Abstract

Photoactive materials are highly promising candidates for novel applications as they enable all-optical control of photonic devices. Photochromic molecules exhibit a reversible change of their dielectric function upon irradiation with light of proper wavelength. The trans- and cis-isomers of azobenzene exhibit different absorption properties due to the effect of the configuration on the polarizability of the molecule. Here, we introduce a novel molecular/semiconductor hybrid device which is fully tunable by all-optical means via the integration of a semiconductor microdisk into a photo-adressable polyelectrolyte material. We demonstrate that such polyelectrolyte superlattices can be used to tune semiconductor photonic resonators with high precision and without any significant degeneration of device performance. Moreover, we demonstrate an all-optically tunable laser based on this hybrid concept.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. H. E. Bigelow and D. B. Robinson, “Azobenzene,” Org. Synth. 22, 28 (1942).
  2. A. Urbas, J. Klosterman, V. Tondiglia, L. Natarajan, R. Sutherland, O. Tsutsumi, T. Ikeda, and T. Bunning, “Optically switchable Bragg reflectors,” Adv. Mater. 16, 1453–1456 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, L. Green, Q. Li, and T. J. Bunning, “Electrically switchable, photoaddressable cholesteric liquid crystal reflectors,” Opt. Express 18, 173–178 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. T.-H. Lin, Y.-J. Chen, C.-H. Wu, A. Y. G. Fuh, J. H. Liu, and P. C. Yang, “Cholesteric liquid crystal laser with wide tuning capability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 161120 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H.-Y. Liu, C.-T. Wang, C.-Y. Hsu, T.-H. Lin, and J.-H. Liu, “Optically tuneable blue phase photonic band gaps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 121103 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, and P. J. Collings, “Trans-cis isomerization and the blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 051705 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Ikeda and O. Tsutsumi, “Optical switching and image storage by means of azobenzene liquid-crystal films,” Science 268, 1873–1875 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. T. Fischer, L. Läsker, J. Stumpe, and S. G. Kostromin, “Photoinduced optical anisotropy in films of photochromic liquid crystalline polymers,” J. Photochem. Photobiol., A 80, 453–459 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Q. Ferreira, P. J. Gomes, M. Raposo, J. A. Giacometti, O. N. Oliveira, and P. A. Ribeiro, “Influence of ionic interactions on the photoinduced birefringence of poly[1-[4-(3-Carboxy-4 Hydroxyphenylazo) benzene sulfonamido]-1,2-ethanediyl, sodium salt] films,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 7, 2659–2666 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. H.-C. Jau, T.-H. Lin, R.-X. Fung, S.-Y. Huang, J.-H. Liu, and Andy Y.-G. Fuh, “Optically-tunable beam steering grating based on azobenzene doped cholesteric liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 18, 17498–17503 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. A. Piegdon, S. Declair, J. Förstner, T. Meier, H. Matthias, M. Urbanski, H.-S. Kitzerow, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, A. Lorke, and C. Meier, “Tuning quantum-dot based photonic devices with liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 18, 7946–7954 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. K. A. Piegdon, M. Offer, A. Lorke, M. Urbanski, A. Hoischen, H.-S. Kiterow, S. Declair, J. Förstner, T. Meier, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, and C. Meier, “Self-assembled quantum dots in a liquid-crystal-tunable microdisk resonator,” Physica E (Amsterdam) 42, 2552–2555 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. I. Fushman, D. Englund, A. Faraon, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vuckovic, “Controlled phase shifts with a single quantum dot,” Science 320, 769–772 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. A. Faraon, D. Englund, I. Fushman, J. Vuckovic, N. Stoltz, and P. Petroff, “Local quantum dot tuning on photonic crystal chips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 213110 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. Srinivasan and O. Painter, “Optical fiber taper coupling and high-resolution wavelength tuning of microdisk resonators at cryogenic temperatures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 031114 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. Strauf, M. T. Rakher, I. Carmeli, K. Hennessy, C. Meier, A. Badolato, M. J. A. DeDood, P. M. Petroff, E. L. Hu, E. G. Gwinn, and D. Bouwmeester, “Frequency control of photonic crystal membrane resonators by monolayer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 043116 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  18. G. Decher, “Fuzzy nanoassemblies: toward layered polymeric multicomposites,” Science 277, 1232–1237 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. Cho, K. Char, J. D. Hong, and K. B. Lee, “Fabrication of highly ordered multilayer films using a spin self-assembly method,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1076–1078 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  20. P. A. Chiarelli, M. S. Johal, J. L. Casson, J. B. Roberts, J. M. Robinson, and H. L. Wang, “Controlled fabrication of polyelectrolyte multilayer thin films using spin-assembly,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1167–1171 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  21. P. A. Chiarelli, M. S. Johal, D. J. Holmes, J. L. Casson, J. M. Robinson, and H.-L. Wang, “Polyelectrolyte spin-assembly,” Langmuir 18, 168–173 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  22. S. Dante, R. Advincula, C. W. Frank, and P. Stroeve, “Photoisomerization of polyionic layer-by-layer films containing azobenzene,” Langmuir 15, 193–201 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  23. U. Hrozhyk, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, T. J. White, and T. J. Bunning, “Bidirectional photoresponse of surface pretreated azobenzene liquid crystal polymer networks,” Opt. Express 17, 716–722 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. H.-C. Lin, C.-W. Chu, M.-S. Li, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Biphotonic-induced reorientation inversion in azo-dye-doped liquid crystal films,” Opt. Express 19, 13118–13125 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. W. T. S. Huck, L. Yan, A. Stroock, R. Haag, and G. M. Whitesides, “Patterned polymer multilayers as etch resists,” Langmuir 15, 6862–6867 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  26. M. Irie, “Diarylethenes for memories and switches,” Chem. Rev. 100, 1685–1716 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

