Abstract

We report a simple approach to enhance the out-coupling efficiency in white organic light emitting diodes (WOLEDs). By incorporating MgF2-columns into the ITO-anode and optimizing of their geometry, an overall efficiency enhancement of up to 38% is achieved. In addition, the structuring of the anode does not lead to a change in the electrical behaviour of the devices. As evidenced by goniometric measurements, the angular emission characteristics of the WOLEDs remain unchanged. Simulations, performed with the T-matrix method, reveal the effect of the enhanced outcoupling efficiency of this approach.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. S. R. Forrest, “The road to high efficiency organic light emitting devices,” Org. Electron. 4(2-3), 45–48 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. N. Patel, S. Cina, and J. Burroughes, “High-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 346–361 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C.-C. Wu, C.-W. Chen, C.-L. Lin, and C.-J. Yang, “Advanced organic light-emitting devices for enhancing display performances,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(2), 248–266 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. C. Gather, A. Köhnen, and K. Meerholz, “White organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(2), 233–248 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. Kim, C. Gilmore, A. Pique, J. S. Horwitz, H. Mattoussi, H. Murata, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Chrisey, “Electrical, optical, and structural properties of indium-tin-oxide thin films for organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(11), 6451–6461 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. T. Chen and D. Robinson, “Electro-optic and all-optical phase modulator on an indium tin oxide single-mode waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(13), 1541–1543 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, and D. S. Mehta, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 221–233 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Möller and S. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 3324–3327 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Zhou, N. Ai, L. Wang, H. Zheng, C. Luo, Z. Jiang, S. Yu, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Roughening the white OLED substrate's surface through sandblasting to improve the external quantum efficiency,” Org. Electron. 12(4), 648–653 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Hauss, T. Bocksrocker, B. Riedel, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “On the interplay of waveguide modes and leaky modes in corrugated OLEDs,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A851–A858 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. U. Geyer, J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093111 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. B. Riedel, J. Hauss, M. Aichholz, A. Gall, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Polymer light emitting diodes containing nanoparticle clusters for improved efficiency,” Org. Electron. 11(7), 1172–1175 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Sun and S. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 483–487 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (3)

M. C. Gather, A. Köhnen, and K. Meerholz, “White organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(2), 233–248 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, N. Ai, L. Wang, H. Zheng, C. Luo, Z. Jiang, S. Yu, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Roughening the white OLED substrate's surface through sandblasting to improve the external quantum efficiency,” Org. Electron. 12(4), 648–653 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Hauss, T. Bocksrocker, B. Riedel, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “On the interplay of waveguide modes and leaky modes in corrugated OLEDs,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A851–A858 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

B. Riedel, J. Hauss, M. Aichholz, A. Gall, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Polymer light emitting diodes containing nanoparticle clusters for improved efficiency,” Org. Electron. 11(7), 1172–1175 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, and D. S. Mehta, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 221–233 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

U. Geyer, J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun and S. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 483–487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

C.-C. Wu, C.-W. Chen, C.-L. Lin, and C.-J. Yang, “Advanced organic light-emitting devices for enhancing display performances,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(2), 248–266 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

S. R. Forrest, “The road to high efficiency organic light emitting devices,” Org. Electron. 4(2-3), 45–48 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

N. Patel, S. Cina, and J. Burroughes, “High-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 346–361 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Möller and S. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 3324–3327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

H. Kim, C. Gilmore, A. Pique, J. S. Horwitz, H. Mattoussi, H. Murata, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Chrisey, “Electrical, optical, and structural properties of indium-tin-oxide thin films for organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(11), 6451–6461 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

R. T. Chen and D. Robinson, “Electro-optic and all-optical phase modulator on an indium tin oxide single-mode waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(13), 1541–1543 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ai, N.

J. Zhou, N. Ai, L. Wang, H. Zheng, C. Luo, Z. Jiang, S. Yu, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Roughening the white OLED substrate's surface through sandblasting to improve the external quantum efficiency,” Org. Electron. 12(4), 648–653 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Aichholz, M.

B. Riedel, J. Hauss, M. Aichholz, A. Gall, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Polymer light emitting diodes containing nanoparticle clusters for improved efficiency,” Org. Electron. 11(7), 1172–1175 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bocksrocker, T.

Burroughes, J.

N. Patel, S. Cina, and J. Burroughes, “High-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 346–361 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cao, Y.

J. Zhou, N. Ai, L. Wang, H. Zheng, C. Luo, Z. Jiang, S. Yu, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Roughening the white OLED substrate's surface through sandblasting to improve the external quantum efficiency,” Org. Electron. 12(4), 648–653 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-W.

C.-C. Wu, C.-W. Chen, C.-L. Lin, and C.-J. Yang, “Advanced organic light-emitting devices for enhancing display performances,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(2), 248–266 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, R. T.

R. T. Chen and D. Robinson, “Electro-optic and all-optical phase modulator on an indium tin oxide single-mode waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(13), 1541–1543 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chrisey, D. B.

