Abstract

A series of Co/Alq3 granular films were deposited on silicon substrates using co-evaporation technique. Under the nonuniform illumination of a laser beam, lateral photovoltaic effect (LPE) was observed in the samples, with the optimal open-circuit position sensitivity of 34.7mV/mm. The insertion of oxide layer results in the decrease of lateral photovoltage (LPV) and the irreversible LPE. The dependence of lateral photovoltaic effect on substrates was also briefly investigated. The possible mechanism was discussed.

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  1. W. Schottky, “Uber den entstehungsort der photoelektronen in kupfer-kupferoxydull-photozellen,” Phys. Z. 31, 913–925 (1930).
  2. J. T. Wallmark, “A new semiconductor photocell using lateral photoeffect,” Proc. IRE 45, 474–483 (1957).
  3. J. Henry and J. Livingstone, “A comparative study of position-sensitive detectors based on Schottky barrier crystalline and amorphous silicon structures,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 12(7), 387–393 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. H. Willens, “Photoelectronic and electronic properties of Ti/Si amorphous superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(11), 663–665 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Q. Xiao, H. Wang, Z. C. Zhao, Y. Z. Gu, Y. X. Xia, and Z. H. Wang, “The Co-film-thickness dependent lateral photoeffect in Co-SiO2-Si metal-oxide-semiconductor structures,” Opt. Express 16(6), 3798–3806 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C. Q. Yu, H. Wang, S. Q. Xiao, and Y. X. Xia, “Direct observation of lateral photovoltaic effect in nano-metal-films,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21712–21722 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. K. J. Jin, H. B. Zhao, H. B. Lu, L. Liao, and G. Z. Yang, “Dember effect induced photovoltage in perovskite p-n heterojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081906 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. Liao, K. J. Jin, C. Ge, C. L. Hu, H. B. Lu, and G. Z. Yang, “A theoretical study on the dynamic process of the lateral photovoltage in perovskite oxide heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 062116 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. Q. Yu and H. Wang, “Large lateral photovoltaic effect in metal-(oxide-) semiconductor structures,” Sensors 10(11), 10155–10180 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. H. Wang, S. Q. Xiao, C. Q. Yu, Y. X. Xia, Q. Y. Jin, and Z. H. Wang, “Correlation of magnetoresistance and lateral photovoltage in Co3Mn2O/SiO2/Si metal-oxide-semiconductor structure,” New J. Phys. 10(9), 093006 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Lu and H. Wang, “Large lateral photovoltaic effect observed in nano Al-doped ZnO films,” Opt. Express 19(15), 13806–13811 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. W. W. Liu, S. Q. Zhao, K. Zhao, and W. Sun, “Lateral infrared photovoltaic effects in Ag-doped ZnO thin films,” Int. J. Photoenergy 2010, 793481 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. Kabra, Th. B. Singh, and K. S. Narayan, “Semiconducting-polymer-based position-sensitive detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(21), 5073–5075 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Zhang, P. Sheng, W. M. Liu, Q. Shu, Z. H. Gu, and G. Ni, “Influence of substrate on the transportation properties of Co/Alq3 granular films on a Si wafer,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 27(7), 078102 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. Q. Yu, H. Wang, and Y. X. Xia, “Giant lateral photovoltaic effect observed in TiO2 dusted metal-semiconductor structure of Ti/TiO2/Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141112 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  16. L. Du and H. Wang, “Infrared laser induced lateral photovoltaic effect observed in Cu(2)O nanoscale film,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9113–9118 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

2010 (5)

Y. Zhang, P. Sheng, W. M. Liu, Q. Shu, Z. H. Gu, and G. Ni, “Influence of substrate on the transportation properties of Co/Alq3 granular films on a Si wafer,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 27(7), 078102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Du and H. Wang, “Infrared laser induced lateral photovoltaic effect observed in Cu(2)O nanoscale film,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9113–9118 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Liao, K. J. Jin, C. Ge, C. L. Hu, H. B. Lu, and G. Z. Yang, “A theoretical study on the dynamic process of the lateral photovoltage in perovskite oxide heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 062116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Q. Yu and H. Wang, “Large lateral photovoltaic effect in metal-(oxide-) semiconductor structures,” Sensors 10(11), 10155–10180 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. W. Liu, S. Q. Zhao, K. Zhao, and W. Sun, “Lateral infrared photovoltaic effects in Ag-doped ZnO thin films,” Int. J. Photoenergy 2010, 793481 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

C. Q. Yu, H. Wang, S. Q. Xiao, and Y. X. Xia, “Direct observation of lateral photovoltaic effect in nano-metal-films,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21712–21722 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Q. Yu, H. Wang, and Y. X. Xia, “Giant lateral photovoltaic effect observed in TiO2 dusted metal-semiconductor structure of Ti/TiO2/Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