2010 (5)

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

I. Fushman, D. Englund, A. Faraon, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vuckovic, “Controlled phase shifts with a single quantum dot,” Science 320, 769–772 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

A. Faraon, D. Englund, I. Fushman, J. Vuckovic, N. Stoltz, and P. Petroff, “Local quantum dot tuning on photonic crystal chips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 213110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Srinivasan and O. Painter, “Optical fiber taper coupling and high-resolution wavelength tuning of microdisk resonators at cryogenic temperatures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 031114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q. Ferreira, P. J. Gomes, M. Raposo, J. A. Giacometti, O. N. Oliveira, and P. A. Ribeiro, “Influence of ionic interactions on the photoinduced birefringence of poly[1-[4-(3-Carboxy-4 Hydroxyphenylazo) benzene sulfonamido]-1,2-ethanediyl, sodium salt] films,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 7, 2659–2666 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

S. Strauf, M. T. Rakher, I. Carmeli, K. Hennessy, C. Meier, A. Badolato, M. J. A. DeDood, P. M. Petroff, E. L. Hu, E. G. Gwinn, and D. Bouwmeester, “Frequency control of photonic crystal membrane resonators by monolayer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 043116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, and P. J. Collings, “Trans-cis isomerization and the blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 051705 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T.-H. Lin, Y.-J. Chen, C.-H. Wu, A. Y. G. Fuh, J. H. Liu, and P. C. Yang, “Cholesteric liquid crystal laser with wide tuning capability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 161120 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

A. Urbas, J. Klosterman, V. Tondiglia, L. Natarajan, R. Sutherland, O. Tsutsumi, T. Ikeda, and T. Bunning, “Optically switchable Bragg reflectors,” Adv. Mater. 16, 1453–1456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

J. Cho, K. Char, J. D. Hong, and K. B. Lee, “Fabrication of highly ordered multilayer films using a spin self-assembly method,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1076–1078 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Chiarelli, M. S. Johal, J. L. Casson, J. B. Roberts, J. M. Robinson, and H. L. Wang, “Controlled fabrication of polyelectrolyte multilayer thin films using spin-assembly,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1167–1171 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Chiarelli, M. S. Johal, D. J. Holmes, J. L. Casson, J. M. Robinson, and H.-L. Wang, “Polyelectrolyte spin-assembly,” Langmuir 18, 168–173 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

