Abstract

Plasmonic effects in amorphous silicon thin film solar cells with randomly textured metal back contact were investigated experimentally and numerically. The influence of different metal back contacts with and without ZnO interlayer was studied and losses in the individual layers of the solar cell were quantified. The amorphous silicon thin film solar cells were prepared on randomly textured substrates using large area production equipment and exhibit conversion efficiencies approaching 10%. The optical wave propagation within the solar cells was studied by Finite Difference Time Domain simulations. The quantum efficiency of solar cells with and without ZnO interlayer was simulated and the interplay between the reflection, quantum efficiency and absorption in the back contact will be discussed.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, and J. Bailat, “Thin-film silicon solar cell technology,” Prog. Photovoltaics 12(23), 113–142 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Konagai, “Present status and future prospects of silicon thin-film solar cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 030001 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Sai, H. Jia, and M. Kondo, “Impact of front and rear texture of thin-film microcrystalline silicon solar cells on their light trapping properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(4), 044505 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Madzharov, R. Dewan, and D. Knipp, “Influence of front and back grating on light trapping in microcrystalline thin-film silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express 19(S2Suppl 2), A95–A107 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. Müller, B. Rech, J. Springer, and M. Vanecek, “TCO and light trapping in silicon thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 917–930 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Meier, S. Dubail, S. Golay, U. Kroll, S. Faÿ, E. Vallat-Sauvain, L. Feitknecht, J. Dubail, and A. Shah, “Microcrystalline silicon and the impact on micromorph tandem solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 74(1-4), 457–467 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Yamamoto, M. Yoshimi, Y. Tawada, Y. Okamoto, A. Nakajima, and S. Igari, “Thin-film poly-Si solar cells on glass substrate fabricated at low temperature,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 69(2), 179–185 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21793–21800 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, E. Verhagen, R. J. Walters, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Light trapping in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express 18(S2Suppl 2), A237–A245 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. Morris, R. R. Arya, J. G. O’Dowd, and S. Wiedeman, “Absorption enhancement in hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) based solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 67(2), 1079–1087 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. A. Street, “Hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1991).
  12. U. W. Paetzold, F. Hallermann, B. E. Pieters, U. Rau, R. Carius, and G. von Plessen, “Localized plasmonic losses at metal back contact of thin film silicon solar cells,” Proc. SPIE 7725, 772517, 772517-9 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Hüpkes, T. Wätjen, R. V. Aubel, R. Schmitz, W. Reetz, and A. Gordijn, “Material study on Zno/Ag back reflectors for silicon thin film solar cells,” 23rd EU PVSEC Proc, Session 3AV(2.24), 2419–2421 (2008).
  14. J. Springer, A. Poruba, L. Müllerova, M. Vanecek, O. Kluth, and B. Rech, “Absorption loss at nanorough silver back reflector of thin-film silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(3), 1427–1429 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Zeman, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, J. W. Metselaar, and R. E. I. Schropp, “Optical modeling of a-Si:H solar cells with rough interfaces: effect of back contact and interface roughness,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(11), 6436–6443 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Springer, A. Poruba, and M. Vanecek, “Improved three-dimensional optical model for thin-film silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(9), 5329–5337 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Zeman and J. Krc, “Optical and electrical modeling of thin-film silicon solar cells,” J. Mater. Res. 23(04), 889–898 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. Dewan, I. Vasilev, V. Jovanov, and D. Knipp, “Optical enhancement and losses of pyramid textured thin- film silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(1), 013101 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. Fahr, T. Kirchartz, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Approaching the Lambertian limit in randomly textured thin-film solar cells,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A865–A874 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

M. Konagai, “Present status and future prospects of silicon thin-film solar cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 030001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Dewan, I. Vasilev, V. Jovanov, and D. Knipp, “Optical enhancement and losses of pyramid textured thin- film silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(1), 013101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Madzharov, R. Dewan, and D. Knipp, “Influence of front and back grating on light trapping in microcrystalline thin-film silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express 19(S2Suppl 2), A95–A107 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Fahr, T. Kirchartz, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Approaching the Lambertian limit in randomly textured thin-film solar cells,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A865–A874 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, E. Verhagen, R. J. Walters, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Light trapping in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express 18(S2Suppl 2), A237–A245 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Sai, H. Jia, and M. Kondo, “Impact of front and rear texture of thin-film microcrystalline silicon solar cells on their light trapping properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(4), 044505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

