Abstract

The chiral smectic C phase of ferroelectric liquid crystals (FLCs) has a self-assembling helical structure which is regarded as a one-dimensional pseudo-photonic crystal. It is well known that a stopband of a FLC can be tuned in wavelength domain by changing temperature or electric field. We here have demonstrated an FLC stopband with independently tunable wavelength and bandwidth by controlling temperature and incident angle. At highly oblique incidence, the stopband does not have polarization dependence. Furthermore, the bandwidth at highly oblique incidence is much wider than that at normal incidence. The mechanism of the tunable stopband is clarified by considering the reflection at oblique incidence.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. V. I. Kopp, B. Fan, H. K. M. Vithana, and A. Z. Genack, “Low-threshold lasing at the edge of a photonic stop band in cholesteric liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 23(21), 1707–1709 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(20), 2059–2062 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. John, “Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(23), 2486–2489 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystalline elastomers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 13(14), 1069–1072 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Ozaki, M. Kasano, D. Ganzke, W. Haase, and K. Yoshino, “Mirrorless lasing in a dye-doped ferroelectric liquid crystal,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 14(4), 306–309 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Ozaki, M. Kasano, T. Kitasho, D. Ganzke, W. Haase, and K. Yoshino, “Electro-tunable liquid-crystal laser,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 15(12), 974–977 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Araoka, K.-C. Shin, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, Z. Zhu, and T. M. Swager, “How doping a cholesteric liquid crystal with polymeric dye improves an order parameter and makes possible low threshold lasing,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(1), 279 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater. 4(5), 383–387 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and S.-T. Wu, “Spatially tunable laser emission in dye-doped photonic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(1), 011107 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Ozaki, R. Ozaki, T. Matsui, and K. Yoshino, “Twist defect mode lasing in photopolymerized cholesteric liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 2, No. 5A), L472–L475 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Schmidtke, W. Stille, and H. Finkelmann, “Defect mode emission of a dye doped cholesteric polymer network,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(8), 083902 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Y. Matsuhisa, R. Ozaki, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Single-mode lasing in one-dimensional periodic structure containing helical structure as a defect,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(20), L629–L632 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 43–47 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. Humar, M. Ravnik, S. Pajk, and I. Musevic, “Electrically tunable liquid crystal optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 595–600 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. Takanishi, Y. Ohtsuka, G. Suzaki, S. Nishimura, and H. Takezoe, “Low threshold lasing from dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal multi-layered structures,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12909–12914 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. R. Ozaki, N. Uno, and H. Moritake, “Quasi-two-dimensional optical confinement in a cholesteric liquid crystal infiltrated optical fiber,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 111601 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Y. Matsuhisa, W. Haase, A. Fujii, and M. Ozaki, “Lowering lasing threshold in ferroelectric liquid crystal sandwiched between dielectric multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201112 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  18. W. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 111–113 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. S. Yokoyama, S. Mashiko, H. Kikuchi, K. Uchida, and T. Nagamura, “Laser emission from a polymer-stabilized liquid-crystalline blue phase,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(1), 48–51 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  20. R. Ozaki, T. Shinpo, and H. Moritake, “Improvement of orientation of planar cholesteric liquid crystal by rapid thermal processing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163304 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  21. H. Takezoe, Y. Ouchi, M. Hara, A. Fukuda, and E. Kuze, “Experimental studies on reflection spectra in monodomain cholesteric liquid crystal cells: total reflection, subsidiary oscillation and its beat or swell structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 22(Part 1, No. 7), 1080–1091 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  22. R. Dreher, G. Meier, and A. Saupe, “Slective reflection by cholesteric liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 13(1), 17–26 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  23. D. W. Berreman and T. J. Scheffer, “Bragg reflection of light from shingle-domain cholesteric liquid crystal films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 25(9), 577–581 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  24. D. W. Berreman, “Twisted smectic C phase: unique optical properties,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 22(1-2), 175–184 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  25. K. Hori, “Angular dependence of selective reflection from the chiral smectic C phase,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 82, 13–17 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  26. D. W. Berreman, “Optics in stratified and anisotropic media: 4×4-matrix formulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62(4), 502–510 (1972).
    [CrossRef]

2011

R. Ozaki, N. Uno, and H. Moritake, “Quasi-two-dimensional optical confinement in a cholesteric liquid crystal infiltrated optical fiber,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 111601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