M. Irie, “Diarylethenes for memories and switches,” Chem. Rev. 100, 1685–1716 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

W. T. S. Huck, L. Yan, A. Stroock, R. Haag, and G. M. Whitesides, “Patterned polymer multilayers as etch resists,” Langmuir 15, 6862–6867 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

S. Dante, R. Advincula, C. W. Frank, and P. Stroeve, “Photoisomerization of polyionic layer-by-layer films containing azobenzene,” Langmuir 15, 193–201 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

G. Decher, “Fuzzy nanoassemblies: toward layered polymeric multicomposites,” Science 277, 1232–1237 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

T. Ikeda and O. Tsutsumi, “Optical switching and image storage by means of azobenzene liquid-crystal films,” Science 268, 1873–1875 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

T. Fischer, L. Läsker, J. Stumpe, and S. G. Kostromin, “Photoinduced optical anisotropy in films of photochromic liquid crystalline polymers,” J. Photochem. Photobiol., A 80, 453–459 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1942 (1)

H. E. Bigelow and D. B. Robinson, “Azobenzene,” Org. Synth. 22, 28 (1942).

Advincula, R.

S. Dante, R. Advincula, C. W. Frank, and P. Stroeve, “Photoisomerization of polyionic layer-by-layer films containing azobenzene,” Langmuir 15, 193–201 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Badolato, A.

S. Strauf, M. T. Rakher, I. Carmeli, K. Hennessy, C. Meier, A. Badolato, M. J. A. DeDood, P. M. Petroff, E. L. Hu, E. G. Gwinn, and D. Bouwmeester, “Frequency control of photonic crystal membrane resonators by monolayer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 043116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bigelow, H. E.

H. E. Bigelow and D. B. Robinson, “Azobenzene,” Org. Synth. 22, 28 (1942).

Bouwmeester, D.

S. Strauf, M. T. Rakher, I. Carmeli, K. Hennessy, C. Meier, A. Badolato, M. J. A. DeDood, P. M. Petroff, E. L. Hu, E. G. Gwinn, and D. Bouwmeester, “Frequency control of photonic crystal membrane resonators by monolayer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 043116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bricker, R. L.

Bunning, T.

A. Urbas, J. Klosterman, V. Tondiglia, L. Natarajan, R. Sutherland, O. Tsutsumi, T. Ikeda, and T. Bunning, “Optically switchable Bragg reflectors,” Adv. Mater. 16, 1453–1456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bunning, T. J.

Carmeli, I.

S. Strauf, M. T. Rakher, I. Carmeli, K. Hennessy, C. Meier, A. Badolato, M. J. A. DeDood, P. M. Petroff, E. L. Hu, E. G. Gwinn, and D. Bouwmeester, “Frequency control of photonic crystal membrane resonators by monolayer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 043116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Casson, J. L.

P. A. Chiarelli, M. S. Johal, D. J. Holmes, J. L. Casson, J. M. Robinson, and H.-L. Wang, “Polyelectrolyte spin-assembly,” Langmuir 18, 168–173 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Chiarelli, M. S. Johal, J. L. Casson, J. B. Roberts, J. M. Robinson, and H. L. Wang, “Controlled fabrication of polyelectrolyte multilayer thin films using spin-assembly,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1167–1171 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chanishvili, A.

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, and P. J. Collings, “Trans-cis isomerization and the blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 051705 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Char, K.

J. Cho, K. Char, J. D. Hong, and K. B. Lee, “Fabrication of highly ordered multilayer films using a spin self-assembly method,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1076–1078 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.-J.

T.-H. Lin, Y.-J. Chen, C.-H. Wu, A. Y. G. Fuh, J. H. Liu, and P. C. Yang, “Cholesteric liquid crystal laser with wide tuning capability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 161120 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chiarelli, P. A.

