Abstract

We report a highly efficient cryo-cooled eye-safe laser operation of a resonantly-pumped (in-band) Er3+:GdVO4 single crystal. The maximum continuous wave (CW) power of 10.3 W with 84% slope efficiency was achieved at 1598.7 with pumping at 1538.6 nm by a spectrally-narrowed Er-fiber laser. Under the 1529 nm resonant pumping by a commercially available diode bar stack operating in a quasi-CW (QCW) mode, the laser delivered 37 W of output power with 68% slope efficiency. This is believed to be the first reported cryo-cooled Er3+:GdVO4 laser, resonantly-pumped into the 4I15/24I13/2 transition.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. S. D. Setzler, M. J. Shaw, M. J. Kukla, J. R. Unternahrer, K. M. Dinndorf, J. A. Beattie, and E. P. Chicklis, “A 400 W cryogenic Er:YAG slab laser at 1645 nm,” Proc. SPIE 7686, 76860C, C7 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  2. N. Ter-Gabrielyan, L. D. Merkle, A. Ikesue, and M. Dubinskii, “Ultralow quantum-defect eye-safe Er:Sc2O3 laser,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1524–1526 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. Dubinskii, V. Fromzel, N. Ter-Gabrielyan, M. D. Serrano, D. E. Lahera, C. Cascales, and C. Zaldo, “Spectroscopic characterization and laser performance of resonantly diode-pumped Er(3+)-doped disordered NaY(WO4)2.,” Opt. Lett. 36(16), 3263–3265 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. N. Ter-Gabrielyan, V. Fromzel, T. Lukasiewicz, W. Ryba-Romanowski, and M. Dubinskii, “High power resonantly diode-pumped σ-configuration Er3+:YVO4 laser at 1593.5 nm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(7), 529–534 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  5. N. Ter-Gabrielyan, V. Fromzel, T. Lukasiewicz, W. Ryba-Romanowski, and M. Dubinskii, “Nearly quantum-defect-limited efficiency, resonantly pumped, Er3+:YVO₄ laser at 1593.5 nm,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1218–1220 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. N. Ter-Gabrielyan, V. Fromzel, L. D. Merkle, and M. Dubinskii, “Resonant in-band pumping of cryo-cooled Er3+:YAG laser at 1532, 1534 and 1546 nm: a comparative study,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(2), 223–233 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  8. A. I. Zagumenny, P. A. Popov, F. Zerouk, Yu. D. Zavartsev, S. A. Kutovoi, and I. A. Scherbakov, “Heat conduction of laser vanadate crystals,” Quantum Electron. 38(3), 227–232 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Sato and T. Taira, “The studies of thermal conductivity in GdVO4, YVO4, and Y3Al5O12 measured by quasi-one-dimensional flash method,” Opt. Express 14(22), 10528–10536 (2006).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. Sulc, H. Jelinkova, W. Ryba-Romanowski, and T. Lukasiewicz, “1.6 um microchip laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(3), 207–211 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. Brandt, V. Matrosov, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “In-band fiber-laser-pumped Er:YVO₄ laser emitting around 1.6 μm,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1188–1190 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. N. Ter-Gabrielyan, V. Fromzel, W. Ryba-Romanowski, T. Lukasiewicz, and M. Dubinskii, “Efficient, Resonantly Pumped, Room Temperature Er3+:GdVO4 Laser,” Opt. Lett.: posted 01/27/2012; Doc. ID 160739
  14. W. Fowler and D. Dexter, “Relation between absorption and emission probabilities in luminescent centers in ionic solids,” Phys. Rev. 128(5), 2154–2165 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. Bertini, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, E. Cavalli, and N. Magnani, “Optical spectroscopy and laser parameters of GdVO4:Er3+,” J. Lumin. 106(3-4), 235–242 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Y. Sato and T. Taira, “Saturation factors of pump absorption in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(3), 270–280 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (5)

2010 (1)

S. D. Setzler, M. J. Shaw, M. J. Kukla, J. R. Unternahrer, K. M. Dinndorf, J. A. Beattie, and E. P. Chicklis, “A 400 W cryogenic Er:YAG slab laser at 1645 nm,” Proc. SPIE 7686, 76860C, C7 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

J. Sulc, H. Jelinkova, W. Ryba-Romanowski, and T. Lukasiewicz, “1.6 um microchip laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(3), 207–211 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

