Abstract

A series of Co/Alq3 granular films were deposited on silicon substrates using co-evaporation technique. Under the nonuniform illumination of a laser beam, lateral photovoltaic effect (LPE) was observed in the samples, with the optimal open-circuit position sensitivity of 34.7mV/mm. The insertion of oxide layer results in the decrease of lateral photovoltage (LPV) and the irreversible LPE. The dependence of lateral photovoltaic effect on substrates was also briefly investigated. The possible mechanism was discussed.

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  1. W. Schottky, “Uber den entstehungsort der photoelektronen in kupfer-kupferoxydull-photozellen,” Phys. Z.31, 913–925 (1930).
  2. J. T. Wallmark, “A new semiconductor photocell using lateral photoeffect,” Proc. IRE 45, 474–483 (1957).
  3. J. Henry and J. Livingstone, “A comparative study of position-sensitive detectors based on Schottky barrier crystalline and amorphous silicon structures,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron.12(7), 387–393 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. H. Willens, “Photoelectronic and electronic properties of Ti/Si amorphous superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.49(11), 663–665 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Q. Xiao, H. Wang, Z. C. Zhao, Y. Z. Gu, Y. X. Xia, and Z. H. Wang, “The Co-film-thickness dependent lateral photoeffect in Co-SiO2-Si metal-oxide-semiconductor structures,” Opt. Express16(6), 3798–3806 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C. Q. Yu, H. Wang, S. Q. Xiao, and Y. X. Xia, “Direct observation of lateral photovoltaic effect in nano-metal-films,” Opt. Express17(24), 21712–21722 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. K. J. Jin, H. B. Zhao, H. B. Lu, L. Liao, and G. Z. Yang, “Dember effect induced photovoltage in perovskite p-n heterojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(8), 081906 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. Liao, K. J. Jin, C. Ge, C. L. Hu, H. B. Lu, and G. Z. Yang, “A theoretical study on the dynamic process of the lateral photovoltage in perovskite oxide heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(6), 062116 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. Q. Yu and H. Wang, “Large lateral photovoltaic effect in metal-(oxide-) semiconductor structures,” Sensors10(11), 10155–10180 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. H. Wang, S. Q. Xiao, C. Q. Yu, Y. X. Xia, Q. Y. Jin, and Z. H. Wang, “Correlation of magnetoresistance and lateral photovoltage in Co3Mn2O/SiO2/Si metal-oxide-semiconductor structure,” New J. Phys.10(9), 093006 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Lu and H. Wang, “Large lateral photovoltaic effect observed in nano Al-doped ZnO films,” Opt. Express19(15), 13806–13811 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. W. W. Liu, S. Q. Zhao, K. Zhao, and W. Sun, “Lateral infrared photovoltaic effects in Ag-doped ZnO thin films,” Int. J. Photoenergy2010, 793481 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. Kabra, Th. B. Singh, and K. S. Narayan, “Semiconducting-polymer-based position-sensitive detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(21), 5073–5075 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Zhang, P. Sheng, W. M. Liu, Q. Shu, Z. H. Gu, and G. Ni, “Influence of substrate on the transportation properties of Co/Alq3 granular films on a Si wafer,” Chin. Phys. Lett.27(7), 078102 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. Q. Yu, H. Wang, and Y. X. Xia, “Giant lateral photovoltaic effect observed in TiO2 dusted metal-semiconductor structure of Ti/TiO2/Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(14), 141112 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  16. L. Du and H. Wang, “Infrared laser induced lateral photovoltaic effect observed in Cu(2)O nanoscale film,” Opt. Express18(9), 9113–9118 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