P. A. Chiarelli, M. S. Johal, D. J. Holmes, J. L. Casson, J. M. Robinson, and H.-L. Wang, “Polyelectrolyte spin-assembly,” Langmuir 18, 168–173 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Chiarelli, M. S. Johal, J. L. Casson, J. B. Roberts, J. M. Robinson, and H. L. Wang, “Controlled fabrication of polyelectrolyte multilayer thin films using spin-assembly,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1167–1171 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chilaya, G.

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, and P. J. Collings, “Trans-cis isomerization and the blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 051705 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cho, J.

J. Cho, K. Char, J. D. Hong, and K. B. Lee, “Fabrication of highly ordered multilayer films using a spin self-assembly method,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1076–1078 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chu, C.-W.

Collings, P. J.

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, and P. J. Collings, “Trans-cis isomerization and the blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 051705 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dante, S.

S. Dante, R. Advincula, C. W. Frank, and P. Stroeve, “Photoisomerization of polyionic layer-by-layer films containing azobenzene,” Langmuir 15, 193–201 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Decher, G.

G. Decher, “Fuzzy nanoassemblies: toward layered polymeric multicomposites,” Science 277, 1232–1237 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Declair, S.

K. A. Piegdon, S. Declair, J. Förstner, T. Meier, H. Matthias, M. Urbanski, H.-S. Kitzerow, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, A. Lorke, and C. Meier, “Tuning quantum-dot based photonic devices with liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 18, 7946–7954 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Piegdon, M. Offer, A. Lorke, M. Urbanski, A. Hoischen, H.-S. Kiterow, S. Declair, J. Förstner, T. Meier, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, and C. Meier, “Self-assembled quantum dots in a liquid-crystal-tunable microdisk resonator,” Physica E (Amsterdam) 42, 2552–2555 (2010).
[CrossRef]

DeDood, M. J. A.

S. Strauf, M. T. Rakher, I. Carmeli, K. Hennessy, C. Meier, A. Badolato, M. J. A. DeDood, P. M. Petroff, E. L. Hu, E. G. Gwinn, and D. Bouwmeester, “Frequency control of photonic crystal membrane resonators by monolayer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 043116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Englund, D.

I. Fushman, D. Englund, A. Faraon, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vuckovic, “Controlled phase shifts with a single quantum dot,” Science 320, 769–772 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Faraon, D. Englund, I. Fushman, J. Vuckovic, N. Stoltz, and P. Petroff, “Local quantum dot tuning on photonic crystal chips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 213110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Faraon, A.

I. Fushman, D. Englund, A. Faraon, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vuckovic, “Controlled phase shifts with a single quantum dot,” Science 320, 769–772 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Faraon, D. Englund, I. Fushman, J. Vuckovic, N. Stoltz, and P. Petroff, “Local quantum dot tuning on photonic crystal chips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 213110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ferreira, Q.

Q. Ferreira, P. J. Gomes, M. Raposo, J. A. Giacometti, O. N. Oliveira, and P. A. Ribeiro, “Influence of ionic interactions on the photoinduced birefringence of poly[1-[4-(3-Carboxy-4 Hydroxyphenylazo) benzene sulfonamido]-1,2-ethanediyl, sodium salt] films,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 7, 2659–2666 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, T.

T. Fischer, L. Läsker, J. Stumpe, and S. G. Kostromin, “Photoinduced optical anisotropy in films of photochromic liquid crystalline polymers,” J. Photochem. Photobiol., A 80, 453–459 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Förstner, J.

K. A. Piegdon, S. Declair, J. Förstner, T. Meier, H. Matthias, M. Urbanski, H.-S. Kitzerow, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, A. Lorke, and C. Meier, “Tuning quantum-dot based photonic devices with liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 18, 7946–7954 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Piegdon, M. Offer, A. Lorke, M. Urbanski, A. Hoischen, H.-S. Kiterow, S. Declair, J. Förstner, T. Meier, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, and C. Meier, “Self-assembled quantum dots in a liquid-crystal-tunable microdisk resonator,” Physica E (Amsterdam) 42, 2552–2555 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Frank, C. W.