2009

M. Humar, M. Ravnik, S. Pajk, and I. Musevic, “Electrically tunable liquid crystal optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 595–600 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 43–47 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Ozaki, T. Shinpo, and H. Moritake, “Improvement of orientation of planar cholesteric liquid crystal by rapid thermal processing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

S. Yokoyama, S. Mashiko, H. Kikuchi, K. Uchida, and T. Nagamura, “Laser emission from a polymer-stabilized liquid-crystalline blue phase,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(1), 48–51 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Matsuhisa, W. Haase, A. Fujii, and M. Ozaki, “Lowering lasing threshold in ferroelectric liquid crystal sandwiched between dielectric multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and S.-T. Wu, “Spatially tunable laser emission in dye-doped photonic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(1), 011107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater. 4(5), 383–387 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Matsuhisa, R. Ozaki, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Single-mode lasing in one-dimensional periodic structure containing helical structure as a defect,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(20), L629–L632 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

M. Ozaki, R. Ozaki, T. Matsui, and K. Yoshino, “Twist defect mode lasing in photopolymerized cholesteric liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 2, No. 5A), L472–L475 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Schmidtke, W. Stille, and H. Finkelmann, “Defect mode emission of a dye doped cholesteric polymer network,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(8), 083902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ozaki, M. Kasano, T. Kitasho, D. Ganzke, W. Haase, and K. Yoshino, “Electro-tunable liquid-crystal laser,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 15(12), 974–977 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Araoka, K.-C. Shin, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, Z. Zhu, and T. M. Swager, “How doping a cholesteric liquid crystal with polymeric dye improves an order parameter and makes possible low threshold lasing,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(1), 279 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

M. Ozaki, M. Kasano, D. Ganzke, W. Haase, and K. Yoshino, “Mirrorless lasing in a dye-doped ferroelectric liquid crystal,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 14(4), 306–309 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 111–113 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystalline elastomers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 13(14), 1069–1072 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998

1987

E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(20), 2059–2062 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. John, “Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(23), 2486–2489 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983

H. Takezoe, Y. Ouchi, M. Hara, A. Fukuda, and E. Kuze, “Experimental studies on reflection spectra in monodomain cholesteric liquid crystal cells: total reflection, subsidiary oscillation and its beat or swell structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 22(Part 1, No. 7), 1080–1091 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982

K. Hori, “Angular dependence of selective reflection from the chiral smectic C phase,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 82, 13–17 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1973

D. W. Berreman, “Twisted smectic C phase: unique optical properties,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 22(1-2), 175–184 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972

1971

R. Dreher, G. Meier, and A. Saupe, “Slective reflection by cholesteric liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 13(1), 17–26 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1970

D. W. Berreman and T. J. Scheffer, “Bragg reflection of light from shingle-domain cholesteric liquid crystal films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 25(9), 577–581 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Araoka, F.

F. Araoka, K.-C. Shin, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, Z. Zhu, and T. M. Swager, “How doping a cholesteric liquid crystal with polymeric dye improves an order parameter and makes possible low threshold lasing,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(1), 279 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Berreman, D. W.

D. W. Berreman, “Twisted smectic C phase: unique optical properties,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 22(1-2), 175–184 (1973).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Berreman, “Optics in stratified and anisotropic media: 4×4-matrix formulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62(4), 502–510 (1972).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Berreman and T. J. Scheffer, “Bragg reflection of light from shingle-domain cholesteric liquid crystal films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 25(9), 577–581 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Cao, W.

W. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 111–113 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dreher, R.

R. Dreher, G. Meier, and A. Saupe, “Slective reflection by cholesteric liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 13(1), 17–26 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Fan, B.

Finkelmann, H.

J. Schmidtke, W. Stille, and H. Finkelmann, “Defect mode emission of a dye doped cholesteric polymer network,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(8), 083902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystalline elastomers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 13(14), 1069–1072 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, A.

Y. Matsuhisa, W. Haase, A. Fujii, and M. Ozaki, “Lowering lasing threshold in ferroelectric liquid crystal sandwiched between dielectric multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fukuda, A.

H. Takezoe, Y. Ouchi, M. Hara, A. Fukuda, and E. Kuze, “Experimental studies on reflection spectra in monodomain cholesteric liquid crystal cells: total reflection, subsidiary oscillation and its beat or swell structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 22(Part 1, No. 7), 1080–1091 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ganzke, D.