U. W. Paetzold, F. Hallermann, B. E. Pieters, U. Rau, R. Carius, and G. von Plessen, “Localized plasmonic losses at metal back contact of thin film silicon solar cells,” Proc. SPIE 7725, 772517, 772517-9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

J. Hüpkes, T. Wätjen, R. V. Aubel, R. Schmitz, W. Reetz, and A. Gordijn, “Material study on Zno/Ag back reflectors for silicon thin film solar cells,” 23rd EU PVSEC Proc, Session 3AV(2.24), 2419–2421 (2008).

M. Zeman and J. Krc, “Optical and electrical modeling of thin-film silicon solar cells,” J. Mater. Res. 23(04), 889–898 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21793–21800 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (4)

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, and J. Bailat, “Thin-film silicon solar cell technology,” Prog. Photovoltaics 12(23), 113–142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Springer, A. Poruba, and M. Vanecek, “Improved three-dimensional optical model for thin-film silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(9), 5329–5337 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Springer, A. Poruba, L. Müllerova, M. Vanecek, O. Kluth, and B. Rech, “Absorption loss at nanorough silver back reflector of thin-film silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(3), 1427–1429 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Müller, B. Rech, J. Springer, and M. Vanecek, “TCO and light trapping in silicon thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 917–930 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

J. Meier, S. Dubail, S. Golay, U. Kroll, S. Faÿ, E. Vallat-Sauvain, L. Feitknecht, J. Dubail, and A. Shah, “Microcrystalline silicon and the impact on micromorph tandem solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 74(1-4), 457–467 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

M. Zeman, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, J. W. Metselaar, and R. E. I. Schropp, “Optical modeling of a-Si:H solar cells with rough interfaces: effect of back contact and interface roughness,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(11), 6436–6443 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

K. Yamamoto, M. Yoshimi, Y. Tawada, Y. Okamoto, A. Nakajima, and S. Igari, “Thin-film poly-Si solar cells on glass substrate fabricated at low temperature,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 69(2), 179–185 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

J. Morris, R. R. Arya, J. G. O’Dowd, and S. Wiedeman, “Absorption enhancement in hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) based solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 67(2), 1079–1087 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Arya, R. R.

J. Morris, R. R. Arya, J. G. O’Dowd, and S. Wiedeman, “Absorption enhancement in hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) based solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 67(2), 1079–1087 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

Aubel, R. V.

J. Hüpkes, T. Wätjen, R. V. Aubel, R. Schmitz, W. Reetz, and A. Gordijn, “Material study on Zno/Ag back reflectors for silicon thin film solar cells,” 23rd EU PVSEC Proc, Session 3AV(2.24), 2419–2421 (2008).

Bailat, J.

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, and J. Bailat, “Thin-film silicon solar cell technology,” Prog. Photovoltaics 12(23), 113–142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Carius, R.

U. W. Paetzold, F. Hallermann, B. E. Pieters, U. Rau, R. Carius, and G. von Plessen, “Localized plasmonic losses at metal back contact of thin film silicon solar cells,” Proc. SPIE 7725, 772517, 772517-9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Catchpole, K. R.

Dewan, R.

D. Madzharov, R. Dewan, and D. Knipp, “Influence of front and back grating on light trapping in microcrystalline thin-film silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express 19(S2Suppl 2), A95–A107 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Dewan, I. Vasilev, V. Jovanov, and D. Knipp, “Optical enhancement and losses of pyramid textured thin- film silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(1), 013101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Droz, C.

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, and J. Bailat, “Thin-film silicon solar cell technology,” Prog. Photovoltaics 12(23), 113–142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dubail, J.

J. Meier, S. Dubail, S. Golay, U. Kroll, S. Faÿ, E. Vallat-Sauvain, L. Feitknecht, J. Dubail, and A. Shah, “Microcrystalline silicon and the impact on micromorph tandem solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 74(1-4), 457–467 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dubail, S.

