Abstract

We developed a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) integrated device for optogenetic applications. This device can interface via neuronal tissue with three functional modalities: imaging, optical stimulation and electrical recording. The CMOS image sensor was fabricated on 0.35 μm standard CMOS process with built-in control circuits for an on-chip blue light-emitting diode (LED) array. The effective imaging area was 2.0 × 1.8 mm2. The pixel array was composed of 7.5 × 7.5 μm2 3-transistor active pixel sensors (APSs). The LED array had 10 × 8 micro-LEDs measuring 192 × 225 μm2. We integrated the device with a commercial multichannel recording system to make electrical recordings.

© 2012 OSA

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  29. T. Kobayashi, A. Tagawa, T. Noda, K. Sasagawa, T. Tokuda, Y. Hatanaka, H. Tamura, Y. Ishikawa, S. Shiosaka, and J. Ohta, “Potentiometric dye imaging for pheochromocytoma and cortical neurons with a novel measurement system using and integrated complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor imaging device,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(11), 117001 (2010).
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  33. A. Tagawa, H. Minami, M. Mitani, T. Noda, K. Sasagawa, T. Tokuda, H. Tamura, Y. Hatanaka, Y. Ishikawa, S. Shiosaka, and J. Ohta, “Multimodal complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor sensor device for imaging of fluorescence and electrical potential in deep brain of mouse,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(1), 01AG02 (2010).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

P. C. Chen, Y. Y. Huang, and J. L. Juang, “MEMS microwell and microcolumn arrays: novel methods for high-throughput cell-based assays,” Lab Chip 11(21), 3619–3625 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Shi, M. K. Law, and A. Bermak, “A novel asynchronous pixel for an energy harvesting CMOS image sensor,” IEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integr. (VLSI) Syst. 19(1), 118–129 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Nakajima, T. Noda, K. Sasagawa, T. Tokuda, Y. Ishikawa, S. Shiosaka, and J. Ohta, “Planar multielectrode array coupled complementary metal oxide semiconductor image sensor for in vitro electophysiology,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(4), 04DL04 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (5)

A. Tagawa, H. Minami, M. Mitani, T. Noda, K. Sasagawa, T. Tokuda, H. Tamura, Y. Hatanaka, Y. Ishikawa, S. Shiosaka, and J. Ohta, “Multimodal complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor sensor device for imaging of fluorescence and electrical potential in deep brain of mouse,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(1), 01AG02 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Kobayashi, A. Tagawa, T. Noda, K. Sasagawa, T. Tokuda, Y. Hatanaka, H. Tamura, Y. Ishikawa, S. Shiosaka, and J. Ohta, “Potentiometric dye imaging for pheochromocytoma and cortical neurons with a novel measurement system using and integrated complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor imaging device,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(11), 117001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Grossman, V. Poher, M. S. Grubb, G. T. Kennedy, K. Nikolic, B. McGovern, R. B. Palmini, Z. Gong, E. M. Drakakis, M. A. A. Neil, M. D. Dawson, J. Burrone, and P. Degenaar, “Multi-site optical excitation using ChR2 and micro-LED array,” J. Neural Eng. 7(1), 016004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Pruessner, T. H. Stievater, M. S. Ferraro, W. S. Rabinovich, J. L. Stepnowski, and R. A. McGill, “Waveguide micro-opto-electro-mechanical resonant chemical sensors,” Lab Chip 10(6), 762–768 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Weerakoon, E. Culurciello, Y. Yang, J. Santos-Sacchi, P. J. Kindlmann, and F. J. Sigworth, “Patch-clamp amplifiers on a chip,” J. Neurosci. Methods 192(2), 187–192 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

T. Tokuda, H. Yamada, K. Sasagawa, and J. Ohta, “Polarization-analyzing CMOS image sensor with monolithically embedded polarizer for microchemistry systems,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. 3(5), 259–266 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, F. Laiwalla, J. A. Kim, H. Urabe, R. Van Wagenen, Y. K. Song, B. W. Connors, F. Zhang, K. Deisseroth, and A. V. Nurmikko, “Integrated device for optical stimulation and spatiotemporal electrical recording of neural activity in light-sensitized brain tissue,” J. Neural Eng. 6(5), 055007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Gradinaru, M. Mogri, K. R. Thompson, J. M. Henderson, and K. Deisseroth, “Optical deconstruction of parkinsonian neural circuitry,” Science 324(5925), 354–359 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (5)

X. Cui, L. M. Lee, X. Heng, W. Zhong, P. W. Sternberg, D. Psaltis, and C. Yang, “Lensless high-resolution on-chip optofluidic microscopes for Caenorhabditis elegans and cell imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(31), 10670–10675 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Ng, H. Tamura, T. Mizuno, T. Tokuda, M. Nunoshita, Y. Ishikawa, S. Shiosaka, and J. Ohta, “An implantable and fully integrated complementary metal-oxide semiconductor device for in vivo neural imaging and electrical interfacing with the mouse hippocampus,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 145–146, 176–186 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Tamura, D. C. Ng, T. Tokuda, H. Naoki, T. Nakagawa, T. Mizuno, Y. Hatanaka, Y. Ishikawa, J. Ohta, and S. Shiosaka, “One-chip sensing device (biomedical photonic LSI) enabled to assess hippocampal steep and gradual up-regulated proteolytic activities,” J. Neurosci. Methods 173(1), 114–120 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Baaken, M. Sondermann, C. Schlemmer, J. Rühe, and J. C. Behrends, “Planar microelectrode-cavity array for high-resolution and parallel electrical recording of membrane ionic currents,” Lab Chip 8(6), 938–944 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Imfeld, S. Neukom, A. Maccione, Y. Bornat, S. Martinoia, P. A. Farine, M. Koudelka-Hep, and L. Berdondini, “Large-scale, high-resolution data acquisition system for extracellular recording of electrophysiological activity,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 55(8), 2064–2073 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

