Abstract

In this paper, a down-size sintering scheme for making high-performance diffusers with micro structure to perform beam shaping is presented and demonstrated. By using down-size sintering method, a surface-structure film is designed and fabricated to verify the feasibility of the sintering technology, in which up to 1/8 dimension reduction has been achieved. Besides, a special impressing technology has been applied to fabricate diffuser film with various materials and the transmission efficiency is as high as 85% and above. By introducing the diffuser into possible lighting applications, the diffusers have been shown high performance in glare reduction, beam shaping and energy saving.

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References

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  1. International Energy Agency, Light’s Labour’s Lost: Policies for Energy-Efficient Lighting (OECD/IEA, Paris, 2006).
  2. C. C. Sun, W. T. Chien, I. Moreno, C. T. Hsieh, M. C. Lin, S. L. Hsiao, and X. H. Lee, “Calculating model of light transmission efficiency of diffusers attached to a lighting cavity,” Opt. Express 18(6), 6137–6148 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. T. R. M. Sales, “Structured microlens arrays for beam shaping,” Opt. Eng. 42(11), 3084–3085 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. R. M. Sales, “Structured microlens arrays for beam shaping,” Proc. SPIE 5175, 109–120 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. R. M. Sales, “High-contrast screen with random microlens array,” US Patent No. 6,700,702 (2004).
  6. R. P. C. Photonics, Inc., http://www.rpcphotonics.com/ .
  7. V. N. Mahajan, Optical Imaging and Aberrations: Part I. Ray Geometrical Optics (SPIE Press, 1998).
  8. C. C. Sun, T. X. Lee, S. H. Ma, Y. L. Lee, and S. M. Huang, “Precise optical modeling for LED lighting verified by cross correlation in the midfield region,” Opt. Lett. 31(14), 2193–2195 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier optics, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1996).
  10. A. G. Evonik Industries, http://www.savosil.com/product/savosil/en/Pages/default.aspx .
  11. F. Costa, L. Costa, and L. Gini, “Optical articles and sol-gel process for their manufacture,” World Intellectual Property Organization WIPO, WO 2004/083137, A1 (2004).
  12. Regatech Co, http://www.regatech.com/e1.htm .

2010 (1)

2006 (1)

2004 (1)

F. Costa, L. Costa, and L. Gini, “Optical articles and sol-gel process for their manufacture,” World Intellectual Property Organization WIPO, WO 2004/083137, A1 (2004).

2003 (2)

T. R. M. Sales, “Structured microlens arrays for beam shaping,” Opt. Eng. 42(11), 3084–3085 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. R. M. Sales, “Structured microlens arrays for beam shaping,” Proc. SPIE 5175, 109–120 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chien, W. T.

Costa, F.

F. Costa, L. Costa, and L. Gini, “Optical articles and sol-gel process for their manufacture,” World Intellectual Property Organization WIPO, WO 2004/083137, A1 (2004).

Costa, L.

F. Costa, L. Costa, and L. Gini, “Optical articles and sol-gel process for their manufacture,” World Intellectual Property Organization WIPO, WO 2004/083137, A1 (2004).

Gini, L.

F. Costa, L. Costa, and L. Gini, “Optical articles and sol-gel process for their manufacture,” World Intellectual Property Organization WIPO, WO 2004/083137, A1 (2004).

Hsiao, S. L.

Hsieh, C. T.

Huang, S. M.

Lee, T. X.

Lee, X. H.

Lee, Y. L.

Lin, M. C.

Ma, S. H.

Moreno, I.

Sales, T. R. M.

T. R. M. Sales, “Structured microlens arrays for beam shaping,” Opt. Eng. 42(11), 3084–3085 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. R. M. Sales, “Structured microlens arrays for beam shaping,” Proc. SPIE 5175, 109–120 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C. C.

