer, “Voltage-controlled tuning of an organic semiconductor distributed feedback laser using liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(2), 023307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Klinkhammer, T. Woggon, C. Vannahme, T. Mappes, and U. Lemmer, “Optical spectroscopy with organic semiconductor lasers,” Proc. SPIE 7722, 77221I, 77221I-10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Klinkhammer, T. Woggon, U. Geyer, C. Vannahme, T. Mappes, S. Dehm, and U. Lemmer, “A continuously tunable low-threshold organic semiconductor distributed feedback laser fabricated by rotating shadow mask evaporation,” Appl. Phys. B 97(4), 787–791 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Matterson, B.

A. Boudrioua, P. A. Hobson, B. Matterson, I. D. W. Samuel, and W. L. Barnes, “Birefringence and dispersion of the light emitting polymer MEH-PPV,” Synth. Met. 111-112, 545–547 (2000).
[CrossRef]

McGehee, M. D.

M. D. McGehee, M. A. Díaz-García, F. Hide, R. Gupta, E. K. Miller, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting polymer distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(13), 1536 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Miller, E. K.

M. D. McGehee, M. A. Díaz-García, F. Hide, R. Gupta, E. K. Miller, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting polymer distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(13), 1536 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Moritake, H.

R. Ozaki, T. Shinpo, K. Yoshino, M. Ozaki, and H. Moritake, “Tunable liquid crystal laser using distributed feedback cavity fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Express 1(1), 012003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moses, D.

M. D. McGehee, M. A. Díaz-García, F. Hide, R. Gupta, E. K. Miller, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting polymer distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(13), 1536 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nehls, B. S.

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H. H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. S. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O’ Faolain, L.

Ozaki, M.

R. Ozaki, T. Shinpo, K. Yoshino, M. Ozaki, and H. Moritake, “Tunable liquid crystal laser using distributed feedback cavity fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Express 1(1), 012003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ozaki, R.

R. Ozaki, T. Shinpo, K. Yoshino, M. Ozaki, and H. Moritake, “Tunable liquid crystal laser using distributed feedback cavity fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Express 1(1), 012003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, B.

Pintani, M.

M. Campoy-Quiles, G. Heliotis, R. Xia, M. Ariu, M. Pintani, P. Etchegoin, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Ellipsometric characterization of the optical constants of polyfluorene gain media,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(6), 925–933 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pogantsch, A.

M. R. Weinberger, G. Langer, A. Pogantsch, A. Haase, E. Zojer, and W. Kern, “Continuously color-tunable rubber laser,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 16(2), 130–133 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Punke, M.

C. Karnutsch, M. Stroisch, M. Punke, U. Lemmer, J. Wang, and T. Weimann, “„Laser diode-pumped organic semiconductor lasers utilizing two-dimensional photonic crystal resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(10), 741–743 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rabe, T.

S. Döring, M. Kollosche, T. Rabe, J. Stumpe, and G. Kofod, “Electrically tunable polymer DFB laser,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(37), 4265–4269 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H. H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. S. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, G. Ade, D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, and W. Kowalsky, “A continuously tunable organic DFB laser,” Microelectron. Eng. 78-79, 364–368 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, and P. Hinze, “Laser threshold reduction in an all-spiro guest-host system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(10), 1659–1661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ribierre, J.-C.

Riedl, T.

P. Görrn, M. Lehnhardt, W. Kowalsky, T. Riedl, and S. Wagner, “Elastically tunable self-organized organic lasers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(7), 869–872 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lehnhardt, T. Riedl, T. Weimann, and W. Kowalsky, “Impact of triplet absorption and triplet-singlet annihilation on the dynamics of optically pumped organic solid-state lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 81(16), 165206 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H. H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. S. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, G. Ade, D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, and W. Kowalsky, “A continuously tunable organic DFB laser,” Microelectron. Eng. 78-79, 364–368 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, and P. Hinze, “Laser threshold reduction in an all-spiro guest-host system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(10), 1659–1661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sakata, H.

H. Sakata, K. Yamashita, H. Takeuchi, and M. Tomiki, “Diode-pumped distributed-feedback dye laser with an organic–inorganic microcavity,” Appl. Phys. B 92(2), 243–246 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Samuel, I. D. W.

Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Hybrid optoelectronics: A polymer laser pumped by a nitride light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. D. W. Samuel and G. A. Turnbull, “Organic semiconductor lasers,” Chem. Rev. 107(4), 1272–1295 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Vasdekis, G. Tsiminis, J.-C. Ribierre, L. O’ Faolain, T. F. Krauss, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Diode pumped distributed Bragg reflector lasers based on a dye-to-polymer energy transfer blend,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9211–9216 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Boudrioua, P. A. Hobson, B. Matterson, I. D. W. Samuel, and W. L. Barnes, “Birefringence and dispersion of the light emitting polymer MEH-PPV,” Synth. Met. 111-112, 545–547 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sasabe, H.

T. Aimono, Y. Kawamura, K. Goushi, H. Yamamoto, H. Sasabe, and C. Adachi, “100% fluorescence efficiency of 4,4'-bis[(N-carbazole)styryl]biphenyl in a solid film and the very low amplified spontaneous emission threshold,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schade, W.

T. Voss, D. Scheel, and W. Schade, “A microchip-laser-pumped DFB-polymer-dye laser,” Appl. Phys. B 73(2), 105–109 (2001).
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T. Voss, D. Scheel, and W. Schade, “A microchip-laser-pumped DFB-polymer-dye laser,” Appl. Phys. B 73(2), 105–109 (2001).
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Scherf, U.

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H. H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. S. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, D.

J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, G. Ade, D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, and W. Kowalsky, “A continuously tunable organic DFB laser,” Microelectron. Eng. 78-79, 364–368 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, and P. Hinze, “Laser threshold reduction in an all-spiro guest-host system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(10), 1659–1661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, B.

F. Hide, M. Diaz-Garcia, B. Schwartz, M. Andersson, and A. Heeger, “Semiconducting polymers: a new class of solid-state laser materials,” Science 273(5283), 1833–1836 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Seida, Y.

K. Suzuki, K. Takahashi, Y. Seida, K. Shimizu, M. Kumagai, and Y. Taniguchi, “A continuously tunable organic solid-state laser based on a flexible distributed-feedback resonator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 2, No. 3A), L249–L251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, K.

K. Suzuki, K. Takahashi, Y. Seida, K. Shimizu, M. Kumagai, and Y. Taniguchi, “A continuously tunable organic solid-state laser based on a flexible distributed-feedback resonator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 2, No. 3A), L249–L251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shinpo, T.

R. Ozaki, T. Shinpo, K. Yoshino, M. Ozaki, and H. Moritake, “Tunable liquid crystal laser using distributed feedback cavity fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Express 1(1), 012003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stroisch, M.

M. Stroisch, T. Woggon, C. Teiwes-Morin, S. Klinkhammer, K. Forberich, A. Gombert, M. Gerken, and U. Lemmer, “Intermediate high index layer for laser mode tuning in organic semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5890–5895 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Karnutsch, M. Stroisch, M. Punke, U. Lemmer, J. Wang, and T. Weimann, “„Laser diode-pumped organic semiconductor lasers utilizing two-dimensional photonic crystal resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(10), 741–743 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stumpe, J.

S. Döring, M. Kollosche, T. Rabe, J. Stumpe, and G. Kofod, “Electrically tunable polymer DFB laser,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(37), 4265–4269 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suzuki, K.

K. Suzuki, K. Takahashi, Y. Seida, K. Shimizu, M. Kumagai, and Y. Taniguchi, “A continuously tunable organic solid-state laser based on a flexible distributed-feedback resonator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 2, No. 3A), L249–L251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, K.

K. Suzuki, K. Takahashi, Y. Seida, K. Shimizu, M. Kumagai, and Y. Taniguchi, “A continuously tunable organic solid-state laser based on a flexible distributed-feedback resonator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 2, No. 3A), L249–L251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Takeuchi, H.

H. Sakata, K. Yamashita, H. Takeuchi, and M. Tomiki, “Diode-pumped distributed-feedback dye laser with an organic–inorganic microcavity,” Appl. Phys. B 92(2), 243–246 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tan, Y.

Taniguchi, Y.

K. Suzuki, K. Takahashi, Y. Seida, K. Shimizu, M. Kumagai, and Y. Taniguchi, “A continuously tunable organic solid-state laser based on a flexible distributed-feedback resonator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 2, No. 3A), L249–L251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Tomiki, M.