B. R. Arenkiel, J. Peca, I. G. Davison, C. Feliciano, K. Deisseroth, G. J. Augustine, M. D. Ehlers, and G. Feng, “In vivo light-induced activation of neural circuitry in transgenic mice expressing channelrhodopsin-2,” Neuron 54(2), 205–218 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Tokuda, I. Kadowaki, K. Kagawa, M. Nunoshita, and J. Ohta, “A new scheme for imaging on-chip dry DNA spots using optical/potential dual-image complementary metal oxide semiconductor sensor,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(4B), 2806–2810 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

I. Ferezou, S. Bolea, and C. C. H. Petersen, “Visualizing the cortical representation of whisker touch: voltage-sensitive dye imaging in freely moving mice,” Neuron 50(4), 617–629 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

C. J. Lu, W. H. Steinecker, W. C. Tian, M. C. Oborny, J. M. Nichols, M. Agah, J. A. Potkay, H. K. Chan, J. Driscoll, R. D. Sacks, K. D. Wise, S. W. Pang, and E. T. Zellers, “First-generation hybrid MEMS gas chromatograph,” Lab Chip 5(10), 1123–1131 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Normandin, M. Sawan, and J. Faubert, “A new integrated front-end for a noninvasive brain imaging system based on near-infrared spectroreflectometry,” IEEE Trans. Circuits. Syst., l. Regul. Pap. 52(12), 2663–2671 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Honghao, P. A. Abshire, M. Urdaneta, and E. Smela, “CMOS contact imager for monitoring cultured cells,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS) 4, 3491–3494 (2005).

2004 (2)

K. C. Reinert, R. L. Dunbar, W. Gao, G. Chen, and T. J. Ebner, “Flavoprotein autofluorescence imaging of neuronal activation in the cerebellar cortex in vivo,” J. Neurophysiol. 92(1), 199–211 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Vetter, J. C. Williams, J. F. Hetke, E. A. Nunamaker, and D. R. Kipke, “Chronic neural recording using silicon-substrate microelectrode arrays implanted in cerebral cortex,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 51(6), 896–904 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

C. Stosiek, O. Garaschuk, K. Holthoff, and A. Konnerth, “In vivo two-photon calcium imaging of neuronal networks,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(12), 7319–7324 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hierlemann and H. Baltes, “CMOS-based chemical microsensors,” Analyst (Lond.) 128(1), 15–28 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Eversmann, M. Jenkner, F. Hofmann, C. Paulus, R. Brederlow, B. Holzapfl, P. Fromherz, M. Merz, M. Brenner, M. Schreiter, R. Gabl, K. Plehnert, M. Steinhauser, G. Eckstein, D. Schmitt-Landsiedel, and R. Thewes, “A 128 x 128 CMOS biosensor array for extracellular recording of neural activity,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 38(12), 2306–2317 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. O. Heuschkel, M. Fejtl, M. Raggenbass, D. Bertrand, and P. Renaud, “A three-dimensional multi-electrode array for multi-site stimulation and recording in acute brain slices,” J. Neurosci. Methods 114(2), 135–148 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, and D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with >4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(1), 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

R. D. Frostig, E. E. Lieke, D. Y. Ts’o, and A. Grinvald, “Cortical functional architecture and local coupling between neuronal activity and the microcirculation revealed by in vivo high-resolution optical imaging of intrinsic signals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87(16), 6082–6086 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abshire, P. A.

J. Honghao, P. A. Abshire, M. Urdaneta, and E. Smela, “CMOS contact imager for monitoring cultured cells,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS) 4, 3491–3494 (2005).

Agah, M.

C. J. Lu, W. H. Steinecker, W. C. Tian, M. C. Oborny, J. M. Nichols, M. Agah, J. A. Potkay, H. K. Chan, J. Driscoll, R. D. Sacks, K. D. Wise, S. W. Pang, and E. T. Zellers, “First-generation hybrid MEMS gas chromatograph,” Lab Chip 5(10), 1123–1131 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arenkiel, B. R.

B. R. Arenkiel, J. Peca, I. G. Davison, C. Feliciano, K. Deisseroth, G. J. Augustine, M. D. Ehlers, and G. Feng, “In vivo light-induced activation of neural circuitry in transgenic mice expressing channelrhodopsin-2,” Neuron 54(2), 205–218 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Augustine, G. J.

B. R. Arenkiel, J. Peca, I. G. Davison, C. Feliciano, K. Deisseroth, G. J. Augustine, M. D. Ehlers, and G. Feng, “In vivo light-induced activation of neural circuitry in transgenic mice expressing channelrhodopsin-2,” Neuron 54(2), 205–218 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baaken, G.

G. Baaken, M. Sondermann, C. Schlemmer, J. Rühe, and J. C. Behrends, “Planar microelectrode-cavity array for high-resolution and parallel electrical recording of membrane ionic currents,” Lab Chip 8(6), 938–944 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bacon, D. D.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, and D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with >4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(1), 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Baltes, H.

A. Hierlemann and H. Baltes, “CMOS-based chemical microsensors,” Analyst (Lond.) 128(1), 15–28 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Behrends, J. C.

G. Baaken, M. Sondermann, C. Schlemmer, J. Rühe, and J. C. Behrends, “Planar microelectrode-cavity array for high-resolution and parallel electrical recording of membrane ionic currents,” Lab Chip 8(6), 938–944 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berdondini, L.

K. Imfeld, S. Neukom, A. Maccione, Y. Bornat, S. Martinoia, P. A. Farine, M. Koudelka-Hep, and L. Berdondini, “Large-scale, high-resolution data acquisition system for extracellular recording of electrophysiological activity,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 55(8), 2064–2073 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bermak, A.

C. Shi, M. K. Law, and A. Bermak, “A novel asynchronous pixel for an energy harvesting CMOS image sensor,” IEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integr. (VLSI) Syst. 19(1), 118–129 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bertrand, D.

M. O. Heuschkel, M. Fejtl, M. Raggenbass, D. Bertrand, and P. Renaud, “A three-dimensional multi-electrode array for multi-site stimulation and recording in acute brain slices,” J. Neurosci. Methods 114(2), 135–148 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bolea, S.