S. Dante, R. Advincula, C. W. Frank, and P. Stroeve, “Photoisomerization of polyionic layer-by-layer films containing azobenzene,” Langmuir 15, 193–201 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fuh, A. Y. G.

T.-H. Lin, Y.-J. Chen, C.-H. Wu, A. Y. G. Fuh, J. H. Liu, and P. C. Yang, “Cholesteric liquid crystal laser with wide tuning capability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 161120 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fuh, A. Y.-G.

Fuh, Andy Y.-G.

Fung, R.-X.

Fushman, I.

I. Fushman, D. Englund, A. Faraon, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vuckovic, “Controlled phase shifts with a single quantum dot,” Science 320, 769–772 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Faraon, D. Englund, I. Fushman, J. Vuckovic, N. Stoltz, and P. Petroff, “Local quantum dot tuning on photonic crystal chips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 213110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Giacometti, J. A.

Q. Ferreira, P. J. Gomes, M. Raposo, J. A. Giacometti, O. N. Oliveira, and P. A. Ribeiro, “Influence of ionic interactions on the photoinduced birefringence of poly[1-[4-(3-Carboxy-4 Hydroxyphenylazo) benzene sulfonamido]-1,2-ethanediyl, sodium salt] films,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 7, 2659–2666 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gomes, P. J.

Q. Ferreira, P. J. Gomes, M. Raposo, J. A. Giacometti, O. N. Oliveira, and P. A. Ribeiro, “Influence of ionic interactions on the photoinduced birefringence of poly[1-[4-(3-Carboxy-4 Hydroxyphenylazo) benzene sulfonamido]-1,2-ethanediyl, sodium salt] films,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 7, 2659–2666 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Green, L.

Gwinn, E. G.

S. Strauf, M. T. Rakher, I. Carmeli, K. Hennessy, C. Meier, A. Badolato, M. J. A. DeDood, P. M. Petroff, E. L. Hu, E. G. Gwinn, and D. Bouwmeester, “Frequency control of photonic crystal membrane resonators by monolayer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 043116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Haag, R.

W. T. S. Huck, L. Yan, A. Stroock, R. Haag, and G. M. Whitesides, “Patterned polymer multilayers as etch resists,” Langmuir 15, 6862–6867 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hennessy, K.

S. Strauf, M. T. Rakher, I. Carmeli, K. Hennessy, C. Meier, A. Badolato, M. J. A. DeDood, P. M. Petroff, E. L. Hu, E. G. Gwinn, and D. Bouwmeester, “Frequency control of photonic crystal membrane resonators by monolayer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 043116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hoischen, A.

K. A. Piegdon, M. Offer, A. Lorke, M. Urbanski, A. Hoischen, H.-S. Kiterow, S. Declair, J. Förstner, T. Meier, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, and C. Meier, “Self-assembled quantum dots in a liquid-crystal-tunable microdisk resonator,” Physica E (Amsterdam) 42, 2552–2555 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Holmes, D. J.

P. A. Chiarelli, M. S. Johal, D. J. Holmes, J. L. Casson, J. M. Robinson, and H.-L. Wang, “Polyelectrolyte spin-assembly,” Langmuir 18, 168–173 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hong, J. D.

J. Cho, K. Char, J. D. Hong, and K. B. Lee, “Fabrication of highly ordered multilayer films using a spin self-assembly method,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1076–1078 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hrozhyk, U.

Hsu, C.-Y.

H.-Y. Liu, C.-T. Wang, C.-Y. Hsu, T.-H. Lin, and J.-H. Liu, “Optically tuneable blue phase photonic band gaps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 121103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hu, E. L.