S. Q. Xiao, H. Wang, Z. C. Zhao, Y. Z. Gu, Y. X. Xia, and Z. H. Wang, “The Co-film-thickness dependent lateral photoeffect in Co-SiO2-Si metal-oxide-semiconductor structures,” Opt. Express 16(6), 3798–3806 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang, S. Q. Xiao, C. Q. Yu, Y. X. Xia, Q. Y. Jin, and Z. H. Wang, “Correlation of magnetoresistance and lateral photovoltage in Co3Mn2O/SiO2/Si metal-oxide-semiconductor structure,” New J. Phys. 10(9), 093006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

K. J. Jin, H. B. Zhao, H. B. Lu, L. Liao, and G. Z. Yang, “Dember effect induced photovoltage in perovskite p-n heterojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081906 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

D. Kabra, Th. B. Singh, and K. S. Narayan, “Semiconducting-polymer-based position-sensitive detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(21), 5073–5075 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

J. Henry and J. Livingstone, “A comparative study of position-sensitive detectors based on Schottky barrier crystalline and amorphous silicon structures,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 12(7), 387–393 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

R. H. Willens, “Photoelectronic and electronic properties of Ti/Si amorphous superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(11), 663–665 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1930 (1)

W. Schottky, “Uber den entstehungsort der photoelektronen in kupfer-kupferoxydull-photozellen,” Phys. Z. 31, 913–925 (1930).

Du, L.

Ge, C.

L. Liao, K. J. Jin, C. Ge, C. L. Hu, H. B. Lu, and G. Z. Yang, “A theoretical study on the dynamic process of the lateral photovoltage in perovskite oxide heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 062116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gu, Y. Z.

Gu, Z. H.

Y. Zhang, P. Sheng, W. M. Liu, Q. Shu, Z. H. Gu, and G. Ni, “Influence of substrate on the transportation properties of Co/Alq3 granular films on a Si wafer,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 27(7), 078102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Henry, J.

J. Henry and J. Livingstone, “A comparative study of position-sensitive detectors based on Schottky barrier crystalline and amorphous silicon structures,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 12(7), 387–393 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hu, C. L.

L. Liao, K. J. Jin, C. Ge, C. L. Hu, H. B. Lu, and G. Z. Yang, “A theoretical study on the dynamic process of the lateral photovoltage in perovskite oxide heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 062116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jin, K. J.

L. Liao, K. J. Jin, C. Ge, C. L. Hu, H. B. Lu, and G. Z. Yang, “A theoretical study on the dynamic process of the lateral photovoltage in perovskite oxide heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 062116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Jin, H. B. Zhao, H. B. Lu, L. Liao, and G. Z. Yang, “Dember effect induced photovoltage in perovskite p-n heterojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081906 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jin, Q. Y.

H. Wang, S. Q. Xiao, C. Q. Yu, Y. X. Xia, Q. Y. Jin, and Z. H. Wang, “Correlation of magnetoresistance and lateral photovoltage in Co3Mn2O/SiO2/Si metal-oxide-semiconductor structure,” New J. Phys. 10(9), 093006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kabra, D.

D. Kabra, Th. B. Singh, and K. S. Narayan, “Semiconducting-polymer-based position-sensitive detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(21), 5073–5075 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liao, L.

L. Liao, K. J. Jin, C. Ge, C. L. Hu, H. B. Lu, and G. Z. Yang, “A theoretical study on the dynamic process of the lateral photovoltage in perovskite oxide heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 062116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Jin, H. B. Zhao, H. B. Lu, L. Liao, and G. Z. Yang, “Dember effect induced photovoltage in perovskite p-n heterojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081906 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W. M.

Y. Zhang, P. Sheng, W. M. Liu, Q. Shu, Z. H. Gu, and G. Ni, “Influence of substrate on the transportation properties of Co/Alq3 granular films on a Si wafer,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 27(7), 078102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W. W.

W. W. Liu, S. Q. Zhao, K. Zhao, and W. Sun, “Lateral infrared photovoltaic effects in Ag-doped ZnO thin films,” Int. J. Photoenergy 2010, 793481 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Livingstone, J.

J. Henry and J. Livingstone, “A comparative study of position-sensitive detectors based on Schottky barrier crystalline and amorphous silicon structures,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 12(7), 387–393 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lu, H. B.

L. Liao, K. J. Jin, C. Ge, C. L. Hu, H. B. Lu, and G. Z. Yang, “A theoretical study on the dynamic process of the lateral photovoltage in perovskite oxide heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 062116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Jin, H. B. Zhao, H. B. Lu, L. Liao, and G. Z. Yang, “Dember effect induced photovoltage in perovskite p-n heterojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081906 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lu, J.

Narayan, K. S.

D. Kabra, Th. B. Singh, and K. S. Narayan, “Semiconducting-polymer-based position-sensitive detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(21), 5073–5075 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ni, G.