I. Ferezou, S. Bolea, and C. C. H. Petersen, “Visualizing the cortical representation of whisker touch: voltage-sensitive dye imaging in freely moving mice,” Neuron 50(4), 617–629 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bornat, Y.

K. Imfeld, S. Neukom, A. Maccione, Y. Bornat, S. Martinoia, P. A. Farine, M. Koudelka-Hep, and L. Berdondini, “Large-scale, high-resolution data acquisition system for extracellular recording of electrophysiological activity,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 55(8), 2064–2073 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brederlow, R.

B. Eversmann, M. Jenkner, F. Hofmann, C. Paulus, R. Brederlow, B. Holzapfl, P. Fromherz, M. Merz, M. Brenner, M. Schreiter, R. Gabl, K. Plehnert, M. Steinhauser, G. Eckstein, D. Schmitt-Landsiedel, and R. Thewes, “A 128 x 128 CMOS biosensor array for extracellular recording of neural activity,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 38(12), 2306–2317 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brenner, M.

B. Eversmann, M. Jenkner, F. Hofmann, C. Paulus, R. Brederlow, B. Holzapfl, P. Fromherz, M. Merz, M. Brenner, M. Schreiter, R. Gabl, K. Plehnert, M. Steinhauser, G. Eckstein, D. Schmitt-Landsiedel, and R. Thewes, “A 128 x 128 CMOS biosensor array for extracellular recording of neural activity,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 38(12), 2306–2317 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Buchholz, D. B.

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X. Cui, L. M. Lee, X. Heng, W. Zhong, P. W. Sternberg, D. Psaltis, and C. Yang, “Lensless high-resolution on-chip optofluidic microscopes for Caenorhabditis elegans and cell imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(31), 10670–10675 (2008).
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A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, and D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with >4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(1), 77–84 (1996).
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B. R. Arenkiel, J. Peca, I. G. Davison, C. Feliciano, K. Deisseroth, G. J. Augustine, M. D. Ehlers, and G. Feng, “In vivo light-induced activation of neural circuitry in transgenic mice expressing channelrhodopsin-2,” Neuron 54(2), 205–218 (2007).
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K. C. Reinert, R. L. Dunbar, W. Gao, G. Chen, and T. J. Ebner, “Flavoprotein autofluorescence imaging of neuronal activation in the cerebellar cortex in vivo,” J. Neurophysiol. 92(1), 199–211 (2004).
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C. Stosiek, O. Garaschuk, K. Holthoff, and A. Konnerth, “In vivo two-photon calcium imaging of neuronal networks,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(12), 7319–7324 (2003).
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N. Grossman, V. Poher, M. S. Grubb, G. T. Kennedy, K. Nikolic, B. McGovern, R. B. Palmini, Z. Gong, E. M. Drakakis, M. A. A. Neil, M. D. Dawson, J. Burrone, and P. Degenaar, “Multi-site optical excitation using ChR2 and micro-LED array,” J. Neural Eng. 7(1), 016004 (2010).
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V. Gradinaru, M. Mogri, K. R. Thompson, J. M. Henderson, and K. Deisseroth, “Optical deconstruction of parkinsonian neural circuitry,” Science 324(5925), 354–359 (2009).
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A. Tagawa, H. Minami, M. Mitani, T. Noda, K. Sasagawa, T. Tokuda, H. Tamura, Y. Hatanaka, Y. Ishikawa, S. Shiosaka, and J. Ohta, “Multimodal complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor sensor device for imaging of fluorescence and electrical potential in deep brain of mouse,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(1), 01AG02 (2010).
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H. Tamura, D. C. Ng, T. Tokuda, H. Naoki, T. Nakagawa, T. Mizuno, Y. Hatanaka, Y. Ishikawa, J. Ohta, and S. Shiosaka, “One-chip sensing device (biomedical photonic LSI) enabled to assess hippocampal steep and gradual up-regulated proteolytic activities,” J. Neurosci. Methods 173(1), 114–120 (2008).
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Henderson, J. M.

V. Gradinaru, M. Mogri, K. R. Thompson, J. M. Henderson, and K. Deisseroth, “Optical deconstruction of parkinsonian neural circuitry,” Science 324(5925), 354–359 (2009).
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Heng, X.