M. Ozaki, M. Kasano, T. Kitasho, D. Ganzke, W. Haase, and K. Yoshino, “Electro-tunable liquid-crystal laser,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 15(12), 974–977 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Ozaki, M. Kasano, D. Ganzke, W. Haase, and K. Yoshino, “Mirrorless lasing in a dye-doped ferroelectric liquid crystal,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 14(4), 306–309 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Genack, A. Z.

Ha, N. Y.

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 43–47 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haase, W.

Y. Matsuhisa, W. Haase, A. Fujii, and M. Ozaki, “Lowering lasing threshold in ferroelectric liquid crystal sandwiched between dielectric multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Ozaki, M. Kasano, T. Kitasho, D. Ganzke, W. Haase, and K. Yoshino, “Electro-tunable liquid-crystal laser,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 15(12), 974–977 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Ozaki, M. Kasano, D. Ganzke, W. Haase, and K. Yoshino, “Mirrorless lasing in a dye-doped ferroelectric liquid crystal,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 14(4), 306–309 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hara, M.

H. Takezoe, Y. Ouchi, M. Hara, A. Fukuda, and E. Kuze, “Experimental studies on reflection spectra in monodomain cholesteric liquid crystal cells: total reflection, subsidiary oscillation and its beat or swell structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 22(Part 1, No. 7), 1080–1091 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hori, K.

K. Hori, “Angular dependence of selective reflection from the chiral smectic C phase,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 82, 13–17 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and S.-T. Wu, “Spatially tunable laser emission in dye-doped photonic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(1), 011107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Humar, M.

M. Humar, M. Ravnik, S. Pajk, and I. Musevic, “Electrically tunable liquid crystal optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 595–600 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, J.

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater. 4(5), 383–387 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishikawa, K.

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 43–47 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater. 4(5), 383–387 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Araoka, K.-C. Shin, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, Z. Zhu, and T. M. Swager, “How doping a cholesteric liquid crystal with polymeric dye improves an order parameter and makes possible low threshold lasing,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(1), 279 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, S. M.

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 43–47 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

John, S.

S. John, “Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(23), 2486–2489 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kasano, M.

M. Ozaki, M. Kasano, T. Kitasho, D. Ganzke, W. Haase, and K. Yoshino, “Electro-tunable liquid-crystal laser,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 15(12), 974–977 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Ozaki, M. Kasano, D. Ganzke, W. Haase, and K. Yoshino, “Mirrorless lasing in a dye-doped ferroelectric liquid crystal,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 14(4), 306–309 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kikuchi, H.

S. Yokoyama, S. Mashiko, H. Kikuchi, K. Uchida, and T. Nagamura, “Laser emission from a polymer-stabilized liquid-crystalline blue phase,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(1), 48–51 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. T.

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystalline elastomers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 13(14), 1069–1072 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kitasho, T.

M. Ozaki, M. Kasano, T. Kitasho, D. Ganzke, W. Haase, and K. Yoshino, “Electro-tunable liquid-crystal laser,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 15(12), 974–977 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kopp, V. I.

Kuze, E.

H. Takezoe, Y. Ouchi, M. Hara, A. Fukuda, and E. Kuze, “Experimental studies on reflection spectra in monodomain cholesteric liquid crystal cells: total reflection, subsidiary oscillation and its beat or swell structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 22(Part 1, No. 7), 1080–1091 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Mashiko, S.

S. Yokoyama, S. Mashiko, H. Kikuchi, K. Uchida, and T. Nagamura, “Laser emission from a polymer-stabilized liquid-crystalline blue phase,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(1), 48–51 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Matsuhisa, Y.

Y. Matsuhisa, W. Haase, A. Fujii, and M. Ozaki, “Lowering lasing threshold in ferroelectric liquid crystal sandwiched between dielectric multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Matsuhisa, R. Ozaki, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Single-mode lasing in one-dimensional periodic structure containing helical structure as a defect,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(20), L629–L632 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Matsui, T.

M. Ozaki, R. Ozaki, T. Matsui, and K. Yoshino, “Twist defect mode lasing in photopolymerized cholesteric liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 2, No. 5A), L472–L475 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Meier, G.

R. Dreher, G. Meier, and A. Saupe, “Slective reflection by cholesteric liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 13(1), 17–26 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Moritake, H.