J. Meier, S. Dubail, S. Golay, U. Kroll, S. Faÿ, E. Vallat-Sauvain, L. Feitknecht, J. Dubail, and A. Shah, “Microcrystalline silicon and the impact on micromorph tandem solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 74(1-4), 457–467 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fahr, S.

Faÿ, S.

J. Meier, S. Dubail, S. Golay, U. Kroll, S. Faÿ, E. Vallat-Sauvain, L. Feitknecht, J. Dubail, and A. Shah, “Microcrystalline silicon and the impact on micromorph tandem solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 74(1-4), 457–467 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Feitknecht, L.

J. Meier, S. Dubail, S. Golay, U. Kroll, S. Faÿ, E. Vallat-Sauvain, L. Feitknecht, J. Dubail, and A. Shah, “Microcrystalline silicon and the impact on micromorph tandem solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 74(1-4), 457–467 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ferry, V. E.

Golay, S.

J. Meier, S. Dubail, S. Golay, U. Kroll, S. Faÿ, E. Vallat-Sauvain, L. Feitknecht, J. Dubail, and A. Shah, “Microcrystalline silicon and the impact on micromorph tandem solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 74(1-4), 457–467 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gordijn, A.

J. Hüpkes, T. Wätjen, R. V. Aubel, R. Schmitz, W. Reetz, and A. Gordijn, “Material study on Zno/Ag back reflectors for silicon thin film solar cells,” 23rd EU PVSEC Proc, Session 3AV(2.24), 2419–2421 (2008).

Hallermann, F.

U. W. Paetzold, F. Hallermann, B. E. Pieters, U. Rau, R. Carius, and G. von Plessen, “Localized plasmonic losses at metal back contact of thin film silicon solar cells,” Proc. SPIE 7725, 772517, 772517-9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hüpkes, J.

J. Hüpkes, T. Wätjen, R. V. Aubel, R. Schmitz, W. Reetz, and A. Gordijn, “Material study on Zno/Ag back reflectors for silicon thin film solar cells,” 23rd EU PVSEC Proc, Session 3AV(2.24), 2419–2421 (2008).

Igari, S.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yoshimi, Y. Tawada, Y. Okamoto, A. Nakajima, and S. Igari, “Thin-film poly-Si solar cells on glass substrate fabricated at low temperature,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 69(2), 179–185 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jia, H.

H. Sai, H. Jia, and M. Kondo, “Impact of front and rear texture of thin-film microcrystalline silicon solar cells on their light trapping properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(4), 044505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jovanov, V.

R. Dewan, I. Vasilev, V. Jovanov, and D. Knipp, “Optical enhancement and losses of pyramid textured thin- film silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(1), 013101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kirchartz, T.

Kluth, O.

J. Springer, A. Poruba, L. Müllerova, M. Vanecek, O. Kluth, and B. Rech, “Absorption loss at nanorough silver back reflector of thin-film silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(3), 1427–1429 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Knipp, D.

R. Dewan, I. Vasilev, V. Jovanov, and D. Knipp, “Optical enhancement and losses of pyramid textured thin- film silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(1), 013101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Madzharov, R. Dewan, and D. Knipp, “Influence of front and back grating on light trapping in microcrystalline thin-film silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express 19(S2Suppl 2), A95–A107 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Konagai, M.

M. Konagai, “Present status and future prospects of silicon thin-film solar cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 030001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, M.

H. Sai, H. Jia, and M. Kondo, “Impact of front and rear texture of thin-film microcrystalline silicon solar cells on their light trapping properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(4), 044505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Krc, J.

M. Zeman and J. Krc, “Optical and electrical modeling of thin-film silicon solar cells,” J. Mater. Res. 23(04), 889–898 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kroll, U.

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, and J. Bailat, “Thin-film silicon solar cell technology,” Prog. Photovoltaics 12(23), 113–142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Meier, S. Dubail, S. Golay, U. Kroll, S. Faÿ, E. Vallat-Sauvain, L. Feitknecht, J. Dubail, and A. Shah, “Microcrystalline silicon and the impact on micromorph tandem solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 74(1-4), 457–467 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lederer, F.

Li, H. B. T.

Madzharov, D.

Meier, J.