X. Cui, L. M. Lee, X. Heng, W. Zhong, P. W. Sternberg, D. Psaltis, and C. Yang, “Lensless high-resolution on-chip optofluidic microscopes for Caenorhabditis elegans and cell imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(31), 10670–10675 (2008).
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M. O. Heuschkel, M. Fejtl, M. Raggenbass, D. Bertrand, and P. Renaud, “A three-dimensional multi-electrode array for multi-site stimulation and recording in acute brain slices,” J. Neurosci. Methods 114(2), 135–148 (2002).
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B. Eversmann, M. Jenkner, F. Hofmann, C. Paulus, R. Brederlow, B. Holzapfl, P. Fromherz, M. Merz, M. Brenner, M. Schreiter, R. Gabl, K. Plehnert, M. Steinhauser, G. Eckstein, D. Schmitt-Landsiedel, and R. Thewes, “A 128 x 128 CMOS biosensor array for extracellular recording of neural activity,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 38(12), 2306–2317 (2003).
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C. Stosiek, O. Garaschuk, K. Holthoff, and A. Konnerth, “In vivo two-photon calcium imaging of neuronal networks,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(12), 7319–7324 (2003).
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B. Eversmann, M. Jenkner, F. Hofmann, C. Paulus, R. Brederlow, B. Holzapfl, P. Fromherz, M. Merz, M. Brenner, M. Schreiter, R. Gabl, K. Plehnert, M. Steinhauser, G. Eckstein, D. Schmitt-Landsiedel, and R. Thewes, “A 128 x 128 CMOS biosensor array for extracellular recording of neural activity,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 38(12), 2306–2317 (2003).
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P. C. Chen, Y. Y. Huang, and J. L. Juang, “MEMS microwell and microcolumn arrays: novel methods for high-throughput cell-based assays,” Lab Chip 11(21), 3619–3625 (2011).
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A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, and D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with >4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(1), 77–84 (1996).
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K. Imfeld, S. Neukom, A. Maccione, Y. Bornat, S. Martinoia, P. A. Farine, M. Koudelka-Hep, and L. Berdondini, “Large-scale, high-resolution data acquisition system for extracellular recording of electrophysiological activity,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 55(8), 2064–2073 (2008).
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A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, and D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with >4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(1), 77–84 (1996).
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B. Eversmann, M. Jenkner, F. Hofmann, C. Paulus, R. Brederlow, B. Holzapfl, P. Fromherz, M. Merz, M. Brenner, M. Schreiter, R. Gabl, K. Plehnert, M. Steinhauser, G. Eckstein, D. Schmitt-Landsiedel, and R. Thewes, “A 128 x 128 CMOS biosensor array for extracellular recording of neural activity,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 38(12), 2306–2317 (2003).
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P. C. Chen, Y. Y. Huang, and J. L. Juang, “MEMS microwell and microcolumn arrays: novel methods for high-throughput cell-based assays,” Lab Chip 11(21), 3619–3625 (2011).
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M. O. Heuschkel, M. Fejtl, M. Raggenbass, D. Bertrand, and P. Renaud, “A three-dimensional multi-electrode array for multi-site stimulation and recording in acute brain slices,” J. Neurosci. Methods 114(2), 135–148 (2002).
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G. Baaken, M. Sondermann, C. Schlemmer, J. Rühe, and J. C. Behrends, “Planar microelectrode-cavity array for high-resolution and parallel electrical recording of membrane ionic currents,” Lab Chip 8(6), 938–944 (2008).
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Sacks, R. D.

C. J. Lu, W. H. Steinecker, W. C. Tian, M. C. Oborny, J. M. Nichols, M. Agah, J. A. Potkay, H. K. Chan, J. Driscoll, R. D. Sacks, K. D. Wise, S. W. Pang, and E. T. Zellers, “First-generation hybrid MEMS gas chromatograph,” Lab Chip 5(10), 1123–1131 (2005).
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Santos-Sacchi, J.

P. Weerakoon, E. Culurciello, Y. Yang, J. Santos-Sacchi, P. J. Kindlmann, and F. J. Sigworth, “Patch-clamp amplifiers on a chip,” J. Neurosci. Methods 192(2), 187–192 (2010).
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Sasagawa, K.

A. Nakajima, T. Noda, K. Sasagawa, T. Tokuda, Y. Ishikawa, S. Shiosaka, and J. Ohta, “Planar multielectrode array coupled complementary metal oxide semiconductor image sensor for in vitro electophysiology,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(4), 04DL04 (2011).
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A. Tagawa, H. Minami, M. Mitani, T. Noda, K. Sasagawa, T. Tokuda, H. Tamura, Y. Hatanaka, Y. Ishikawa, S. Shiosaka, and J. Ohta, “Multimodal complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor sensor device for imaging of fluorescence and electrical potential in deep brain of mouse,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(1), 01AG02 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Kobayashi, A. Tagawa, T. Noda, K. Sasagawa, T. Tokuda, Y. Hatanaka, H. Tamura, Y. Ishikawa, S. Shiosaka, and J. Ohta, “Potentiometric dye imaging for pheochromocytoma and cortical neurons with a novel measurement system using and integrated complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor imaging device,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(11), 117001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Tokuda, H. Yamada, K. Sasagawa, and J. Ohta, “Polarization-analyzing CMOS image sensor with monolithically embedded polarizer for microchemistry systems,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. 3(5), 259–266 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sawan, M.

F. Normandin, M. Sawan, and J. Faubert, “A new integrated front-end for a noninvasive brain imaging system based on near-infrared spectroreflectometry,” IEEE Trans. Circuits. Syst., l. Regul. Pap. 52(12), 2663–2671 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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G. Baaken, M. Sondermann, C. Schlemmer, J. Rühe, and J. C. Behrends, “Planar microelectrode-cavity array for high-resolution and parallel electrical recording of membrane ionic currents,” Lab Chip 8(6), 938–944 (2008).
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Schmitt-Landsiedel, D.

B. Eversmann, M. Jenkner, F. Hofmann, C. Paulus, R. Brederlow, B. Holzapfl, P. Fromherz, M. Merz, M. Brenner, M. Schreiter, R. Gabl, K. Plehnert, M. Steinhauser, G. Eckstein, D. Schmitt-Landsiedel, and R. Thewes, “A 128 x 128 CMOS biosensor array for extracellular recording of neural activity,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 38(12), 2306–2317 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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B. Eversmann, M. Jenkner, F. Hofmann, C. Paulus, R. Brederlow, B. Holzapfl, P. Fromherz, M. Merz, M. Brenner, M. Schreiter, R. Gabl, K. Plehnert, M. Steinhauser, G. Eckstein, D. Schmitt-Landsiedel, and R. Thewes, “A 128 x 128 CMOS biosensor array for extracellular recording of neural activity,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 38(12), 2306–2317 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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C. Shi, M. K. Law, and A. Bermak, “A novel asynchronous pixel for an energy harvesting CMOS image sensor,” IEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integr. (VLSI) Syst. 19(1), 118–129 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shiosaka, S.