Y. Zhang, P. Sheng, W. M. Liu, Q. Shu, Z. H. Gu, and G. Ni, “Influence of substrate on the transportation properties of Co/Alq3 granular films on a Si wafer,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 27(7), 078102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schottky, W.

W. Schottky, “Uber den entstehungsort der photoelektronen in kupfer-kupferoxydull-photozellen,” Phys. Z. 31, 913–925 (1930).

Sheng, P.

Y. Zhang, P. Sheng, W. M. Liu, Q. Shu, Z. H. Gu, and G. Ni, “Influence of substrate on the transportation properties of Co/Alq3 granular films on a Si wafer,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 27(7), 078102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shu, Q.

Y. Zhang, P. Sheng, W. M. Liu, Q. Shu, Z. H. Gu, and G. Ni, “Influence of substrate on the transportation properties of Co/Alq3 granular films on a Si wafer,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 27(7), 078102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Singh, Th. B.

D. Kabra, Th. B. Singh, and K. S. Narayan, “Semiconducting-polymer-based position-sensitive detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(21), 5073–5075 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sun, W.

W. W. Liu, S. Q. Zhao, K. Zhao, and W. Sun, “Lateral infrared photovoltaic effects in Ag-doped ZnO thin films,” Int. J. Photoenergy 2010, 793481 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

J. Lu and H. Wang, “Large lateral photovoltaic effect observed in nano Al-doped ZnO films,” Opt. Express 19(15), 13806–13811 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Du and H. Wang, “Infrared laser induced lateral photovoltaic effect observed in Cu(2)O nanoscale film,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9113–9118 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Q. Yu and H. Wang, “Large lateral photovoltaic effect in metal-(oxide-) semiconductor structures,” Sensors 10(11), 10155–10180 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Q. Yu, H. Wang, S. Q. Xiao, and Y. X. Xia, “Direct observation of lateral photovoltaic effect in nano-metal-films,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21712–21722 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Q. Yu, H. Wang, and Y. X. Xia, “Giant lateral photovoltaic effect observed in TiO2 dusted metal-semiconductor structure of Ti/TiO2/Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Q. Xiao, H. Wang, Z. C. Zhao, Y. Z. Gu, Y. X. Xia, and Z. H. Wang, “The Co-film-thickness dependent lateral photoeffect in Co-SiO2-Si metal-oxide-semiconductor structures,” Opt. Express 16(6), 3798–3806 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang, S. Q. Xiao, C. Q. Yu, Y. X. Xia, Q. Y. Jin, and Z. H. Wang, “Correlation of magnetoresistance and lateral photovoltage in Co3Mn2O/SiO2/Si metal-oxide-semiconductor structure,” New J. Phys. 10(9), 093006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. H.

H. Wang, S. Q. Xiao, C. Q. Yu, Y. X. Xia, Q. Y. Jin, and Z. H. Wang, “Correlation of magnetoresistance and lateral photovoltage in Co3Mn2O/SiO2/Si metal-oxide-semiconductor structure,” New J. Phys. 10(9), 093006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Q. Xiao, H. Wang, Z. C. Zhao, Y. Z. Gu, Y. X. Xia, and Z. H. Wang, “The Co-film-thickness dependent lateral photoeffect in Co-SiO2-Si metal-oxide-semiconductor structures,” Opt. Express 16(6), 3798–3806 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Willens, R. H.

R. H. Willens, “Photoelectronic and electronic properties of Ti/Si amorphous superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(11), 663–665 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Xia, Y. X.

C. Q. Yu, H. Wang, and Y. X. Xia, “Giant lateral photovoltaic effect observed in TiO2 dusted metal-semiconductor structure of Ti/TiO2/Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Q. Yu, H. Wang, S. Q. Xiao, and Y. X. Xia, “Direct observation of lateral photovoltaic effect in nano-metal-films,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21712–21722 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang, S. Q. Xiao, C. Q. Yu, Y. X. Xia, Q. Y. Jin, and Z. H. Wang, “Correlation of magnetoresistance and lateral photovoltage in Co3Mn2O/SiO2/Si metal-oxide-semiconductor structure,” New J. Phys. 10(9), 093006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Q. Xiao, H. Wang, Z. C. Zhao, Y. Z. Gu, Y. X. Xia, and Z. H. Wang, “The Co-film-thickness dependent lateral photoeffect in Co-SiO2-Si metal-oxide-semiconductor structures,” Opt. Express 16(6), 3798–3806 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiao, S. Q.

Yang, G. Z.

L. Liao, K. J. Jin, C. Ge, C. L. Hu, H. B. Lu, and G. Z. Yang, “A theoretical study on the dynamic process of the lateral photovoltage in perovskite oxide heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 062116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Jin, H. B. Zhao, H. B. Lu, L. Liao, and G. Z. Yang, “Dember effect induced photovoltage in perovskite p-n heterojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081906 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yu, C. Q.