2006 (1)

2004 (2)

C. Bertini, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, E. Cavalli, and N. Magnani, “Optical spectroscopy and laser parameters of GdVO4:Er3+,” J. Lumin. 106(3-4), 235–242 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sato and T. Taira, “Saturation factors of pump absorption in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(3), 270–280 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

A. I. Zagumenny, V. G. Ostroumov, I. A. Shcherbakov, T. Jensen, J.-P. Meyn, and G. Huber, “The Nd:GdVO4 crystal: a new material for diode-pumped laser,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 22(12), 1071–1072 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

W. Fowler and D. Dexter, “Relation between absorption and emission probabilities in luminescent centers in ionic solids,” Phys. Rev. 128(5), 2154–2165 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Balembois, F.

Beattie, J. A.

S. D. Setzler, M. J. Shaw, M. J. Kukla, J. R. Unternahrer, K. M. Dinndorf, J. A. Beattie, and E. P. Chicklis, “A 400 W cryogenic Er:YAG slab laser at 1645 nm,” Proc. SPIE 7686, 76860C, C7 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bertini, C.

C. Bertini, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, E. Cavalli, and N. Magnani, “Optical spectroscopy and laser parameters of GdVO4:Er3+,” J. Lumin. 106(3-4), 235–242 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brandt, C.

Cascales, C.

Cavalli, E.

C. Bertini, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, E. Cavalli, and N. Magnani, “Optical spectroscopy and laser parameters of GdVO4:Er3+,” J. Lumin. 106(3-4), 235–242 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chicklis, E. P.

S. D. Setzler, M. J. Shaw, M. J. Kukla, J. R. Unternahrer, K. M. Dinndorf, J. A. Beattie, and E. P. Chicklis, “A 400 W cryogenic Er:YAG slab laser at 1645 nm,” Proc. SPIE 7686, 76860C, C7 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dexter, D.

W. Fowler and D. Dexter, “Relation between absorption and emission probabilities in luminescent centers in ionic solids,” Phys. Rev. 128(5), 2154–2165 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Didierjean, J.

Dinndorf, K. M.

S. D. Setzler, M. J. Shaw, M. J. Kukla, J. R. Unternahrer, K. M. Dinndorf, J. A. Beattie, and E. P. Chicklis, “A 400 W cryogenic Er:YAG slab laser at 1645 nm,” Proc. SPIE 7686, 76860C, C7 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dubinskii, M.

Fowler, W.

W. Fowler and D. Dexter, “Relation between absorption and emission probabilities in luminescent centers in ionic solids,” Phys. Rev. 128(5), 2154–2165 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Fromzel, V.

Georges, P.

Herault, E.

Huber, G.

C. Brandt, V. Matrosov, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “In-band fiber-laser-pumped Er:YVO₄ laser emitting around 1.6 μm,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1188–1190 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. I. Zagumenny, V. G. Ostroumov, I. A. Shcherbakov, T. Jensen, J.-P. Meyn, and G. Huber, “The Nd:GdVO4 crystal: a new material for diode-pumped laser,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 22(12), 1071–1072 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ikesue, A.

Jelinkova, H.

J. Sulc, H. Jelinkova, W. Ryba-Romanowski, and T. Lukasiewicz, “1.6 um microchip laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(3), 207–211 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, T.

A. I. Zagumenny, V. G. Ostroumov, I. A. Shcherbakov, T. Jensen, J.-P. Meyn, and G. Huber, “The Nd:GdVO4 crystal: a new material for diode-pumped laser,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 22(12), 1071–1072 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kukla, M. J.

S. D. Setzler, M. J. Shaw, M. J. Kukla, J. R. Unternahrer, K. M. Dinndorf, J. A. Beattie, and E. P. Chicklis, “A 400 W cryogenic Er:YAG slab laser at 1645 nm,” Proc. SPIE 7686, 76860C, C7 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kutovoi, S. A.

A. I. Zagumenny, P. A. Popov, F. Zerouk, Yu. D. Zavartsev, S. A. Kutovoi, and I. A. Scherbakov, “Heat conduction of laser vanadate crystals,” Quantum Electron. 38(3), 227–232 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lahera, D. E.

Lukasiewicz, T.