A. Nakajima, T. Noda, K. Sasagawa, T. Tokuda, Y. Ishikawa, S. Shiosaka, and J. Ohta, “Planar multielectrode array coupled complementary metal oxide semiconductor image sensor for in vitro electophysiology,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(4), 04DL04 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Tagawa, H. Minami, M. Mitani, T. Noda, K. Sasagawa, T. Tokuda, H. Tamura, Y. Hatanaka, Y. Ishikawa, S. Shiosaka, and J. Ohta, “Multimodal complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor sensor device for imaging of fluorescence and electrical potential in deep brain of mouse,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(1), 01AG02 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Kobayashi, A. Tagawa, T. Noda, K. Sasagawa, T. Tokuda, Y. Hatanaka, H. Tamura, Y. Ishikawa, S. Shiosaka, and J. Ohta, “Potentiometric dye imaging for pheochromocytoma and cortical neurons with a novel measurement system using and integrated complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor imaging device,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(11), 117001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Ng, H. Tamura, T. Mizuno, T. Tokuda, M. Nunoshita, Y. Ishikawa, S. Shiosaka, and J. Ohta, “An implantable and fully integrated complementary metal-oxide semiconductor device for in vivo neural imaging and electrical interfacing with the mouse hippocampus,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 145–146, 176–186 (2008).
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H. Tamura, D. C. Ng, T. Tokuda, H. Naoki, T. Nakagawa, T. Mizuno, Y. Hatanaka, Y. Ishikawa, J. Ohta, and S. Shiosaka, “One-chip sensing device (biomedical photonic LSI) enabled to assess hippocampal steep and gradual up-regulated proteolytic activities,” J. Neurosci. Methods 173(1), 114–120 (2008).
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Sigworth, F. J.

P. Weerakoon, E. Culurciello, Y. Yang, J. Santos-Sacchi, P. J. Kindlmann, and F. J. Sigworth, “Patch-clamp amplifiers on a chip,” J. Neurosci. Methods 192(2), 187–192 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smela, E.

J. Honghao, P. A. Abshire, M. Urdaneta, and E. Smela, “CMOS contact imager for monitoring cultured cells,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS) 4, 3491–3494 (2005).

Sondermann, M.

G. Baaken, M. Sondermann, C. Schlemmer, J. Rühe, and J. C. Behrends, “Planar microelectrode-cavity array for high-resolution and parallel electrical recording of membrane ionic currents,” Lab Chip 8(6), 938–944 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, Y. K.

J. Zhang, F. Laiwalla, J. A. Kim, H. Urabe, R. Van Wagenen, Y. K. Song, B. W. Connors, F. Zhang, K. Deisseroth, and A. V. Nurmikko, “Integrated device for optical stimulation and spatiotemporal electrical recording of neural activity in light-sensitized brain tissue,” J. Neural Eng. 6(5), 055007 (2009).
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Steinecker, W. H.

C. J. Lu, W. H. Steinecker, W. C. Tian, M. C. Oborny, J. M. Nichols, M. Agah, J. A. Potkay, H. K. Chan, J. Driscoll, R. D. Sacks, K. D. Wise, S. W. Pang, and E. T. Zellers, “First-generation hybrid MEMS gas chromatograph,” Lab Chip 5(10), 1123–1131 (2005).
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B. Eversmann, M. Jenkner, F. Hofmann, C. Paulus, R. Brederlow, B. Holzapfl, P. Fromherz, M. Merz, M. Brenner, M. Schreiter, R. Gabl, K. Plehnert, M. Steinhauser, G. Eckstein, D. Schmitt-Landsiedel, and R. Thewes, “A 128 x 128 CMOS biosensor array for extracellular recording of neural activity,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 38(12), 2306–2317 (2003).
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M. W. Pruessner, T. H. Stievater, M. S. Ferraro, W. S. Rabinovich, J. L. Stepnowski, and R. A. McGill, “Waveguide micro-opto-electro-mechanical resonant chemical sensors,” Lab Chip 10(6), 762–768 (2010).
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X. Cui, L. M. Lee, X. Heng, W. Zhong, P. W. Sternberg, D. Psaltis, and C. Yang, “Lensless high-resolution on-chip optofluidic microscopes for Caenorhabditis elegans and cell imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(31), 10670–10675 (2008).
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C. Stosiek, O. Garaschuk, K. Holthoff, and A. Konnerth, “In vivo two-photon calcium imaging of neuronal networks,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(12), 7319–7324 (2003).
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T. Kobayashi, A. Tagawa, T. Noda, K. Sasagawa, T. Tokuda, Y. Hatanaka, H. Tamura, Y. Ishikawa, S. Shiosaka, and J. Ohta, “Potentiometric dye imaging for pheochromocytoma and cortical neurons with a novel measurement system using and integrated complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor imaging device,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(11), 117001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Tagawa, H. Minami, M. Mitani, T. Noda, K. Sasagawa, T. Tokuda, H. Tamura, Y. Hatanaka, Y. Ishikawa, S. Shiosaka, and J. Ohta, “Multimodal complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor sensor device for imaging of fluorescence and electrical potential in deep brain of mouse,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(1), 01AG02 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tamura, H.

A. Tagawa, H. Minami, M. Mitani, T. Noda, K. Sasagawa, T. Tokuda, H. Tamura, Y. Hatanaka, Y. Ishikawa, S. Shiosaka, and J. Ohta, “Multimodal complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor sensor device for imaging of fluorescence and electrical potential in deep brain of mouse,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(1), 01AG02 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Kobayashi, A. Tagawa, T. Noda, K. Sasagawa, T. Tokuda, Y. Hatanaka, H. Tamura, Y. Ishikawa, S. Shiosaka, and J. Ohta, “Potentiometric dye imaging for pheochromocytoma and cortical neurons with a novel measurement system using and integrated complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor imaging device,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(11), 117001 (2010).
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H. Tamura, D. C. Ng, T. Tokuda, H. Naoki, T. Nakagawa, T. Mizuno, Y. Hatanaka, Y. Ishikawa, J. Ohta, and S. Shiosaka, “One-chip sensing device (biomedical photonic LSI) enabled to assess hippocampal steep and gradual up-regulated proteolytic activities,” J. Neurosci. Methods 173(1), 114–120 (2008).
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D. C. Ng, H. Tamura, T. Mizuno, T. Tokuda, M. Nunoshita, Y. Ishikawa, S. Shiosaka, and J. Ohta, “An implantable and fully integrated complementary metal-oxide semiconductor device for in vivo neural imaging and electrical interfacing with the mouse hippocampus,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 145–146, 176–186 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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B. Eversmann, M. Jenkner, F. Hofmann, C. Paulus, R. Brederlow, B. Holzapfl, P. Fromherz, M. Merz, M. Brenner, M. Schreiter, R. Gabl, K. Plehnert, M. Steinhauser, G. Eckstein, D. Schmitt-Landsiedel, and R. Thewes, “A 128 x 128 CMOS biosensor array for extracellular recording of neural activity,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 38(12), 2306–2317 (2003).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tokuda, T.