2010

Y. Zhang, P. Sheng, W. M. Liu, Q. Shu, Z. H. Gu, and G. Ni, “Influence of substrate on the transportation properties of Co/Alq3 granular films on a Si wafer,” Chin. Phys. Lett.27(7), 078102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Du and H. Wang, “Infrared laser induced lateral photovoltaic effect observed in Cu(2)O nanoscale film,” Opt. Express18(9), 9113–9118 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Liao, K. J. Jin, C. Ge, C. L. Hu, H. B. Lu, and G. Z. Yang, “A theoretical study on the dynamic process of the lateral photovoltage in perovskite oxide heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(6), 062116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Q. Yu and H. Wang, “Large lateral photovoltaic effect in metal-(oxide-) semiconductor structures,” Sensors10(11), 10155–10180 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. W. Liu, S. Q. Zhao, K. Zhao, and W. Sun, “Lateral infrared photovoltaic effects in Ag-doped ZnO thin films,” Int. J. Photoenergy2010, 793481 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

C. Q. Yu, H. Wang, S. Q. Xiao, and Y. X. Xia, “Direct observation of lateral photovoltaic effect in nano-metal-films,” Opt. Express17(24), 21712–21722 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Q. Yu, H. Wang, and Y. X. Xia, “Giant lateral photovoltaic effect observed in TiO2 dusted metal-semiconductor structure of Ti/TiO2/Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(14), 141112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

S. Q. Xiao, H. Wang, Z. C. Zhao, Y. Z. Gu, Y. X. Xia, and Z. H. Wang, “The Co-film-thickness dependent lateral photoeffect in Co-SiO2-Si metal-oxide-semiconductor structures,” Opt. Express16(6), 3798–3806 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang, S. Q. Xiao, C. Q. Yu, Y. X. Xia, Q. Y. Jin, and Z. H. Wang, “Correlation of magnetoresistance and lateral photovoltage in Co3Mn2O/SiO2/Si metal-oxide-semiconductor structure,” New J. Phys.10(9), 093006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

K. J. Jin, H. B. Zhao, H. B. Lu, L. Liao, and G. Z. Yang, “Dember effect induced photovoltage in perovskite p-n heterojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(8), 081906 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004

D. Kabra, Th. B. Singh, and K. S. Narayan, “Semiconducting-polymer-based position-sensitive detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(21), 5073–5075 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001

J. Henry and J. Livingstone, “A comparative study of position-sensitive detectors based on Schottky barrier crystalline and amorphous silicon structures,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron.12(7), 387–393 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1986

R. H. Willens, “Photoelectronic and electronic properties of Ti/Si amorphous superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.49(11), 663–665 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1930

W. Schottky, “Uber den entstehungsort der photoelektronen in kupfer-kupferoxydull-photozellen,” Phys. Z.31, 913–925 (1930).

Du, L.

Ge, C.

L. Liao, K. J. Jin, C. Ge, C. L. Hu, H. B. Lu, and G. Z. Yang, “A theoretical study on the dynamic process of the lateral photovoltage in perovskite oxide heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(6), 062116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gu, Y. Z.

Gu, Z. H.

Y. Zhang, P. Sheng, W. M. Liu, Q. Shu, Z. H. Gu, and G. Ni, “Influence of substrate on the transportation properties of Co/Alq3 granular films on a Si wafer,” Chin. Phys. Lett.27(7), 078102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Henry, J.

J. Henry and J. Livingstone, “A comparative study of position-sensitive detectors based on Schottky barrier crystalline and amorphous silicon structures,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron.12(7), 387–393 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hu, C. L.

L. Liao, K. J. Jin, C. Ge, C. L. Hu, H. B. Lu, and G. Z. Yang, “A theoretical study on the dynamic process of the lateral photovoltage in perovskite oxide heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(6), 062116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jin, K. J.

L. Liao, K. J. Jin, C. Ge, C. L. Hu, H. B. Lu, and G. Z. Yang, “A theoretical study on the dynamic process of the lateral photovoltage in perovskite oxide heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(6), 062116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Jin, H. B. Zhao, H. B. Lu, L. Liao, and G. Z. Yang, “Dember effect induced photovoltage in perovskite p-n heterojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(8), 081906 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jin, Q. Y.