R. Ozaki, N. Uno, and H. Moritake, “Quasi-two-dimensional optical confinement in a cholesteric liquid crystal infiltrated optical fiber,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 111601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Ozaki, T. Shinpo, and H. Moritake, “Improvement of orientation of planar cholesteric liquid crystal by rapid thermal processing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Munoz, A.

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystalline elastomers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 13(14), 1069–1072 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Muñoz, A.

W. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 111–113 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Musevic, I.

M. Humar, M. Ravnik, S. Pajk, and I. Musevic, “Electrically tunable liquid crystal optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 595–600 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nagamura, T.

S. Yokoyama, S. Mashiko, H. Kikuchi, K. Uchida, and T. Nagamura, “Laser emission from a polymer-stabilized liquid-crystalline blue phase,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(1), 48–51 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nishimura, S.

Y. Takanishi, Y. Ohtsuka, G. Suzaki, S. Nishimura, and H. Takezoe, “Low threshold lasing from dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal multi-layered structures,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12909–12914 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 43–47 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater. 4(5), 383–387 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohtsuka, Y.

Y. Takanishi, Y. Ohtsuka, G. Suzaki, S. Nishimura, and H. Takezoe, “Low threshold lasing from dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal multi-layered structures,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12909–12914 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 43–47 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ouchi, Y.

H. Takezoe, Y. Ouchi, M. Hara, A. Fukuda, and E. Kuze, “Experimental studies on reflection spectra in monodomain cholesteric liquid crystal cells: total reflection, subsidiary oscillation and its beat or swell structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 22(Part 1, No. 7), 1080–1091 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ozaki, M.

Y. Matsuhisa, W. Haase, A. Fujii, and M. Ozaki, “Lowering lasing threshold in ferroelectric liquid crystal sandwiched between dielectric multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Matsuhisa, R. Ozaki, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Single-mode lasing in one-dimensional periodic structure containing helical structure as a defect,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(20), L629–L632 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Ozaki, R. Ozaki, T. Matsui, and K. Yoshino, “Twist defect mode lasing in photopolymerized cholesteric liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 2, No. 5A), L472–L475 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Ozaki, M. Kasano, T. Kitasho, D. Ganzke, W. Haase, and K. Yoshino, “Electro-tunable liquid-crystal laser,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 15(12), 974–977 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Ozaki, M. Kasano, D. Ganzke, W. Haase, and K. Yoshino, “Mirrorless lasing in a dye-doped ferroelectric liquid crystal,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 14(4), 306–309 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ozaki, R.

R. Ozaki, N. Uno, and H. Moritake, “Quasi-two-dimensional optical confinement in a cholesteric liquid crystal infiltrated optical fiber,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 111601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Ozaki, T. Shinpo, and H. Moritake, “Improvement of orientation of planar cholesteric liquid crystal by rapid thermal processing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Matsuhisa, R. Ozaki, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Single-mode lasing in one-dimensional periodic structure containing helical structure as a defect,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(20), L629–L632 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Ozaki, R. Ozaki, T. Matsui, and K. Yoshino, “Twist defect mode lasing in photopolymerized cholesteric liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 2, No. 5A), L472–L475 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pajk, S.

M. Humar, M. Ravnik, S. Pajk, and I. Musevic, “Electrically tunable liquid crystal optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 595–600 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Palffy-Muhoray, P.

W. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 111–113 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystalline elastomers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 13(14), 1069–1072 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Park, B.

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater. 4(5), 383–387 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ravnik, M.

M. Humar, M. Ravnik, S. Pajk, and I. Musevic, “Electrically tunable liquid crystal optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 595–600 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Saupe, A.

R. Dreher, G. Meier, and A. Saupe, “Slective reflection by cholesteric liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 13(1), 17–26 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Scheffer, T. J.

D. W. Berreman and T. J. Scheffer, “Bragg reflection of light from shingle-domain cholesteric liquid crystal films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 25(9), 577–581 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Schmidtke, J.

J. Schmidtke, W. Stille, and H. Finkelmann, “Defect mode emission of a dye doped cholesteric polymer network,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(8), 083902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shin, K.-C.

F. Araoka, K.-C. Shin, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, Z. Zhu, and T. M. Swager, “How doping a cholesteric liquid crystal with polymeric dye improves an order parameter and makes possible low threshold lasing,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(1), 279 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shinpo, T.