A. Nakajima, T. Noda, K. Sasagawa, T. Tokuda, Y. Ishikawa, S. Shiosaka, and J. Ohta, “Planar multielectrode array coupled complementary metal oxide semiconductor image sensor for in vitro electophysiology,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(4), 04DL04 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Tagawa, H. Minami, M. Mitani, T. Noda, K. Sasagawa, T. Tokuda, H. Tamura, Y. Hatanaka, Y. Ishikawa, S. Shiosaka, and J. Ohta, “Multimodal complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor sensor device for imaging of fluorescence and electrical potential in deep brain of mouse,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(1), 01AG02 (2010).
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T. Kobayashi, A. Tagawa, T. Noda, K. Sasagawa, T. Tokuda, Y. Hatanaka, H. Tamura, Y. Ishikawa, S. Shiosaka, and J. Ohta, “Potentiometric dye imaging for pheochromocytoma and cortical neurons with a novel measurement system using and integrated complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor imaging device,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(11), 117001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Tokuda, H. Yamada, K. Sasagawa, and J. Ohta, “Polarization-analyzing CMOS image sensor with monolithically embedded polarizer for microchemistry systems,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. 3(5), 259–266 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Ng, H. Tamura, T. Mizuno, T. Tokuda, M. Nunoshita, Y. Ishikawa, S. Shiosaka, and J. Ohta, “An implantable and fully integrated complementary metal-oxide semiconductor device for in vivo neural imaging and electrical interfacing with the mouse hippocampus,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 145–146, 176–186 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Tamura, D. C. Ng, T. Tokuda, H. Naoki, T. Nakagawa, T. Mizuno, Y. Hatanaka, Y. Ishikawa, J. Ohta, and S. Shiosaka, “One-chip sensing device (biomedical photonic LSI) enabled to assess hippocampal steep and gradual up-regulated proteolytic activities,” J. Neurosci. Methods 173(1), 114–120 (2008).
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J. Zhang, F. Laiwalla, J. A. Kim, H. Urabe, R. Van Wagenen, Y. K. Song, B. W. Connors, F. Zhang, K. Deisseroth, and A. V. Nurmikko, “Integrated device for optical stimulation and spatiotemporal electrical recording of neural activity in light-sensitized brain tissue,” J. Neural Eng. 6(5), 055007 (2009).
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J. Honghao, P. A. Abshire, M. Urdaneta, and E. Smela, “CMOS contact imager for monitoring cultured cells,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS) 4, 3491–3494 (2005).

Van Wagenen, R.

J. Zhang, F. Laiwalla, J. A. Kim, H. Urabe, R. Van Wagenen, Y. K. Song, B. W. Connors, F. Zhang, K. Deisseroth, and A. V. Nurmikko, “Integrated device for optical stimulation and spatiotemporal electrical recording of neural activity in light-sensitized brain tissue,” J. Neural Eng. 6(5), 055007 (2009).
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R. J. Vetter, J. C. Williams, J. F. Hetke, E. A. Nunamaker, and D. R. Kipke, “Chronic neural recording using silicon-substrate microelectrode arrays implanted in cerebral cortex,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 51(6), 896–904 (2004).
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A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, and D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with >4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(1), 77–84 (1996).
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P. Weerakoon, E. Culurciello, Y. Yang, J. Santos-Sacchi, P. J. Kindlmann, and F. J. Sigworth, “Patch-clamp amplifiers on a chip,” J. Neurosci. Methods 192(2), 187–192 (2010).
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R. J. Vetter, J. C. Williams, J. F. Hetke, E. A. Nunamaker, and D. R. Kipke, “Chronic neural recording using silicon-substrate microelectrode arrays implanted in cerebral cortex,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 51(6), 896–904 (2004).
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Wise, K. D.

C. J. Lu, W. H. Steinecker, W. C. Tian, M. C. Oborny, J. M. Nichols, M. Agah, J. A. Potkay, H. K. Chan, J. Driscoll, R. D. Sacks, K. D. Wise, S. W. Pang, and E. T. Zellers, “First-generation hybrid MEMS gas chromatograph,” Lab Chip 5(10), 1123–1131 (2005).
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Yamada, H.

T. Tokuda, H. Yamada, K. Sasagawa, and J. Ohta, “Polarization-analyzing CMOS image sensor with monolithically embedded polarizer for microchemistry systems,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. 3(5), 259–266 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C.

X. Cui, L. M. Lee, X. Heng, W. Zhong, P. W. Sternberg, D. Psaltis, and C. Yang, “Lensless high-resolution on-chip optofluidic microscopes for Caenorhabditis elegans and cell imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(31), 10670–10675 (2008).
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Yang, Y.

P. Weerakoon, E. Culurciello, Y. Yang, J. Santos-Sacchi, P. J. Kindlmann, and F. J. Sigworth, “Patch-clamp amplifiers on a chip,” J. Neurosci. Methods 192(2), 187–192 (2010).
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Zellers, E. T.

C. J. Lu, W. H. Steinecker, W. C. Tian, M. C. Oborny, J. M. Nichols, M. Agah, J. A. Potkay, H. K. Chan, J. Driscoll, R. D. Sacks, K. D. Wise, S. W. Pang, and E. T. Zellers, “First-generation hybrid MEMS gas chromatograph,” Lab Chip 5(10), 1123–1131 (2005).
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Zhang, F.