H. Sakata, K. Yamashita, H. Takeuchi, and M. Tomiki, “Diode-pumped distributed-feedback dye laser with an organic–inorganic microcavity,” Appl. Phys. B 92(2), 243–246 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tsiminis, G.

Tsutsumi, N.

Turnbull, G. A.

Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Hybrid optoelectronics: A polymer laser pumped by a nitride light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. D. W. Samuel and G. A. Turnbull, “Organic semiconductor lasers,” Chem. Rev. 107(4), 1272–1295 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Vasdekis, G. Tsiminis, J.-C. Ribierre, L. O’ Faolain, T. F. Krauss, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Diode pumped distributed Bragg reflector lasers based on a dye-to-polymer energy transfer blend,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9211–9216 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vannahme, C.

S. Klinkhammer, N. Heussner, K. Huska, T. Bocksrocker, F. Geislhöringer, C. Vannahme, T. Mappes, and U. Lemmer, “Voltage-controlled tuning of an organic semiconductor distributed feedback laser using liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(2), 023307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Klinkhammer, T. Woggon, C. Vannahme, T. Mappes, and U. Lemmer, “Optical spectroscopy with organic semiconductor lasers,” Proc. SPIE 7722, 77221I, 77221I-10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Klinkhammer, T. Woggon, U. Geyer, C. Vannahme, T. Mappes, S. Dehm, and U. Lemmer, “A continuously tunable low-threshold organic semiconductor distributed feedback laser fabricated by rotating shadow mask evaporation,” Appl. Phys. B 97(4), 787–791 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vasdekis, A. E.

Voss, T.

T. Voss, D. Scheel, and W. Schade, “A microchip-laser-pumped DFB-polymer-dye laser,” Appl. Phys. B 73(2), 105–109 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, S.

P. Görrn, M. Lehnhardt, W. Kowalsky, T. Riedl, and S. Wagner, “Elastically tunable self-organized organic lasers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(7), 869–872 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

C. Karnutsch, M. Stroisch, M. Punke, U. Lemmer, J. Wang, and T. Weimann, “„Laser diode-pumped organic semiconductor lasers utilizing two-dimensional photonic crystal resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(10), 741–743 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H. H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. S. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, G. Ade, D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, and W. Kowalsky, “A continuously tunable organic DFB laser,” Microelectron. Eng. 78-79, 364–368 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, and P. Hinze, “Laser threshold reduction in an all-spiro guest-host system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(10), 1659–1661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Weimann, T.

M. Lehnhardt, T. Riedl, T. Weimann, and W. Kowalsky, “Impact of triplet absorption and triplet-singlet annihilation on the dynamics of optically pumped organic solid-state lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 81(16), 165206 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Karnutsch, M. Stroisch, M. Punke, U. Lemmer, J. Wang, and T. Weimann, “„Laser diode-pumped organic semiconductor lasers utilizing two-dimensional photonic crystal resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(10), 741–743 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H. H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. S. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, G. Ade, D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, and W. Kowalsky, “A continuously tunable organic DFB laser,” Microelectron. Eng. 78-79, 364–368 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, and P. Hinze, “Laser threshold reduction in an all-spiro guest-host system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(10), 1659–1661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Weinberger, M. R.

M. R. Weinberger, G. Langer, A. Pogantsch, A. Haase, E. Zojer, and W. Kern, “Continuously color-tunable rubber laser,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 16(2), 130–133 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Welland, M. E.

B. Wenger, N. Tétreault, M. E. Welland, and R. H. Friend, “Mechanically tunable conjugated polymer distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(19), 193303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wenger, B.

B. Wenger, N. Tétreault, M. E. Welland, and R. H. Friend, “Mechanically tunable conjugated polymer distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(19), 193303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Woggon, T.

M. Stroisch, T. Woggon, C. Teiwes-Morin, S. Klinkhammer, K. Forberich, A. Gombert, M. Gerken, and U. Lemmer, “Intermediate high index layer for laser mode tuning in organic semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5890–5895 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Woggon, S. Klinkhammer, and U. Lemmer, “Compact spectroscopy system based on tunable organic semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 99(1-2), 47–51 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Klinkhammer, T. Woggon, C. Vannahme, T. Mappes, and U. Lemmer, “Optical spectroscopy with organic semiconductor lasers,” Proc. SPIE 7722, 77221I, 77221I-10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Klinkhammer, T. Woggon, U. Geyer, C. Vannahme, T. Mappes, S. Dehm, and U. Lemmer, “A continuously tunable low-threshold organic semiconductor distributed feedback laser fabricated by rotating shadow mask evaporation,” Appl. Phys. B 97(4), 787–791 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xia, R.