S. Strauf, M. T. Rakher, I. Carmeli, K. Hennessy, C. Meier, A. Badolato, M. J. A. DeDood, P. M. Petroff, E. L. Hu, E. G. Gwinn, and D. Bouwmeester, “Frequency control of photonic crystal membrane resonators by monolayer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 043116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S.-Y.

Huck, W. T. S.

W. T. S. Huck, L. Yan, A. Stroock, R. Haag, and G. M. Whitesides, “Patterned polymer multilayers as etch resists,” Langmuir 15, 6862–6867 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, T.

A. Urbas, J. Klosterman, V. Tondiglia, L. Natarajan, R. Sutherland, O. Tsutsumi, T. Ikeda, and T. Bunning, “Optically switchable Bragg reflectors,” Adv. Mater. 16, 1453–1456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Ikeda and O. Tsutsumi, “Optical switching and image storage by means of azobenzene liquid-crystal films,” Science 268, 1873–1875 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Irie, M.

M. Irie, “Diarylethenes for memories and switches,” Chem. Rev. 100, 1685–1716 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jau, H.-C.

Johal, M. S.

P. A. Chiarelli, M. S. Johal, D. J. Holmes, J. L. Casson, J. M. Robinson, and H.-L. Wang, “Polyelectrolyte spin-assembly,” Langmuir 18, 168–173 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Chiarelli, M. S. Johal, J. L. Casson, J. B. Roberts, J. M. Robinson, and H. L. Wang, “Controlled fabrication of polyelectrolyte multilayer thin films using spin-assembly,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1167–1171 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kiterow, H.-S.

K. A. Piegdon, M. Offer, A. Lorke, M. Urbanski, A. Hoischen, H.-S. Kiterow, S. Declair, J. Förstner, T. Meier, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, and C. Meier, “Self-assembled quantum dots in a liquid-crystal-tunable microdisk resonator,” Physica E (Amsterdam) 42, 2552–2555 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kitzerow, H.-S.

Klosterman, J.

A. Urbas, J. Klosterman, V. Tondiglia, L. Natarajan, R. Sutherland, O. Tsutsumi, T. Ikeda, and T. Bunning, “Optically switchable Bragg reflectors,” Adv. Mater. 16, 1453–1456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kostromin, S. G.

T. Fischer, L. Läsker, J. Stumpe, and S. G. Kostromin, “Photoinduced optical anisotropy in films of photochromic liquid crystalline polymers,” J. Photochem. Photobiol., A 80, 453–459 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Läsker, L.

T. Fischer, L. Läsker, J. Stumpe, and S. G. Kostromin, “Photoinduced optical anisotropy in films of photochromic liquid crystalline polymers,” J. Photochem. Photobiol., A 80, 453–459 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. B.

J. Cho, K. Char, J. D. Hong, and K. B. Lee, “Fabrication of highly ordered multilayer films using a spin self-assembly method,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1076–1078 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Levi, A. F. J.

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.-S.

Li, Q.

Lin, H.-C.

Lin, T.-H.

H.-C. Jau, T.-H. Lin, R.-X. Fung, S.-Y. Huang, J.-H. Liu, and Andy Y.-G. Fuh, “Optically-tunable beam steering grating based on azobenzene doped cholesteric liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 18, 17498–17503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-Y. Liu, C.-T. Wang, C.-Y. Hsu, T.-H. Lin, and J.-H. Liu, “Optically tuneable blue phase photonic band gaps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 121103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T.-H. Lin, Y.-J. Chen, C.-H. Wu, A. Y. G. Fuh, J. H. Liu, and P. C. Yang, “Cholesteric liquid crystal laser with wide tuning capability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 161120 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.-Y.

H.-Y. Liu, C.-T. Wang, C.-Y. Hsu, T.-H. Lin, and J.-H. Liu, “Optically tuneable blue phase photonic band gaps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 121103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J. H.

T.-H. Lin, Y.-J. Chen, C.-H. Wu, A. Y. G. Fuh, J. H. Liu, and P. C. Yang, “Cholesteric liquid crystal laser with wide tuning capability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 161120 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.-H.