J. Zhang, F. Laiwalla, J. A. Kim, H. Urabe, R. Van Wagenen, Y. K. Song, B. W. Connors, F. Zhang, K. Deisseroth, and A. V. Nurmikko, “Integrated device for optical stimulation and spatiotemporal electrical recording of neural activity in light-sensitized brain tissue,” J. Neural Eng. 6(5), 055007 (2009).
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Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, F. Laiwalla, J. A. Kim, H. Urabe, R. Van Wagenen, Y. K. Song, B. W. Connors, F. Zhang, K. Deisseroth, and A. V. Nurmikko, “Integrated device for optical stimulation and spatiotemporal electrical recording of neural activity in light-sensitized brain tissue,” J. Neural Eng. 6(5), 055007 (2009).
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Zhong, W.

X. Cui, L. M. Lee, X. Heng, W. Zhong, P. W. Sternberg, D. Psaltis, and C. Yang, “Lensless high-resolution on-chip optofluidic microscopes for Caenorhabditis elegans and cell imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(31), 10670–10675 (2008).
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A. Hierlemann and H. Baltes, “CMOS-based chemical microsensors,” Analyst (Lond.) 128(1), 15–28 (2003).
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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, and D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with >4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(1), 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits (1)

B. Eversmann, M. Jenkner, F. Hofmann, C. Paulus, R. Brederlow, B. Holzapfl, P. Fromherz, M. Merz, M. Brenner, M. Schreiter, R. Gabl, K. Plehnert, M. Steinhauser, G. Eckstein, D. Schmitt-Landsiedel, and R. Thewes, “A 128 x 128 CMOS biosensor array for extracellular recording of neural activity,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 38(12), 2306–2317 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. (1)

T. Tokuda, H. Yamada, K. Sasagawa, and J. Ohta, “Polarization-analyzing CMOS image sensor with monolithically embedded polarizer for microchemistry systems,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. 3(5), 259–266 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (2)

K. Imfeld, S. Neukom, A. Maccione, Y. Bornat, S. Martinoia, P. A. Farine, M. Koudelka-Hep, and L. Berdondini, “Large-scale, high-resolution data acquisition system for extracellular recording of electrophysiological activity,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 55(8), 2064–2073 (2008).
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R. J. Vetter, J. C. Williams, J. F. Hetke, E. A. Nunamaker, and D. R. Kipke, “Chronic neural recording using silicon-substrate microelectrode arrays implanted in cerebral cortex,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 51(6), 896–904 (2004).
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IEEE Trans. Circuits. Syst., l. Regul. Pap. (1)

F. Normandin, M. Sawan, and J. Faubert, “A new integrated front-end for a noninvasive brain imaging system based on near-infrared spectroreflectometry,” IEEE Trans. Circuits. Syst., l. Regul. Pap. 52(12), 2663–2671 (2005).
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IEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integr. (VLSI) Syst. (1)

C. Shi, M. K. Law, and A. Bermak, “A novel asynchronous pixel for an energy harvesting CMOS image sensor,” IEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integr. (VLSI) Syst. 19(1), 118–129 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Neural Eng. (2)

J. Zhang, F. Laiwalla, J. A. Kim, H. Urabe, R. Van Wagenen, Y. K. Song, B. W. Connors, F. Zhang, K. Deisseroth, and A. V. Nurmikko, “Integrated device for optical stimulation and spatiotemporal electrical recording of neural activity in light-sensitized brain tissue,” J. Neural Eng. 6(5), 055007 (2009).
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K. C. Reinert, R. L. Dunbar, W. Gao, G. Chen, and T. J. Ebner, “Flavoprotein autofluorescence imaging of neuronal activation in the cerebellar cortex in vivo,” J. Neurophysiol. 92(1), 199–211 (2004).
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J. Neurosci. Methods (3)

P. Weerakoon, E. Culurciello, Y. Yang, J. Santos-Sacchi, P. J. Kindlmann, and F. J. Sigworth, “Patch-clamp amplifiers on a chip,” J. Neurosci. Methods 192(2), 187–192 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tamura, D. C. Ng, T. Tokuda, H. Naoki, T. Nakagawa, T. Mizuno, Y. Hatanaka, Y. Ishikawa, J. Ohta, and S. Shiosaka, “One-chip sensing device (biomedical photonic LSI) enabled to assess hippocampal steep and gradual up-regulated proteolytic activities,” J. Neurosci. Methods 173(1), 114–120 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. O. Heuschkel, M. Fejtl, M. Raggenbass, D. Bertrand, and P. Renaud, “A three-dimensional multi-electrode array for multi-site stimulation and recording in acute brain slices,” J. Neurosci. Methods 114(2), 135–148 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (4)

A. Tagawa, H. Minami, M. Mitani, T. Noda, K. Sasagawa, T. Tokuda, H. Tamura, Y. Hatanaka, Y. Ishikawa, S. Shiosaka, and J. Ohta, “Multimodal complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor sensor device for imaging of fluorescence and electrical potential in deep brain of mouse,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(1), 01AG02 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Nakajima, T. Noda, K. Sasagawa, T. Tokuda, Y. Ishikawa, S. Shiosaka, and J. Ohta, “Planar multielectrode array coupled complementary metal oxide semiconductor image sensor for in vitro electophysiology,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(4), 04DL04 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Kobayashi, A. Tagawa, T. Noda, K. Sasagawa, T. Tokuda, Y. Hatanaka, H. Tamura, Y. Ishikawa, S. Shiosaka, and J. Ohta, “Potentiometric dye imaging for pheochromocytoma and cortical neurons with a novel measurement system using and integrated complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor imaging device,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(11), 117001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Tokuda, I. Kadowaki, K. Kagawa, M. Nunoshita, and J. Ohta, “A new scheme for imaging on-chip dry DNA spots using optical/potential dual-image complementary metal oxide semiconductor sensor,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(4B), 2806–2810 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lab Chip (4)