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, and J. Bailat, “Thin-film silicon solar cell technology,” Prog. Photovoltaics 12(23), 113–142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Meier, S. Dubail, S. Golay, U. Kroll, S. Faÿ, E. Vallat-Sauvain, L. Feitknecht, J. Dubail, and A. Shah, “Microcrystalline silicon and the impact on micromorph tandem solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 74(1-4), 457–467 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Metselaar, J. W.

M. Zeman, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, J. W. Metselaar, and R. E. I. Schropp, “Optical modeling of a-Si:H solar cells with rough interfaces: effect of back contact and interface roughness,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(11), 6436–6443 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Morris, J.

J. Morris, R. R. Arya, J. G. O’Dowd, and S. Wiedeman, “Absorption enhancement in hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) based solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 67(2), 1079–1087 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Müller, J.

J. Müller, B. Rech, J. Springer, and M. Vanecek, “TCO and light trapping in silicon thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 917–930 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Müllerova, L.

J. Springer, A. Poruba, L. Müllerova, M. Vanecek, O. Kluth, and B. Rech, “Absorption loss at nanorough silver back reflector of thin-film silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(3), 1427–1429 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, A.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yoshimi, Y. Tawada, Y. Okamoto, A. Nakajima, and S. Igari, “Thin-film poly-Si solar cells on glass substrate fabricated at low temperature,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 69(2), 179–185 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O’Dowd, J. G.

J. Morris, R. R. Arya, J. G. O’Dowd, and S. Wiedeman, “Absorption enhancement in hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) based solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 67(2), 1079–1087 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, Y.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yoshimi, Y. Tawada, Y. Okamoto, A. Nakajima, and S. Igari, “Thin-film poly-Si solar cells on glass substrate fabricated at low temperature,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 69(2), 179–185 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Paetzold, U. W.

U. W. Paetzold, F. Hallermann, B. E. Pieters, U. Rau, R. Carius, and G. von Plessen, “Localized plasmonic losses at metal back contact of thin film silicon solar cells,” Proc. SPIE 7725, 772517, 772517-9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pieters, B. E.

U. W. Paetzold, F. Hallermann, B. E. Pieters, U. Rau, R. Carius, and G. von Plessen, “Localized plasmonic losses at metal back contact of thin film silicon solar cells,” Proc. SPIE 7725, 772517, 772517-9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

Poruba, A.

J. Springer, A. Poruba, L. Müllerova, M. Vanecek, O. Kluth, and B. Rech, “Absorption loss at nanorough silver back reflector of thin-film silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(3), 1427–1429 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Springer, A. Poruba, and M. Vanecek, “Improved three-dimensional optical model for thin-film silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(9), 5329–5337 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rau, U.

U. W. Paetzold, F. Hallermann, B. E. Pieters, U. Rau, R. Carius, and G. von Plessen, “Localized plasmonic losses at metal back contact of thin film silicon solar cells,” Proc. SPIE 7725, 772517, 772517-9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rech, B.

J. Springer, A. Poruba, L. Müllerova, M. Vanecek, O. Kluth, and B. Rech, “Absorption loss at nanorough silver back reflector of thin-film silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(3), 1427–1429 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Müller, B. Rech, J. Springer, and M. Vanecek, “TCO and light trapping in silicon thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 917–930 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Reetz, W.

J. Hüpkes, T. Wätjen, R. V. Aubel, R. Schmitz, W. Reetz, and A. Gordijn, “Material study on Zno/Ag back reflectors for silicon thin film solar cells,” 23rd EU PVSEC Proc, Session 3AV(2.24), 2419–2421 (2008).

Rockstuhl, C.

Sai, H.

H. Sai, H. Jia, and M. Kondo, “Impact of front and rear texture of thin-film microcrystalline silicon solar cells on their light trapping properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(4), 044505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schade, H.

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, and J. Bailat, “Thin-film silicon solar cell technology,” Prog. Photovoltaics 12(23), 113–142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schmitz, R.

J. Hüpkes, T. Wätjen, R. V. Aubel, R. Schmitz, W. Reetz, and A. Gordijn, “Material study on Zno/Ag back reflectors for silicon thin film solar cells,” 23rd EU PVSEC Proc, Session 3AV(2.24), 2419–2421 (2008).

Schropp, R. E. I.