Logan, R. A.

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lorke, A.

K. A. Piegdon, M. Offer, A. Lorke, M. Urbanski, A. Hoischen, H.-S. Kiterow, S. Declair, J. Förstner, T. Meier, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, and C. Meier, “Self-assembled quantum dots in a liquid-crystal-tunable microdisk resonator,” Physica E (Amsterdam) 42, 2552–2555 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Piegdon, S. Declair, J. Förstner, T. Meier, H. Matthias, M. Urbanski, H.-S. Kitzerow, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, A. Lorke, and C. Meier, “Tuning quantum-dot based photonic devices with liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 18, 7946–7954 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matthias, H.

McCall, S. L.

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Meier, C.

K. A. Piegdon, M. Offer, A. Lorke, M. Urbanski, A. Hoischen, H.-S. Kiterow, S. Declair, J. Förstner, T. Meier, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, and C. Meier, “Self-assembled quantum dots in a liquid-crystal-tunable microdisk resonator,” Physica E (Amsterdam) 42, 2552–2555 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Piegdon, S. Declair, J. Förstner, T. Meier, H. Matthias, M. Urbanski, H.-S. Kitzerow, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, A. Lorke, and C. Meier, “Tuning quantum-dot based photonic devices with liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 18, 7946–7954 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Strauf, M. T. Rakher, I. Carmeli, K. Hennessy, C. Meier, A. Badolato, M. J. A. DeDood, P. M. Petroff, E. L. Hu, E. G. Gwinn, and D. Bouwmeester, “Frequency control of photonic crystal membrane resonators by monolayer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 043116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Meier, T.

K. A. Piegdon, S. Declair, J. Förstner, T. Meier, H. Matthias, M. Urbanski, H.-S. Kitzerow, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, A. Lorke, and C. Meier, “Tuning quantum-dot based photonic devices with liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 18, 7946–7954 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Piegdon, M. Offer, A. Lorke, M. Urbanski, A. Hoischen, H.-S. Kiterow, S. Declair, J. Förstner, T. Meier, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, and C. Meier, “Self-assembled quantum dots in a liquid-crystal-tunable microdisk resonator,” Physica E (Amsterdam) 42, 2552–2555 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Natarajan, L.

A. Urbas, J. Klosterman, V. Tondiglia, L. Natarajan, R. Sutherland, O. Tsutsumi, T. Ikeda, and T. Bunning, “Optically switchable Bragg reflectors,” Adv. Mater. 16, 1453–1456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Natarajan, L. V.

Offer, M.

K. A. Piegdon, M. Offer, A. Lorke, M. Urbanski, A. Hoischen, H.-S. Kiterow, S. Declair, J. Förstner, T. Meier, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, and C. Meier, “Self-assembled quantum dots in a liquid-crystal-tunable microdisk resonator,” Physica E (Amsterdam) 42, 2552–2555 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Oliveira, O. N.

Q. Ferreira, P. J. Gomes, M. Raposo, J. A. Giacometti, O. N. Oliveira, and P. A. Ribeiro, “Influence of ionic interactions on the photoinduced birefringence of poly[1-[4-(3-Carboxy-4 Hydroxyphenylazo) benzene sulfonamido]-1,2-ethanediyl, sodium salt] films,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 7, 2659–2666 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Painter, O.

K. Srinivasan and O. Painter, “Optical fiber taper coupling and high-resolution wavelength tuning of microdisk resonators at cryogenic temperatures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 031114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pearton, S. J.

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Petriashvili, G.

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, and P. J. Collings, “Trans-cis isomerization and the blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 051705 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Petroff, P.

I. Fushman, D. Englund, A. Faraon, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vuckovic, “Controlled phase shifts with a single quantum dot,” Science 320, 769–772 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Faraon, D. Englund, I. Fushman, J. Vuckovic, N. Stoltz, and P. Petroff, “Local quantum dot tuning on photonic crystal chips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 213110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Petroff, P. M.