Opt. Eng. (1)

T. R. M. Sales, “Structured microlens arrays for beam shaping,” Opt. Eng. 42(11), 3084–3085 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

T. R. M. Sales, “Structured microlens arrays for beam shaping,” Proc. SPIE 5175, 109–120 (2003).
[CrossRef]

World Intellectual Property Organization WIPO, WO (1)

F. Costa, L. Costa, and L. Gini, “Optical articles and sol-gel process for their manufacture,” World Intellectual Property Organization WIPO, WO 2004/083137, A1 (2004).

Other (7)

Regatech Co, http://www.regatech.com/e1.htm .

T. R. M. Sales, “High-contrast screen with random microlens array,” US Patent No. 6,700,702 (2004).

R. P. C. Photonics, Inc., http://www.rpcphotonics.com/ .

V. N. Mahajan, Optical Imaging and Aberrations: Part I. Ray Geometrical Optics (SPIE Press, 1998).

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier optics, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1996).

A. G. Evonik Industries, http://www.savosil.com/product/savosil/en/Pages/default.aspx .

International Energy Agency, Light’s Labour’s Lost: Policies for Energy-Efficient Lighting (OECD/IEA, Paris, 2006).

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Figures (16)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The related simulation results of G0-type SSD. (a) The structure. (b) The corresponding simulated light pattern. (c) The intensity distribution along vertical and horizontal directions.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The real mold and its related measurement results of G0-type SSD. (a) The structure. (b) The corresponding simulated light pattern. (c) The intensity distribution along vertical and horizontal directions

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The structure observation of G0-type SSD at the positions of different depth.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The comparison of the simulation results of light pattern of G0-type SSD before and after the process of volume reduction at the (a) 2 cm, (b) 5 cm, and (c) 10 cm distances between output plane of SSD and the observed plane. (Volume reduction with a multiple of 2 from up to down in turn.)

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The process of volume reduction by down-size sintering method.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The practical products of G1-type, G2-type, and G3-type SSD.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Large-area SSD. (a) The diagram for large-area SSD manufacturing method. (b) The practical products of large-area G1-type, G2-type, and G3-type SSD. (c) The largest SSD in the current manufacture process.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The measured transmission efficiency for three types of SSD.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Light pattern of (a) G1-type, (b) G2-type, and (c) G3-type SSD in simulation (the left) and measurement (the right).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

The observation of structure and its related effect. (a) G2-type SSD. (b) G3-type SSD.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

The light pattern when incident surface was non-structure surface. (a) Simulation result. (b) G1-type SSD. (c) G2-type SSD. (d) G3-type SSD.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

The SSD which structures with different arrangements. (a) A sample of the G2C-type SSD. (b) The corresponding light pattern of the G2C-type SSD. (c) A sample of the G2H-type SSD. (d) The corresponding light pattern of the G2H-type SSD.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Commercial down lamp with different diffuser. (a) Without diffuser. (b) Common V-cut diffuser, the structure surface toward light source. (c) Common V-cut diffuser, the structure surface outward the light source. (d) G2-type SSD, the structure surface toward light source. (e) G2-type SSD, the structure surface outward light source. (f) G2C-type SSD, the structure surface toward light source. (g) G2C-type SSD, the structure surface outward light source. (h) G2H-type SSD, the structure surface toward light source. (i) G2H-type SSD, the structure surface outward light source.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

LED light bar with different SSD. (a) G2-type SSD, the structure surface faces toward the light source. (b) G2-type SSD, the structure surface faces outward the light source. (c) G2H-type SSD, the structure surface faces toward the light source. (d) G2H-type SSD, the structure surface faces outward the light source. (e) G2H-type SSD, the structure surface faces toward the light source. (f) G2H-type SSD, the structure surface faces outward the light source.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

The intensity distribution of LED light bar with different SSD. (a)-(f) correspond to the cases in Fig. 14.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

The demonstration of SSD which was applied in a meeting room. (a) The lamps without diffuser. (b) The lamps with the G2C-type SSDs.

Equations (2)

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Z c = r c 2 /R 1+ [ 1( 1 e 2 ) r c 2 / R 2 ] 1/2 ,
r c = ( x c 2 + y c 2 ) 1/2 .

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