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, E. Verhagen, R. J. Walters, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Light trapping in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express 18(S2Suppl 2), A237–A245 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Zeman, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, J. W. Metselaar, and R. E. I. Schropp, “Optical modeling of a-Si:H solar cells with rough interfaces: effect of back contact and interface roughness,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(11), 6436–6443 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shah, A.

J. Meier, S. Dubail, S. Golay, U. Kroll, S. Faÿ, E. Vallat-Sauvain, L. Feitknecht, J. Dubail, and A. Shah, “Microcrystalline silicon and the impact on micromorph tandem solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 74(1-4), 457–467 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shah, A. V.

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, and J. Bailat, “Thin-film silicon solar cell technology,” Prog. Photovoltaics 12(23), 113–142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Springer, J.

J. Müller, B. Rech, J. Springer, and M. Vanecek, “TCO and light trapping in silicon thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 917–930 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Springer, A. Poruba, and M. Vanecek, “Improved three-dimensional optical model for thin-film silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(9), 5329–5337 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Springer, A. Poruba, L. Müllerova, M. Vanecek, O. Kluth, and B. Rech, “Absorption loss at nanorough silver back reflector of thin-film silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(3), 1427–1429 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tawada, Y.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yoshimi, Y. Tawada, Y. Okamoto, A. Nakajima, and S. Igari, “Thin-film poly-Si solar cells on glass substrate fabricated at low temperature,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 69(2), 179–185 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vallat-Sauvain, E.

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, and J. Bailat, “Thin-film silicon solar cell technology,” Prog. Photovoltaics 12(23), 113–142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Meier, S. Dubail, S. Golay, U. Kroll, S. Faÿ, E. Vallat-Sauvain, L. Feitknecht, J. Dubail, and A. Shah, “Microcrystalline silicon and the impact on micromorph tandem solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 74(1-4), 457–467 (2002).
[CrossRef]

van Swaaij, R. A. C. M. M.

M. Zeman, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, J. W. Metselaar, and R. E. I. Schropp, “Optical modeling of a-Si:H solar cells with rough interfaces: effect of back contact and interface roughness,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(11), 6436–6443 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vanecek, M.

J. Springer, A. Poruba, L. Müllerova, M. Vanecek, O. Kluth, and B. Rech, “Absorption loss at nanorough silver back reflector of thin-film silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(3), 1427–1429 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, and J. Bailat, “Thin-film silicon solar cell technology,” Prog. Photovoltaics 12(23), 113–142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Müller, B. Rech, J. Springer, and M. Vanecek, “TCO and light trapping in silicon thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 917–930 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Springer, A. Poruba, and M. Vanecek, “Improved three-dimensional optical model for thin-film silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(9), 5329–5337 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vasilev, I.

R. Dewan, I. Vasilev, V. Jovanov, and D. Knipp, “Optical enhancement and losses of pyramid textured thin- film silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(1), 013101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Verhagen, E.

Verschuuren, M. A.

von Plessen, G.

U. W. Paetzold, F. Hallermann, B. E. Pieters, U. Rau, R. Carius, and G. von Plessen, “Localized plasmonic losses at metal back contact of thin film silicon solar cells,” Proc. SPIE 7725, 772517, 772517-9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Walters, R. J.

Wätjen, T.

J. Hüpkes, T. Wätjen, R. V. Aubel, R. Schmitz, W. Reetz, and A. Gordijn, “Material study on Zno/Ag back reflectors for silicon thin film solar cells,” 23rd EU PVSEC Proc, Session 3AV(2.24), 2419–2421 (2008).

Wiedeman, S.

J. Morris, R. R. Arya, J. G. O’Dowd, and S. Wiedeman, “Absorption enhancement in hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) based solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 67(2), 1079–1087 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wyrsch, N.

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, and J. Bailat, “Thin-film silicon solar cell technology,” Prog. Photovoltaics 12(23), 113–142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, K.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yoshimi, Y. Tawada, Y. Okamoto, A. Nakajima, and S. Igari, “Thin-film poly-Si solar cells on glass substrate fabricated at low temperature,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 69(2), 179–185 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yoshimi, M.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yoshimi, Y. Tawada, Y. Okamoto, A. Nakajima, and S. Igari, “Thin-film poly-Si solar cells on glass substrate fabricated at low temperature,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 69(2), 179–185 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zeman, M.