M. W. Pruessner, T. H. Stievater, M. S. Ferraro, W. S. Rabinovich, J. L. Stepnowski, and R. A. McGill, “Waveguide micro-opto-electro-mechanical resonant chemical sensors,” Lab Chip 10(6), 762–768 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. C. Chen, Y. Y. Huang, and J. L. Juang, “MEMS microwell and microcolumn arrays: novel methods for high-throughput cell-based assays,” Lab Chip 11(21), 3619–3625 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Baaken, M. Sondermann, C. Schlemmer, J. Rühe, and J. C. Behrends, “Planar microelectrode-cavity array for high-resolution and parallel electrical recording of membrane ionic currents,” Lab Chip 8(6), 938–944 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Lu, W. H. Steinecker, W. C. Tian, M. C. Oborny, J. M. Nichols, M. Agah, J. A. Potkay, H. K. Chan, J. Driscoll, R. D. Sacks, K. D. Wise, S. W. Pang, and E. T. Zellers, “First-generation hybrid MEMS gas chromatograph,” Lab Chip 5(10), 1123–1131 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neuron (2)

B. R. Arenkiel, J. Peca, I. G. Davison, C. Feliciano, K. Deisseroth, G. J. Augustine, M. D. Ehlers, and G. Feng, “In vivo light-induced activation of neural circuitry in transgenic mice expressing channelrhodopsin-2,” Neuron 54(2), 205–218 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Ferezou, S. Bolea, and C. C. H. Petersen, “Visualizing the cortical representation of whisker touch: voltage-sensitive dye imaging in freely moving mice,” Neuron 50(4), 617–629 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (3)

R. D. Frostig, E. E. Lieke, D. Y. Ts’o, and A. Grinvald, “Cortical functional architecture and local coupling between neuronal activity and the microcirculation revealed by in vivo high-resolution optical imaging of intrinsic signals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87(16), 6082–6086 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Stosiek, O. Garaschuk, K. Holthoff, and A. Konnerth, “In vivo two-photon calcium imaging of neuronal networks,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(12), 7319–7324 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Cui, L. M. Lee, X. Heng, W. Zhong, P. W. Sternberg, D. Psaltis, and C. Yang, “Lensless high-resolution on-chip optofluidic microscopes for Caenorhabditis elegans and cell imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(31), 10670–10675 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

V. Gradinaru, M. Mogri, K. R. Thompson, J. M. Henderson, and K. Deisseroth, “Optical deconstruction of parkinsonian neural circuitry,” Science 324(5925), 354–359 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sens. Actuators A Phys. (1)

D. C. Ng, H. Tamura, T. Mizuno, T. Tokuda, M. Nunoshita, Y. Ishikawa, S. Shiosaka, and J. Ohta, “An implantable and fully integrated complementary metal-oxide semiconductor device for in vivo neural imaging and electrical interfacing with the mouse hippocampus,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 145–146, 176–186 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

T. Kobayashi, H. Tamura, Y. Hatanaka, M. Motoyama, T. Noda, K. Sasagawa, T. Tokuda, Y. Ishikawa, S. Shiosaka, and J. Ohta, “Functional neuroimaging by using an implantable CMOS multimodal device in a freely-moving mouse” in Proceedings of IEEE Biomedical Circuits and Systems Conference (BioCAS) (San Diego, USA, 2011), pp. 110–113.

S. Shishido, Y. Oguro, T. Noda, K. Sasagawa, T. Tokuda, and J. Ohta, “CMOS image sensor for recording of intrinsic-optical-signal of the brain,” in Proceedings of IEEE International SoC Design Conference (ISOCC) (Busan, Korea, 2009), pp. 190–193.

M. Im, I. Cho, F. Wu, K. D. Wise, and E. Yoon, “Neural probes integrated with optical mixer/splitter waveguides and multiple stimulation sites,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) (Cancun, Mexico, 2011), pp. 1051–1054.

R. Kobayashi, S. Kanno, S. Sasaki, S. Lee, M. Koyanagi, H. Yao, and T. Tanaka, “Development of Si neural probe with optical waveguide for highly accurate optical stimulation of neuron,” in Proceedings of IEEE International EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering (Cancun, Mexico, 2011), pp. 294–297.

J. H. Park, V. Pieribone, K. Dongsoo, J. V. Verhagen, C. von Hehn, and E. Culurciello, “High-speed fluorescence imaging system for freely moving animals,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS) (Taipei, Taiwan, 2009), pp. 2429–2432.

J. Honghao, P. A. Abshire, M. Urdaneta, and E. Smela, “CMOS contact imager for monitoring cultured cells,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS) 4, 3491–3494 (2005).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the multimodal integrated CMOS device used for electrical recording, optical stimulation, and morphological observation of neural tissue.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Chip micrograph of the novel CMOS image sensor and a magnified image of a 2 × 2 LED array and a 3 × 3 pixel array.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Chip diagram of the 4 wire image sensor and (b) LED selection and driver circuits.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Micrograph of fabricated on-chip Pt thin film electrodes (200 nm) on the CMOS chip(a), and a magnified image of the anode and cathode LED contact electrodes. Scale bar = 75 μm. (b) Micrograph of the aligned and fixed LED array on the CMOS chip using anisotropic conductive paste (ACP), a 4 × 4 partial region is displayed. Scale bar = 200 μm. (c) Photograph of the completely fabricated device.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Schematic illustration of the anatomical structure of a mouse hippocampus slice. (b) An image of a hippocampal slice captured using CMOS image sensor. (c) Microscopic observation of a hippocampal slice by optical microscopy. Scale bar = 400 μm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Activated LED in the decoding mode, on the surface of the LED array, and (b) on the MEA probe’s glass substrate. (c) Stimulating light irradiation applied to the mouse hippocampal slice.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a)~(d) Light emission from single LEDs with different drive currents on the sapphire surface and the glass surface, captured by fluorescence microscopy. (e)~(h) Surface profiles of pixel values, and (i)~(l) line profile of the pixel values in the respective conditions.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Experimental setup of the field potential recoding, (b) image captured using the CMOS image sensor, and field potential recording results in the baseline (c)-(e), artificial signal (f)-(h), and spectral analysis (i)-(k). Scale bar = 400 μm.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Specification of CMOS Image Sensor

Tables Icon

Table 2 Summary of Device Performance

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