H. Wang, S. Q. Xiao, C. Q. Yu, Y. X. Xia, Q. Y. Jin, and Z. H. Wang, “Correlation of magnetoresistance and lateral photovoltage in Co3Mn2O/SiO2/Si metal-oxide-semiconductor structure,” New J. Phys.10(9), 093006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kabra, D.

D. Kabra, Th. B. Singh, and K. S. Narayan, “Semiconducting-polymer-based position-sensitive detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(21), 5073–5075 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liao, L.

L. Liao, K. J. Jin, C. Ge, C. L. Hu, H. B. Lu, and G. Z. Yang, “A theoretical study on the dynamic process of the lateral photovoltage in perovskite oxide heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(6), 062116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Jin, H. B. Zhao, H. B. Lu, L. Liao, and G. Z. Yang, “Dember effect induced photovoltage in perovskite p-n heterojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(8), 081906 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W. M.

Y. Zhang, P. Sheng, W. M. Liu, Q. Shu, Z. H. Gu, and G. Ni, “Influence of substrate on the transportation properties of Co/Alq3 granular films on a Si wafer,” Chin. Phys. Lett.27(7), 078102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W. W.

W. W. Liu, S. Q. Zhao, K. Zhao, and W. Sun, “Lateral infrared photovoltaic effects in Ag-doped ZnO thin films,” Int. J. Photoenergy2010, 793481 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Livingstone, J.

J. Henry and J. Livingstone, “A comparative study of position-sensitive detectors based on Schottky barrier crystalline and amorphous silicon structures,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron.12(7), 387–393 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lu, H. B.

L. Liao, K. J. Jin, C. Ge, C. L. Hu, H. B. Lu, and G. Z. Yang, “A theoretical study on the dynamic process of the lateral photovoltage in perovskite oxide heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(6), 062116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Jin, H. B. Zhao, H. B. Lu, L. Liao, and G. Z. Yang, “Dember effect induced photovoltage in perovskite p-n heterojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(8), 081906 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lu, J.

Narayan, K. S.

D. Kabra, Th. B. Singh, and K. S. Narayan, “Semiconducting-polymer-based position-sensitive detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(21), 5073–5075 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ni, G.

Y. Zhang, P. Sheng, W. M. Liu, Q. Shu, Z. H. Gu, and G. Ni, “Influence of substrate on the transportation properties of Co/Alq3 granular films on a Si wafer,” Chin. Phys. Lett.27(7), 078102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schottky, W.

W. Schottky, “Uber den entstehungsort der photoelektronen in kupfer-kupferoxydull-photozellen,” Phys. Z.31, 913–925 (1930).

Sheng, P.

Y. Zhang, P. Sheng, W. M. Liu, Q. Shu, Z. H. Gu, and G. Ni, “Influence of substrate on the transportation properties of Co/Alq3 granular films on a Si wafer,” Chin. Phys. Lett.27(7), 078102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shu, Q.

Y. Zhang, P. Sheng, W. M. Liu, Q. Shu, Z. H. Gu, and G. Ni, “Influence of substrate on the transportation properties of Co/Alq3 granular films on a Si wafer,” Chin. Phys. Lett.27(7), 078102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Singh, Th. B.

D. Kabra, Th. B. Singh, and K. S. Narayan, “Semiconducting-polymer-based position-sensitive detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(21), 5073–5075 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sun, W.

W. W. Liu, S. Q. Zhao, K. Zhao, and W. Sun, “Lateral infrared photovoltaic effects in Ag-doped ZnO thin films,” Int. J. Photoenergy2010, 793481 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