M. Campoy-Quiles, G. Heliotis, R. Xia, M. Ariu, M. Pintani, P. Etchegoin, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Ellipsometric characterization of the optical constants of polyfluorene gain media,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(6), 925–933 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, H.

T. Aimono, Y. Kawamura, K. Goushi, H. Yamamoto, H. Sasabe, and C. Adachi, “100% fluorescence efficiency of 4,4'-bis[(N-carbazole)styryl]biphenyl in a solid film and the very low amplified spontaneous emission threshold,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, K.

H. Sakata, K. Yamashita, H. Takeuchi, and M. Tomiki, “Diode-pumped distributed-feedback dye laser with an organic–inorganic microcavity,” Appl. Phys. B 92(2), 243–246 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Hybrid optoelectronics: A polymer laser pumped by a nitride light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, K.

R. Ozaki, T. Shinpo, K. Yoshino, M. Ozaki, and H. Moritake, “Tunable liquid crystal laser using distributed feedback cavity fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Express 1(1), 012003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zojer, E.

M. R. Weinberger, G. Langer, A. Pogantsch, A. Haase, E. Zojer, and W. Kern, “Continuously color-tunable rubber laser,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 16(2), 130–133 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Acta Phys. URSS (1)

L. D. Landau and V. G. Levich, “Dragging of a liquid by a moving plate,” Acta Phys. URSS 17, 42–54 (1942).

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

M. Campoy-Quiles, G. Heliotis, R. Xia, M. Ariu, M. Pintani, P. Etchegoin, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Ellipsometric characterization of the optical constants of polyfluorene gain media,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(6), 925–933 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (3)

M. R. Weinberger, G. Langer, A. Pogantsch, A. Haase, E. Zojer, and W. Kern, “Continuously color-tunable rubber laser,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 16(2), 130–133 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Görrn, M. Lehnhardt, W. Kowalsky, T. Riedl, and S. Wagner, “Elastically tunable self-organized organic lasers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(7), 869–872 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Döring, M. Kollosche, T. Rabe, J. Stumpe, and G. Kofod, “Electrically tunable polymer DFB laser,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(37), 4265–4269 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (4)

S. Klinkhammer, T. Woggon, U. Geyer, C. Vannahme, T. Mappes, S. Dehm, and U. Lemmer, “A continuously tunable low-threshold organic semiconductor distributed feedback laser fabricated by rotating shadow mask evaporation,” Appl. Phys. B 97(4), 787–791 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Sakata, K. Yamashita, H. Takeuchi, and M. Tomiki, “Diode-pumped distributed-feedback dye laser with an organic–inorganic microcavity,” Appl. Phys. B 92(2), 243–246 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Voss, D. Scheel, and W. Schade, “A microchip-laser-pumped DFB-polymer-dye laser,” Appl. Phys. B 73(2), 105–109 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Woggon, S. Klinkhammer, and U. Lemmer, “Compact spectroscopy system based on tunable organic semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 99(1-2), 47–51 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

R. Ozaki, T. Shinpo, K. Yoshino, M. Ozaki, and H. Moritake, “Tunable liquid crystal laser using distributed feedback cavity fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Express 1(1), 012003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

S. Klinkhammer, N. Heussner, K. Huska, T. Bocksrocker, F. Geislhöringer, C. Vannahme, T. Mappes, and U. Lemmer, “Voltage-controlled tuning of an organic semiconductor distributed feedback laser using liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(2), 023307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Wenger, N. Tétreault, M. E. Welland, and R. H. Friend, “Mechanically tunable conjugated polymer distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(19), 193303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. B. Arango, M. B. Christiansen, M. Gersborg-Hansen, and A. Kristensen, “Optofluidic tuning of photonic crystal band edge lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(22), 223503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Aimono, Y. Kawamura, K. Goushi, H. Yamamoto, H. Sasabe, and C. Adachi, “100% fluorescence efficiency of 4,4'-bis[(N-carbazole)styryl]biphenyl in a solid film and the very low amplified spontaneous emission threshold,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Hybrid optoelectronics: A polymer laser pumped by a nitride light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. D. McGehee, M. A. Díaz-García, F. Hide, R. Gupta, E. K. Miller, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting polymer distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(13), 1536 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H. H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. S. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, and P. Hinze, “Laser threshold reduction in an all-spiro guest-host system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(10), 1659–1661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