R. Ozaki, T. Shinpo, and H. Moritake, “Improvement of orientation of planar cholesteric liquid crystal by rapid thermal processing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Song, M. H.

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater. 4(5), 383–387 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stille, W.

J. Schmidtke, W. Stille, and H. Finkelmann, “Defect mode emission of a dye doped cholesteric polymer network,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(8), 083902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suzaki, G.

Y. Takanishi, Y. Ohtsuka, G. Suzaki, S. Nishimura, and H. Takezoe, “Low threshold lasing from dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal multi-layered structures,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12909–12914 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 43–47 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swager, T. M.

F. Araoka, K.-C. Shin, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, Z. Zhu, and T. M. Swager, “How doping a cholesteric liquid crystal with polymeric dye improves an order parameter and makes possible low threshold lasing,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(1), 279 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Taheri, B.

W. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 111–113 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystalline elastomers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 13(14), 1069–1072 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Takanishi, Y.

Y. Takanishi, Y. Ohtsuka, G. Suzaki, S. Nishimura, and H. Takezoe, “Low threshold lasing from dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal multi-layered structures,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12909–12914 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 43–47 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater. 4(5), 383–387 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Araoka, K.-C. Shin, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, Z. Zhu, and T. M. Swager, “How doping a cholesteric liquid crystal with polymeric dye improves an order parameter and makes possible low threshold lasing,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(1), 279 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Takezoe, H.

Y. Takanishi, Y. Ohtsuka, G. Suzaki, S. Nishimura, and H. Takezoe, “Low threshold lasing from dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal multi-layered structures,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12909–12914 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 43–47 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater. 4(5), 383–387 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Araoka, K.-C. Shin, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, Z. Zhu, and T. M. Swager, “How doping a cholesteric liquid crystal with polymeric dye improves an order parameter and makes possible low threshold lasing,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(1), 279 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Takezoe, Y. Ouchi, M. Hara, A. Fukuda, and E. Kuze, “Experimental studies on reflection spectra in monodomain cholesteric liquid crystal cells: total reflection, subsidiary oscillation and its beat or swell structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 22(Part 1, No. 7), 1080–1091 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Toyooka, T.

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater. 4(5), 383–387 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uchida, K.

S. Yokoyama, S. Mashiko, H. Kikuchi, K. Uchida, and T. Nagamura, “Laser emission from a polymer-stabilized liquid-crystalline blue phase,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(1), 48–51 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Uno, N.

R. Ozaki, N. Uno, and H. Moritake, “Quasi-two-dimensional optical confinement in a cholesteric liquid crystal infiltrated optical fiber,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 111601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vithana, H. K. M.

Wu, J. W.

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater. 4(5), 383–387 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, S.-T.

Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and S.-T. Wu, “Spatially tunable laser emission in dye-doped photonic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(1), 011107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yablonovitch, E.

E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(20), 2059–2062 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yokoyama, S.

S. Yokoyama, S. Mashiko, H. Kikuchi, K. Uchida, and T. Nagamura, “Laser emission from a polymer-stabilized liquid-crystalline blue phase,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(1), 48–51 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, K.

Y. Matsuhisa, R. Ozaki, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Single-mode lasing in one-dimensional periodic structure containing helical structure as a defect,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(20), L629–L632 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Ozaki, R. Ozaki, T. Matsui, and K. Yoshino, “Twist defect mode lasing in photopolymerized cholesteric liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 2, No. 5A), L472–L475 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Ozaki, M. Kasano, T. Kitasho, D. Ganzke, W. Haase, and K. Yoshino, “Electro-tunable liquid-crystal laser,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 15(12), 974–977 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Ozaki, M. Kasano, D. Ganzke, W. Haase, and K. Yoshino, “Mirrorless lasing in a dye-doped ferroelectric liquid crystal,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 14(4), 306–309 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Y.

Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and S.-T. Wu, “Spatially tunable laser emission in dye-doped photonic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(1), 011107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Z.