J. Lu and H. Wang, “Large lateral photovoltaic effect observed in nano Al-doped ZnO films,” Opt. Express19(15), 13806–13811 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Du and H. Wang, “Infrared laser induced lateral photovoltaic effect observed in Cu(2)O nanoscale film,” Opt. Express18(9), 9113–9118 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Q. Yu and H. Wang, “Large lateral photovoltaic effect in metal-(oxide-) semiconductor structures,” Sensors10(11), 10155–10180 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Q. Yu, H. Wang, S. Q. Xiao, and Y. X. Xia, “Direct observation of lateral photovoltaic effect in nano-metal-films,” Opt. Express17(24), 21712–21722 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Q. Yu, H. Wang, and Y. X. Xia, “Giant lateral photovoltaic effect observed in TiO2 dusted metal-semiconductor structure of Ti/TiO2/Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(14), 141112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Q. Xiao, H. Wang, Z. C. Zhao, Y. Z. Gu, Y. X. Xia, and Z. H. Wang, “The Co-film-thickness dependent lateral photoeffect in Co-SiO2-Si metal-oxide-semiconductor structures,” Opt. Express16(6), 3798–3806 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang, S. Q. Xiao, C. Q. Yu, Y. X. Xia, Q. Y. Jin, and Z. H. Wang, “Correlation of magnetoresistance and lateral photovoltage in Co3Mn2O/SiO2/Si metal-oxide-semiconductor structure,” New J. Phys.10(9), 093006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. H.

H. Wang, S. Q. Xiao, C. Q. Yu, Y. X. Xia, Q. Y. Jin, and Z. H. Wang, “Correlation of magnetoresistance and lateral photovoltage in Co3Mn2O/SiO2/Si metal-oxide-semiconductor structure,” New J. Phys.10(9), 093006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Q. Xiao, H. Wang, Z. C. Zhao, Y. Z. Gu, Y. X. Xia, and Z. H. Wang, “The Co-film-thickness dependent lateral photoeffect in Co-SiO2-Si metal-oxide-semiconductor structures,” Opt. Express16(6), 3798–3806 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Willens, R. H.

R. H. Willens, “Photoelectronic and electronic properties of Ti/Si amorphous superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.49(11), 663–665 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Xia, Y. X.

C. Q. Yu, H. Wang, S. Q. Xiao, and Y. X. Xia, “Direct observation of lateral photovoltaic effect in nano-metal-films,” Opt. Express17(24), 21712–21722 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Q. Yu, H. Wang, and Y. X. Xia, “Giant lateral photovoltaic effect observed in TiO2 dusted metal-semiconductor structure of Ti/TiO2/Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(14), 141112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Q. Xiao, H. Wang, Z. C. Zhao, Y. Z. Gu, Y. X. Xia, and Z. H. Wang, “The Co-film-thickness dependent lateral photoeffect in Co-SiO2-Si metal-oxide-semiconductor structures,” Opt. Express16(6), 3798–3806 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang, S. Q. Xiao, C. Q. Yu, Y. X. Xia, Q. Y. Jin, and Z. H. Wang, “Correlation of magnetoresistance and lateral photovoltage in Co3Mn2O/SiO2/Si metal-oxide-semiconductor structure,” New J. Phys.10(9), 093006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, S. Q.

Yang, G. Z.

L. Liao, K. J. Jin, C. Ge, C. L. Hu, H. B. Lu, and G. Z. Yang, “A theoretical study on the dynamic process of the lateral photovoltage in perovskite oxide heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(6), 062116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Jin, H. B. Zhao, H. B. Lu, L. Liao, and G. Z. Yang, “Dember effect induced photovoltage in perovskite p-n heterojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(8), 081906 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yu, C. Q.

C. Q. Yu and H. Wang, “Large lateral photovoltaic effect in metal-(oxide-) semiconductor structures,” Sensors10(11), 10155–10180 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Q. Yu, H. Wang, S. Q. Xiao, and Y. X. Xia, “Direct observation of lateral photovoltaic effect in nano-metal-films,” Opt. Express17(24), 21712–21722 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Q. Yu, H. Wang, and Y. X. Xia, “Giant lateral photovoltaic effect observed in TiO2 dusted metal-semiconductor structure of Ti/TiO2/Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(14), 141112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, S. Q. Xiao, C. Q. Yu, Y. X. Xia, Q. Y. Jin, and Z. H. Wang, “Correlation of magnetoresistance and lateral photovoltage in Co3Mn2O/SiO2/Si metal-oxide-semiconductor structure,” New J. Phys.10(9), 093006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, P. Sheng, W. M. Liu, Q. Shu, Z. H. Gu, and G. Ni, “Influence of substrate on the transportation properties of Co/Alq3 granular films on a Si wafer,” Chin. Phys. Lett.27(7), 078102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, H. B.