I. D. W. Samuel and G. A. Turnbull, “Organic semiconductor lasers,” Chem. Rev. 107(4), 1272–1295 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

C. Karnutsch, M. Stroisch, M. Punke, U. Lemmer, J. Wang, and T. Weimann, “„Laser diode-pumped organic semiconductor lasers utilizing two-dimensional photonic crystal resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(10), 741–743 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Suzuki, K. Takahashi, Y. Seida, K. Shimizu, M. Kumagai, and Y. Taniguchi, “A continuously tunable organic solid-state laser based on a flexible distributed-feedback resonator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 2, No. 3A), L249–L251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, G. Ade, D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, and W. Kowalsky, “A continuously tunable organic DFB laser,” Microelectron. Eng. 78-79, 364–368 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

N. Tessler, G. J. Denton, and R. H. Friend, “Lasing from conjugated-polymer microcavities,” Nature 382(6593), 695–697 (1996).
[CrossRef]

V. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. Burrows, and S. Forrest, “Laser action in organic semiconductor waveguide and double-heterostructure devices,” Nature 389(6649), 362–364 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. Lehnhardt, T. Riedl, T. Weimann, and W. Kowalsky, “Impact of triplet absorption and triplet-singlet annihilation on the dynamics of optically pumped organic solid-state lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 81(16), 165206 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

S. Klinkhammer, T. Woggon, C. Vannahme, T. Mappes, and U. Lemmer, “Optical spectroscopy with organic semiconductor lasers,” Proc. SPIE 7722, 77221I, 77221I-10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

F. Hide, M. Diaz-Garcia, B. Schwartz, M. Andersson, and A. Heeger, “Semiconducting polymers: a new class of solid-state laser materials,” Science 273(5283), 1833–1836 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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A. Boudrioua, P. A. Hobson, B. Matterson, I. D. W. Samuel, and W. L. Barnes, “Birefringence and dispersion of the light emitting polymer MEH-PPV,” Synth. Met. 111-112, 545–547 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Scheme of the wedge-shaped organic DFB laser. (b) Photograph of a glass plate with a continuously changing film thickness of a conjugated polymer blend coated by horizontal dipping. (c) Film thickness profile for two samples coated using with different barrier accelerations of 5.8 mm s−2 and 7.3 mm s−2 as measured (symbols) and numerically fitted (solid lines).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Laser spectra measured at different pump spot positions along the thickness gradient on the wedge-shaped DFB laser with F80.9BT0.1:MEH-PPV as gain material. (b) Lasing thresholds for different positions and thus, different film thicknesses. Inset: Input-output characteristic of the DFB laser at a wavelength of 612.6 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a). Spatially resolved lasing wavelength of the TE0-mode. (b) Position-dependent averaged lasing wavelength and standard deviation along the gradient determined from two identical samples (black). Expected position-dependence of lasing wavelength using the measured thickness profile and the Bragg condition (dashed gray).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a). Laser spectra measured at different pump spot positions along the thickness gradient on the wedge-shaped DFB laser with F80.9BT0.1 as gain material. (b) Position-dependent lasing wavelengths and lasing thresholds along the thickness gradient.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a). Laser spectra measured at different pump spot positions along the thickness gradient on the wedge-shaped DFB laser with PVK:CBP:BSB-Cz as gain material. (b) Position-dependent lasing wavelengths and lasing thresholds along the thickness gradient.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a). Laser spectra measured at different pump spot positions along the thickness gradient on the wedge-shaped DFB laser with F8BT:MEH-PPV as gain material and a laser diode as pump source. (b) Position-dependent lasing wavelengths along the thickness gradient. (c) Input-output characteristic of the DFB laser emitting at 634 nm pumped with a laser diode (squares) and current-output energy characteristics of the pulsed laser diode (circles). (d) Photograph of the DFB laser emission on a paper screen.

Equations (1)

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d=1.34 ( μv σ ) 2 3 R d

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