H. Kim, C. Gilmore, A. Pique, J. S. Horwitz, H. Mattoussi, H. Murata, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Chrisey, “Electrical, optical, and structural properties of indium-tin-oxide thin films for organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(11), 6451–6461 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cina, S.

N. Patel, S. Cina, and J. Burroughes, “High-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 346–361 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S.

Y. Sun and S. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 483–487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Möller and S. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 3324–3327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S. R.

S. R. Forrest, “The road to high efficiency organic light emitting devices,” Org. Electron. 4(2-3), 45–48 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gall, A.

B. Riedel, J. Hauss, M. Aichholz, A. Gall, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Polymer light emitting diodes containing nanoparticle clusters for improved efficiency,” Org. Electron. 11(7), 1172–1175 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gather, M. C.

M. C. Gather, A. Köhnen, and K. Meerholz, “White organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(2), 233–248 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gerken, M.

J. Hauss, T. Bocksrocker, B. Riedel, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “On the interplay of waveguide modes and leaky modes in corrugated OLEDs,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A851–A858 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Riedel, J. Hauss, M. Aichholz, A. Gall, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Polymer light emitting diodes containing nanoparticle clusters for improved efficiency,” Org. Electron. 11(7), 1172–1175 (2010).
[CrossRef]

U. Geyer, J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Geyer, U.

U. Geyer, J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gilmore, C.

H. Kim, C. Gilmore, A. Pique, J. S. Horwitz, H. Mattoussi, H. Murata, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Chrisey, “Electrical, optical, and structural properties of indium-tin-oxide thin films for organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(11), 6451–6461 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gleiss, S.

U. Geyer, J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hauss, J.

J. Hauss, T. Bocksrocker, B. Riedel, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “On the interplay of waveguide modes and leaky modes in corrugated OLEDs,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A851–A858 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Riedel, J. Hauss, M. Aichholz, A. Gall, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Polymer light emitting diodes containing nanoparticle clusters for improved efficiency,” Org. Electron. 11(7), 1172–1175 (2010).
[CrossRef]

U. Geyer, J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Horwitz, J. S.

H. Kim, C. Gilmore, A. Pique, J. S. Horwitz, H. Mattoussi, H. Murata, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Chrisey, “Electrical, optical, and structural properties of indium-tin-oxide thin films for organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(11), 6451–6461 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jain, V. K.

K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, and D. S. Mehta, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 221–233 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Z.

J. Zhou, N. Ai, L. Wang, H. Zheng, C. Luo, Z. Jiang, S. Yu, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Roughening the white OLED substrate's surface through sandblasting to improve the external quantum efficiency,” Org. Electron. 12(4), 648–653 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kafafi, Z. H.

H. Kim, C. Gilmore, A. Pique, J. S. Horwitz, H. Mattoussi, H. Murata, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Chrisey, “Electrical, optical, and structural properties of indium-tin-oxide thin films for organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(11), 6451–6461 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

H. Kim, C. Gilmore, A. Pique, J. S. Horwitz, H. Mattoussi, H. Murata, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Chrisey, “Electrical, optical, and structural properties of indium-tin-oxide thin films for organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(11), 6451–6461 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Köhnen, A.

M. C. Gather, A. Köhnen, and K. Meerholz, “White organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(2), 233–248 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lemmer, U.

J. Hauss, T. Bocksrocker, B. Riedel, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “On the interplay of waveguide modes and leaky modes in corrugated OLEDs,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A851–A858 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Riedel, J. Hauss, M. Aichholz, A. Gall, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Polymer light emitting diodes containing nanoparticle clusters for improved efficiency,” Org. Electron. 11(7), 1172–1175 (2010).
[CrossRef]

U. Geyer, J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.-L.

C.-C. Wu, C.-W. Chen, C.-L. Lin, and C.-J. Yang, “Advanced organic light-emitting devices for enhancing display performances,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(2), 248–266 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Luo, C.

J. Zhou, N. Ai, L. Wang, H. Zheng, C. Luo, Z. Jiang, S. Yu, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Roughening the white OLED substrate's surface through sandblasting to improve the external quantum efficiency,” Org. Electron. 12(4), 648–653 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mattoussi, H.

H. Kim, C. Gilmore, A. Pique, J. S. Horwitz, H. Mattoussi, H. Murata, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Chrisey, “Electrical, optical, and structural properties of indium-tin-oxide thin films for organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(11), 6451–6461 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Meerholz, K.

M. C. Gather, A. Köhnen, and K. Meerholz, “White organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(2), 233–248 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mehta, D. S.

K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, and D. S. Mehta, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 221–233 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Möller, S.

S. Möller and S. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 3324–3327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Murata, H.

H. Kim, C. Gilmore, A. Pique, J. S. Horwitz, H. Mattoussi, H. Murata, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Chrisey, “Electrical, optical, and structural properties of indium-tin-oxide thin films for organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(11), 6451–6461 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Patel, N.

N. Patel, S. Cina, and J. Burroughes, “High-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 346–361 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pique, A.