K. J. Jin, H. B. Zhao, H. B. Lu, L. Liao, and G. Z. Yang, “Dember effect induced photovoltage in perovskite p-n heterojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(8), 081906 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, K.

W. W. Liu, S. Q. Zhao, K. Zhao, and W. Sun, “Lateral infrared photovoltaic effects in Ag-doped ZnO thin films,” Int. J. Photoenergy2010, 793481 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, S. Q.

W. W. Liu, S. Q. Zhao, K. Zhao, and W. Sun, “Lateral infrared photovoltaic effects in Ag-doped ZnO thin films,” Int. J. Photoenergy2010, 793481 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Z. C.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. H. Willens, “Photoelectronic and electronic properties of Ti/Si amorphous superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.49(11), 663–665 (1986).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Jin, H. B. Zhao, H. B. Lu, L. Liao, and G. Z. Yang, “Dember effect induced photovoltage in perovskite p-n heterojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(8), 081906 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Liao, K. J. Jin, C. Ge, C. L. Hu, H. B. Lu, and G. Z. Yang, “A theoretical study on the dynamic process of the lateral photovoltage in perovskite oxide heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(6), 062116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Q. Yu, H. Wang, and Y. X. Xia, “Giant lateral photovoltaic effect observed in TiO2 dusted metal-semiconductor structure of Ti/TiO2/Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(14), 141112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Kabra, Th. B. Singh, and K. S. Narayan, “Semiconducting-polymer-based position-sensitive detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(21), 5073–5075 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Phys. Lett.

Y. Zhang, P. Sheng, W. M. Liu, Q. Shu, Z. H. Gu, and G. Ni, “Influence of substrate on the transportation properties of Co/Alq3 granular films on a Si wafer,” Chin. Phys. Lett.27(7), 078102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Photoenergy

W. W. Liu, S. Q. Zhao, K. Zhao, and W. Sun, “Lateral infrared photovoltaic effects in Ag-doped ZnO thin films,” Int. J. Photoenergy2010, 793481 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron.

J. Henry and J. Livingstone, “A comparative study of position-sensitive detectors based on Schottky barrier crystalline and amorphous silicon structures,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron.12(7), 387–393 (2001).
[CrossRef]

New J. Phys.

H. Wang, S. Q. Xiao, C. Q. Yu, Y. X. Xia, Q. Y. Jin, and Z. H. Wang, “Correlation of magnetoresistance and lateral photovoltage in Co3Mn2O/SiO2/Si metal-oxide-semiconductor structure,” New J. Phys.10(9), 093006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Z.

W. Schottky, “Uber den entstehungsort der photoelektronen in kupfer-kupferoxydull-photozellen,” Phys. Z.31, 913–925 (1930).

Sensors

C. Q. Yu and H. Wang, “Large lateral photovoltaic effect in metal-(oxide-) semiconductor structures,” Sensors10(11), 10155–10180 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

J. T. Wallmark, “A new semiconductor photocell using lateral photoeffect,” Proc. IRE 45, 474–483 (1957).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

LPV as a function of the laser position (x) observed in Co0.4(Alq3)0.6/Si (2-4 Ω-cm) sample. The upper inset shows the partial enlarged drawing of the LPV curve in reverse mode and the bottom inset shows the schematic drawing of LPE measurement.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The transverse I-V curve for Co0.4(Alq3)0.6/Si (2-4 Ω-cm) sample

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

the position dependence of LPV for Co0.4(Alq3)0.6/SiO2/Si (2-4 Ω-cm) sample

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

the position dependence of LPV for Co0.4(Alq3)0.6/Si samples with different resistivities of Si wafer: 2-4Ω-cm, 70-80Ω-cm and >1000Ω-cm

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