N. Ter-Gabrielyan, V. Fromzel, T. Lukasiewicz, W. Ryba-Romanowski, and M. Dubinskii, “Nearly quantum-defect-limited efficiency, resonantly pumped, Er3+:YVO₄ laser at 1593.5 nm,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1218–1220 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ter-Gabrielyan, V. Fromzel, T. Lukasiewicz, W. Ryba-Romanowski, and M. Dubinskii, “High power resonantly diode-pumped σ-configuration Er3+:YVO4 laser at 1593.5 nm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(7), 529–534 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Sulc, H. Jelinkova, W. Ryba-Romanowski, and T. Lukasiewicz, “1.6 um microchip laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(3), 207–211 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Magnani, N.

C. Bertini, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, E. Cavalli, and N. Magnani, “Optical spectroscopy and laser parameters of GdVO4:Er3+,” J. Lumin. 106(3-4), 235–242 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Matrosov, V.

Merkle, L. D.

Meyn, J.-P.

A. I. Zagumenny, V. G. Ostroumov, I. A. Shcherbakov, T. Jensen, J.-P. Meyn, and G. Huber, “The Nd:GdVO4 crystal: a new material for diode-pumped laser,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 22(12), 1071–1072 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ostroumov, V. G.

A. I. Zagumenny, V. G. Ostroumov, I. A. Shcherbakov, T. Jensen, J.-P. Meyn, and G. Huber, “The Nd:GdVO4 crystal: a new material for diode-pumped laser,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 22(12), 1071–1072 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Petermann, K.

Popov, P. A.

A. I. Zagumenny, P. A. Popov, F. Zerouk, Yu. D. Zavartsev, S. A. Kutovoi, and I. A. Scherbakov, “Heat conduction of laser vanadate crystals,” Quantum Electron. 38(3), 227–232 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ryba-Romanowski, W.

N. Ter-Gabrielyan, V. Fromzel, T. Lukasiewicz, W. Ryba-Romanowski, and M. Dubinskii, “High power resonantly diode-pumped σ-configuration Er3+:YVO4 laser at 1593.5 nm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(7), 529–534 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Ter-Gabrielyan, V. Fromzel, T. Lukasiewicz, W. Ryba-Romanowski, and M. Dubinskii, “Nearly quantum-defect-limited efficiency, resonantly pumped, Er3+:YVO₄ laser at 1593.5 nm,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1218–1220 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Sulc, H. Jelinkova, W. Ryba-Romanowski, and T. Lukasiewicz, “1.6 um microchip laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(3), 207–211 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sato, Y.

Scherbakov, I. A.

A. I. Zagumenny, P. A. Popov, F. Zerouk, Yu. D. Zavartsev, S. A. Kutovoi, and I. A. Scherbakov, “Heat conduction of laser vanadate crystals,” Quantum Electron. 38(3), 227–232 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Serrano, M. D.

Setzler, S. D.

S. D. Setzler, M. J. Shaw, M. J. Kukla, J. R. Unternahrer, K. M. Dinndorf, J. A. Beattie, and E. P. Chicklis, “A 400 W cryogenic Er:YAG slab laser at 1645 nm,” Proc. SPIE 7686, 76860C, C7 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, M. J.

S. D. Setzler, M. J. Shaw, M. J. Kukla, J. R. Unternahrer, K. M. Dinndorf, J. A. Beattie, and E. P. Chicklis, “A 400 W cryogenic Er:YAG slab laser at 1645 nm,” Proc. SPIE 7686, 76860C, C7 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shcherbakov, I. A.

A. I. Zagumenny, V. G. Ostroumov, I. A. Shcherbakov, T. Jensen, J.-P. Meyn, and G. Huber, “The Nd:GdVO4 crystal: a new material for diode-pumped laser,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 22(12), 1071–1072 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sulc, J.

J. Sulc, H. Jelinkova, W. Ryba-Romanowski, and T. Lukasiewicz, “1.6 um microchip laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(3), 207–211 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Taira, T.

Ter-Gabrielyan, N.

Toncelli, A.

C. Bertini, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, E. Cavalli, and N. Magnani, “Optical spectroscopy and laser parameters of GdVO4:Er3+,” J. Lumin. 106(3-4), 235–242 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tonelli, M.