H. Kim, C. Gilmore, A. Pique, J. S. Horwitz, H. Mattoussi, H. Murata, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Chrisey, “Electrical, optical, and structural properties of indium-tin-oxide thin films for organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(11), 6451–6461 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Riedel, B.

J. Hauss, T. Bocksrocker, B. Riedel, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “On the interplay of waveguide modes and leaky modes in corrugated OLEDs,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A851–A858 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Riedel, J. Hauss, M. Aichholz, A. Gall, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Polymer light emitting diodes containing nanoparticle clusters for improved efficiency,” Org. Electron. 11(7), 1172–1175 (2010).
[CrossRef]

U. Geyer, J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, D.

R. T. Chen and D. Robinson, “Electro-optic and all-optical phase modulator on an indium tin oxide single-mode waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(13), 1541–1543 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Saxena, K.

K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, and D. S. Mehta, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 221–233 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun and S. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 483–487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

J. Zhou, N. Ai, L. Wang, H. Zheng, C. Luo, Z. Jiang, S. Yu, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Roughening the white OLED substrate's surface through sandblasting to improve the external quantum efficiency,” Org. Electron. 12(4), 648–653 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

J. Zhou, N. Ai, L. Wang, H. Zheng, C. Luo, Z. Jiang, S. Yu, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Roughening the white OLED substrate's surface through sandblasting to improve the external quantum efficiency,” Org. Electron. 12(4), 648–653 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.-C.

C.-C. Wu, C.-W. Chen, C.-L. Lin, and C.-J. Yang, “Advanced organic light-emitting devices for enhancing display performances,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(2), 248–266 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C.-J.

C.-C. Wu, C.-W. Chen, C.-L. Lin, and C.-J. Yang, “Advanced organic light-emitting devices for enhancing display performances,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(2), 248–266 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yu, S.

J. Zhou, N. Ai, L. Wang, H. Zheng, C. Luo, Z. Jiang, S. Yu, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Roughening the white OLED substrate's surface through sandblasting to improve the external quantum efficiency,” Org. Electron. 12(4), 648–653 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, H.

J. Zhou, N. Ai, L. Wang, H. Zheng, C. Luo, Z. Jiang, S. Yu, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Roughening the white OLED substrate's surface through sandblasting to improve the external quantum efficiency,” Org. Electron. 12(4), 648–653 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

J. Zhou, N. Ai, L. Wang, H. Zheng, C. Luo, Z. Jiang, S. Yu, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Roughening the white OLED substrate's surface through sandblasting to improve the external quantum efficiency,” Org. Electron. 12(4), 648–653 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (1)

M. C. Gather, A. Köhnen, and K. Meerholz, “White organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(2), 233–248 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. T. Chen and D. Robinson, “Electro-optic and all-optical phase modulator on an indium tin oxide single-mode waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(13), 1541–1543 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

N. Patel, S. Cina, and J. Burroughes, “High-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 346–361 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

H. Kim, C. Gilmore, A. Pique, J. S. Horwitz, H. Mattoussi, H. Murata, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Chrisey, “Electrical, optical, and structural properties of indium-tin-oxide thin films for organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(11), 6451–6461 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Möller and S. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 3324–3327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

U. Geyer, J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

C.-C. Wu, C.-W. Chen, C.-L. Lin, and C.-J. Yang, “Advanced organic light-emitting devices for enhancing display performances,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(2), 248–266 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

Y. Sun and S. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 483–487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Mater. (1)

K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, and D. S. Mehta, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 221–233 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Org. Electron. (3)

J. Zhou, N. Ai, L. Wang, H. Zheng, C. Luo, Z. Jiang, S. Yu, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Roughening the white OLED substrate's surface through sandblasting to improve the external quantum efficiency,” Org. Electron. 12(4), 648–653 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Forrest, “The road to high efficiency organic light emitting devices,” Org. Electron. 4(2-3), 45–48 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Riedel, J. Hauss, M. Aichholz, A. Gall, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Polymer light emitting diodes containing nanoparticle clusters for improved efficiency,” Org. Electron. 11(7), 1172–1175 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the processing steps for MgF2-columns incorporated in ITO-anodes. (a) A photoresist layer is spincoated on an ITO-covered glass substrate. (b) The column structure is exposed into the resist. (c) Development of the photoresist. (d) Column-structure is wet-etched with HCl into the ITO using the resist as an etching mask. (e) Column bowls are resulting in ITO. (f) MgF2 is evaporated onto the substrate. (g) A lift-off is performed with acetone. (h) A white polymer-OLED is fabricated on the column structured ITO.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Measured efficiency enhancement with different column distances and heights. (b) T-Matrix simulation of the waveguide mode at 450 nm distribution at the position of ITO. (c) T-Matrix simulation of the waveguide at 450 nm mode distribution at the position of MgF2. The waveguide mode is shifted towards the substrate.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Current-density characteristics of devices with different column distances and a column height of 66 nm. (b) Emission spectra at a viewing angle of 40°. The inset shows the angle resolved emission at a wavelength of 520 nm.

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