C. Q. Yu and H. Wang, “Large lateral photovoltaic effect in metal-(oxide-) semiconductor structures,” Sensors 10(11), 10155–10180 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Q. Yu, H. Wang, S. Q. Xiao, and Y. X. Xia, “Direct observation of lateral photovoltaic effect in nano-metal-films,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21712–21722 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Q. Yu, H. Wang, and Y. X. Xia, “Giant lateral photovoltaic effect observed in TiO2 dusted metal-semiconductor structure of Ti/TiO2/Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, S. Q. Xiao, C. Q. Yu, Y. X. Xia, Q. Y. Jin, and Z. H. Wang, “Correlation of magnetoresistance and lateral photovoltage in Co3Mn2O/SiO2/Si metal-oxide-semiconductor structure,” New J. Phys. 10(9), 093006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, P. Sheng, W. M. Liu, Q. Shu, Z. H. Gu, and G. Ni, “Influence of substrate on the transportation properties of Co/Alq3 granular films on a Si wafer,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 27(7), 078102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, H. B.

K. J. Jin, H. B. Zhao, H. B. Lu, L. Liao, and G. Z. Yang, “Dember effect induced photovoltage in perovskite p-n heterojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081906 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, K.

W. W. Liu, S. Q. Zhao, K. Zhao, and W. Sun, “Lateral infrared photovoltaic effects in Ag-doped ZnO thin films,” Int. J. Photoenergy 2010, 793481 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, S. Q.

W. W. Liu, S. Q. Zhao, K. Zhao, and W. Sun, “Lateral infrared photovoltaic effects in Ag-doped ZnO thin films,” Int. J. Photoenergy 2010, 793481 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Z. C.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

R. H. Willens, “Photoelectronic and electronic properties of Ti/Si amorphous superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(11), 663–665 (1986).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Jin, H. B. Zhao, H. B. Lu, L. Liao, and G. Z. Yang, “Dember effect induced photovoltage in perovskite p-n heterojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081906 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Liao, K. J. Jin, C. Ge, C. L. Hu, H. B. Lu, and G. Z. Yang, “A theoretical study on the dynamic process of the lateral photovoltage in perovskite oxide heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 062116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Q. Yu, H. Wang, and Y. X. Xia, “Giant lateral photovoltaic effect observed in TiO2 dusted metal-semiconductor structure of Ti/TiO2/Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Kabra, Th. B. Singh, and K. S. Narayan, “Semiconducting-polymer-based position-sensitive detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(21), 5073–5075 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Zhang, P. Sheng, W. M. Liu, Q. Shu, Z. H. Gu, and G. Ni, “Influence of substrate on the transportation properties of Co/Alq3 granular films on a Si wafer,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 27(7), 078102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Photoenergy (1)

W. W. Liu, S. Q. Zhao, K. Zhao, and W. Sun, “Lateral infrared photovoltaic effects in Ag-doped ZnO thin films,” Int. J. Photoenergy 2010, 793481 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. (1)

J. Henry and J. Livingstone, “A comparative study of position-sensitive detectors based on Schottky barrier crystalline and amorphous silicon structures,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 12(7), 387–393 (2001).
[CrossRef]

New J. Phys. (1)

H. Wang, S. Q. Xiao, C. Q. Yu, Y. X. Xia, Q. Y. Jin, and Z. H. Wang, “Correlation of magnetoresistance and lateral photovoltage in Co3Mn2O/SiO2/Si metal-oxide-semiconductor structure,” New J. Phys. 10(9), 093006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Phys. Z. (1)

W. Schottky, “Uber den entstehungsort der photoelektronen in kupfer-kupferoxydull-photozellen,” Phys. Z. 31, 913–925 (1930).

Sensors (1)

C. Q. Yu and H. Wang, “Large lateral photovoltaic effect in metal-(oxide-) semiconductor structures,” Sensors 10(11), 10155–10180 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

J. T. Wallmark, “A new semiconductor photocell using lateral photoeffect,” Proc. IRE 45, 474–483 (1957).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

LPV as a function of the laser position (x) observed in Co0.4(Alq3)0.6/Si (2-4 Ω-cm) sample. The upper inset shows the partial enlarged drawing of the LPV curve in reverse mode and the bottom inset shows the schematic drawing of LPE measurement.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The transverse I-V curve for Co0.4(Alq3)0.6/Si (2-4 Ω-cm) sample

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

the position dependence of LPV for Co0.4(Alq3)0.6/SiO2/Si (2-4 Ω-cm) sample

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

the position dependence of LPV for Co0.4(Alq3)0.6/Si samples with different resistivities of Si wafer: 2-4Ω-cm, 70-80Ω-cm and >1000Ω-cm

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