M. Zeman and J. Krc, “Optical and electrical modeling of thin-film silicon solar cells,” J. Mater. Res. 23(04), 889–898 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Zeman, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, J. W. Metselaar, and R. E. I. Schropp, “Optical modeling of a-Si:H solar cells with rough interfaces: effect of back contact and interface roughness,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(11), 6436–6443 (2000).
[CrossRef]

23rd EU PVSEC Proc, Session (1)

J. Hüpkes, T. Wätjen, R. V. Aubel, R. Schmitz, W. Reetz, and A. Gordijn, “Material study on Zno/Ag back reflectors for silicon thin film solar cells,” 23rd EU PVSEC Proc, Session 3AV(2.24), 2419–2421 (2008).

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

K. Yamamoto, M. Yoshimi, Y. Tawada, Y. Okamoto, A. Nakajima, and S. Igari, “Thin-film poly-Si solar cells on glass substrate fabricated at low temperature,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 69(2), 179–185 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (6)

J. Morris, R. R. Arya, J. G. O’Dowd, and S. Wiedeman, “Absorption enhancement in hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) based solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 67(2), 1079–1087 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. Dewan, I. Vasilev, V. Jovanov, and D. Knipp, “Optical enhancement and losses of pyramid textured thin- film silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(1), 013101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Springer, A. Poruba, L. Müllerova, M. Vanecek, O. Kluth, and B. Rech, “Absorption loss at nanorough silver back reflector of thin-film silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(3), 1427–1429 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Zeman, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, J. W. Metselaar, and R. E. I. Schropp, “Optical modeling of a-Si:H solar cells with rough interfaces: effect of back contact and interface roughness,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(11), 6436–6443 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Springer, A. Poruba, and M. Vanecek, “Improved three-dimensional optical model for thin-film silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(9), 5329–5337 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Sai, H. Jia, and M. Kondo, “Impact of front and rear texture of thin-film microcrystalline silicon solar cells on their light trapping properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(4), 044505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Res. (1)

M. Zeman and J. Krc, “Optical and electrical modeling of thin-film silicon solar cells,” J. Mater. Res. 23(04), 889–898 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Konagai, “Present status and future prospects of silicon thin-film solar cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 030001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Proc. SPIE (1)

U. W. Paetzold, F. Hallermann, B. E. Pieters, U. Rau, R. Carius, and G. von Plessen, “Localized plasmonic losses at metal back contact of thin film silicon solar cells,” Proc. SPIE 7725, 772517, 772517-9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Photovoltaics (1)

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, and J. Bailat, “Thin-film silicon solar cell technology,” Prog. Photovoltaics 12(23), 113–142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy (1)

J. Müller, B. Rech, J. Springer, and M. Vanecek, “TCO and light trapping in silicon thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 917–930 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (1)

J. Meier, S. Dubail, S. Golay, U. Kroll, S. Faÿ, E. Vallat-Sauvain, L. Feitknecht, J. Dubail, and A. Shah, “Microcrystalline silicon and the impact on micromorph tandem solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 74(1-4), 457–467 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

R. A. Street, “Hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1991).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic sketch of thin film silicon solar cell (a) with ZnO interlayer (b) without ZnO interlayer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Absorption spectrum and quantum efficiency of solar cell with and without ZnO interlayer (a) Aluminum back contact (b) Silver back contact.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Cross section of unit cell: (a) without ZnO interlayer and (d) with ZnO interlayer used for simulation, and simulated power loss profile under monochromatic illumination (wavelength of a 680 nm) with different back contact configuration: (b) Si/Ag, (c) Si/Al, (e) ZnO/Ag, (f) ZnO/Al.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simulated quantum efficiencies and optical losses for different back contact configuration: (a) Si/Ag, (b) Si/Al, (c) ZnO/Ag, (d) ZnO/Al.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Electrical Parameters of Solar Cell with Different Back Contact Configurations

Tables Icon

Table 2 Simulated Current and Optical Losses in Metal for Different Back Contact Configuration

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Q( x,y,z )= 1 2 c ε 0 ηα | E( x,y,z ) | 2
QE= 1 P opt Q( x,y,z )dxdydz
I sc = q hc λQE( λ )S( λ )dλ

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