F. Araoka, K.-C. Shin, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, Z. Zhu, and T. M. Swager, “How doping a cholesteric liquid crystal with polymeric dye improves an order parameter and makes possible low threshold lasing,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(1), 279 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystalline elastomers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 13(14), 1069–1072 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Ozaki, M. Kasano, D. Ganzke, W. Haase, and K. Yoshino, “Mirrorless lasing in a dye-doped ferroelectric liquid crystal,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 14(4), 306–309 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Ozaki, M. Kasano, T. Kitasho, D. Ganzke, W. Haase, and K. Yoshino, “Electro-tunable liquid-crystal laser,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 15(12), 974–977 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Yokoyama, S. Mashiko, H. Kikuchi, K. Uchida, and T. Nagamura, “Laser emission from a polymer-stabilized liquid-crystalline blue phase,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(1), 48–51 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. Ozaki, T. Shinpo, and H. Moritake, “Improvement of orientation of planar cholesteric liquid crystal by rapid thermal processing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and S.-T. Wu, “Spatially tunable laser emission in dye-doped photonic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(1), 011107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Matsuhisa, W. Haase, A. Fujii, and M. Ozaki, “Lowering lasing threshold in ferroelectric liquid crystal sandwiched between dielectric multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

F. Araoka, K.-C. Shin, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, Z. Zhu, and T. M. Swager, “How doping a cholesteric liquid crystal with polymeric dye improves an order parameter and makes possible low threshold lasing,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(1), 279 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

R. Ozaki, N. Uno, and H. Moritake, “Quasi-two-dimensional optical confinement in a cholesteric liquid crystal infiltrated optical fiber,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 111601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Ozaki, R. Ozaki, T. Matsui, and K. Yoshino, “Twist defect mode lasing in photopolymerized cholesteric liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 2, No. 5A), L472–L475 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Takezoe, Y. Ouchi, M. Hara, A. Fukuda, and E. Kuze, “Experimental studies on reflection spectra in monodomain cholesteric liquid crystal cells: total reflection, subsidiary oscillation and its beat or swell structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 22(Part 1, No. 7), 1080–1091 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Y. Matsuhisa, R. Ozaki, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Single-mode lasing in one-dimensional periodic structure containing helical structure as a defect,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(20), L629–L632 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)

R. Dreher, G. Meier, and A. Saupe, “Slective reflection by cholesteric liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 13(1), 17–26 (1971).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Berreman, “Twisted smectic C phase: unique optical properties,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 22(1-2), 175–184 (1973).
[CrossRef]

K. Hori, “Angular dependence of selective reflection from the chiral smectic C phase,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 82, 13–17 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater.

W. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 111–113 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 43–47 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater. 4(5), 383–387 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics

M. Humar, M. Ravnik, S. Pajk, and I. Musevic, “Electrically tunable liquid crystal optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 595–600 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(20), 2059–2062 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. John, “Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(23), 2486–2489 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Schmidtke, W. Stille, and H. Finkelmann, “Defect mode emission of a dye doped cholesteric polymer network,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(8), 083902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. W. Berreman and T. J. Scheffer, “Bragg reflection of light from shingle-domain cholesteric liquid crystal films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 25(9), 577–581 (1970).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of experimental setup for measurement of transmission spectrum at highly oblique incidence. (a) an FLC cell sandwiched between two triangular prisms. (b) an enlarged view of the FLC cell.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Measured transmission spectra of the FLC as a function of temperature. (b) Temperature dependence of helical pitch of the FLC. (c) Calculated transmission spectra as a function of helical pitch.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured transmission spectra of the FLC cell at highly oblique incidence for P-polarization light at 24 C; (a) θ1 = 50 and θ2 = 41.8, (c) θ1 = 15 and θ2 = 67.2. Calculated transmission spectra; (b) θ1 = 50.8 and θ2 = 41.4, (d) θ1 = 15.8 and θ2 = 66.4. In the calculations, the helical pitch is set to be 521 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured transmission spectra of the FLC cell at highly oblique incidence for S-polarization light at 24 C; (a) θ1 = 50 and θ2 = 41.8, (c) θ1 = 15 and θ2 = 67.2. Calculated transmission spectra; (b) θ1 = 50.8 and θ2 = 41.4, (d) θ1 = 15.8 and θ2 = 66.4. In the calculations, the helical pitch is set to be 521 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Incident angle dependences of a single Fresnel reflection at the boundary between ordinary index of 1.49 and effective extraordinary index of 1.52. (b) an enlarged view of the reflection curve for small incident angles.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Measured transmission spectra of the FLC as functions of θ2 and temperature. (b) Calculated transmission spectra of the FLC as functions of θ2 and helical pitch p.

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