C. Bertini, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, E. Cavalli, and N. Magnani, “Optical spectroscopy and laser parameters of GdVO4:Er3+,” J. Lumin. 106(3-4), 235–242 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Unternahrer, J. R.

S. D. Setzler, M. J. Shaw, M. J. Kukla, J. R. Unternahrer, K. M. Dinndorf, J. A. Beattie, and E. P. Chicklis, “A 400 W cryogenic Er:YAG slab laser at 1645 nm,” Proc. SPIE 7686, 76860C, C7 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zagumenny, A. I.

A. I. Zagumenny, P. A. Popov, F. Zerouk, Yu. D. Zavartsev, S. A. Kutovoi, and I. A. Scherbakov, “Heat conduction of laser vanadate crystals,” Quantum Electron. 38(3), 227–232 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Zagumenny, V. G. Ostroumov, I. A. Shcherbakov, T. Jensen, J.-P. Meyn, and G. Huber, “The Nd:GdVO4 crystal: a new material for diode-pumped laser,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 22(12), 1071–1072 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zaldo, C.

Zavartsev, Yu. D.

A. I. Zagumenny, P. A. Popov, F. Zerouk, Yu. D. Zavartsev, S. A. Kutovoi, and I. A. Scherbakov, “Heat conduction of laser vanadate crystals,” Quantum Electron. 38(3), 227–232 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zerouk, F.

A. I. Zagumenny, P. A. Popov, F. Zerouk, Yu. D. Zavartsev, S. A. Kutovoi, and I. A. Scherbakov, “Heat conduction of laser vanadate crystals,” Quantum Electron. 38(3), 227–232 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. Sato and T. Taira, “Saturation factors of pump absorption in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(3), 270–280 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin. (1)

C. Bertini, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, E. Cavalli, and N. Magnani, “Optical spectroscopy and laser parameters of GdVO4:Er3+,” J. Lumin. 106(3-4), 235–242 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. Lett. (2)

J. Sulc, H. Jelinkova, W. Ryba-Romanowski, and T. Lukasiewicz, “1.6 um microchip laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(3), 207–211 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Ter-Gabrielyan, V. Fromzel, T. Lukasiewicz, W. Ryba-Romanowski, and M. Dubinskii, “High power resonantly diode-pumped σ-configuration Er3+:YVO4 laser at 1593.5 nm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(7), 529–534 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. (1)

W. Fowler and D. Dexter, “Relation between absorption and emission probabilities in luminescent centers in ionic solids,” Phys. Rev. 128(5), 2154–2165 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

S. D. Setzler, M. J. Shaw, M. J. Kukla, J. R. Unternahrer, K. M. Dinndorf, J. A. Beattie, and E. P. Chicklis, “A 400 W cryogenic Er:YAG slab laser at 1645 nm,” Proc. SPIE 7686, 76860C, C7 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Quantum Electron. (1)

A. I. Zagumenny, P. A. Popov, F. Zerouk, Yu. D. Zavartsev, S. A. Kutovoi, and I. A. Scherbakov, “Heat conduction of laser vanadate crystals,” Quantum Electron. 38(3), 227–232 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. I. Zagumenny, V. G. Ostroumov, I. A. Shcherbakov, T. Jensen, J.-P. Meyn, and G. Huber, “The Nd:GdVO4 crystal: a new material for diode-pumped laser,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 22(12), 1071–1072 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

N. Ter-Gabrielyan, V. Fromzel, W. Ryba-Romanowski, T. Lukasiewicz, and M. Dubinskii, “Efficient, Resonantly Pumped, Room Temperature Er3+:GdVO4 Laser,” Opt. Lett.: posted 01/27/2012; Doc. ID 160739

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Polarization resolved absorption (a) and emission (b) cross-sections of the 4I15/24I13/2 transitions in Er3+:GdVO4.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Temperature dependence of the 4I13/2 lifetime of Er3+ in GdVO4. (b) A simplified energy level diagram of the 4I13/2 and the 4I15/2 manifolds with Boltzmann populations at 77 K. The major pump transitions are shown with blue arrows; red arrows represent the fluorescence transitions of relevance to laser operation around 1.6 μm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Input-Output characteristics of the cryogenic Er3+:GdVO4 laser. (a) CW pumping with the Er-fiber laser; (b) Pumping with the QCW diode bar stack.

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