S. Strauf, M. T. Rakher, I. Carmeli, K. Hennessy, C. Meier, A. Badolato, M. J. A. DeDood, P. M. Petroff, E. L. Hu, E. G. Gwinn, and D. Bouwmeester, “Frequency control of photonic crystal membrane resonators by monolayer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 043116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Piegdon, K. A.

K. A. Piegdon, M. Offer, A. Lorke, M. Urbanski, A. Hoischen, H.-S. Kiterow, S. Declair, J. Förstner, T. Meier, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, and C. Meier, “Self-assembled quantum dots in a liquid-crystal-tunable microdisk resonator,” Physica E (Amsterdam) 42, 2552–2555 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Piegdon, S. Declair, J. Förstner, T. Meier, H. Matthias, M. Urbanski, H.-S. Kitzerow, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, A. Lorke, and C. Meier, “Tuning quantum-dot based photonic devices with liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 18, 7946–7954 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rakher, M. T.

S. Strauf, M. T. Rakher, I. Carmeli, K. Hennessy, C. Meier, A. Badolato, M. J. A. DeDood, P. M. Petroff, E. L. Hu, E. G. Gwinn, and D. Bouwmeester, “Frequency control of photonic crystal membrane resonators by monolayer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 043116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Raposo, M.

Q. Ferreira, P. J. Gomes, M. Raposo, J. A. Giacometti, O. N. Oliveira, and P. A. Ribeiro, “Influence of ionic interactions on the photoinduced birefringence of poly[1-[4-(3-Carboxy-4 Hydroxyphenylazo) benzene sulfonamido]-1,2-ethanediyl, sodium salt] films,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 7, 2659–2666 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reuter, D.

K. A. Piegdon, M. Offer, A. Lorke, M. Urbanski, A. Hoischen, H.-S. Kiterow, S. Declair, J. Förstner, T. Meier, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, and C. Meier, “Self-assembled quantum dots in a liquid-crystal-tunable microdisk resonator,” Physica E (Amsterdam) 42, 2552–2555 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Piegdon, S. Declair, J. Förstner, T. Meier, H. Matthias, M. Urbanski, H.-S. Kitzerow, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, A. Lorke, and C. Meier, “Tuning quantum-dot based photonic devices with liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 18, 7946–7954 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ribeiro, P. A.

Q. Ferreira, P. J. Gomes, M. Raposo, J. A. Giacometti, O. N. Oliveira, and P. A. Ribeiro, “Influence of ionic interactions on the photoinduced birefringence of poly[1-[4-(3-Carboxy-4 Hydroxyphenylazo) benzene sulfonamido]-1,2-ethanediyl, sodium salt] films,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 7, 2659–2666 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roberts, J. B.

P. A. Chiarelli, M. S. Johal, J. L. Casson, J. B. Roberts, J. M. Robinson, and H. L. Wang, “Controlled fabrication of polyelectrolyte multilayer thin films using spin-assembly,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1167–1171 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, D. B.

H. E. Bigelow and D. B. Robinson, “Azobenzene,” Org. Synth. 22, 28 (1942).

Robinson, J. M.

P. A. Chiarelli, M. S. Johal, J. L. Casson, J. B. Roberts, J. M. Robinson, and H. L. Wang, “Controlled fabrication of polyelectrolyte multilayer thin films using spin-assembly,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1167–1171 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Chiarelli, M. S. Johal, D. J. Holmes, J. L. Casson, J. M. Robinson, and H.-L. Wang, “Polyelectrolyte spin-assembly,” Langmuir 18, 168–173 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Serak, S.

Slusher, R. E.

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Srinivasan, K.

K. Srinivasan and O. Painter, “Optical fiber taper coupling and high-resolution wavelength tuning of microdisk resonators at cryogenic temperatures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 031114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stoltz, N.

I. Fushman, D. Englund, A. Faraon, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vuckovic, “Controlled phase shifts with a single quantum dot,” Science 320, 769–772 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Faraon, D. Englund, I. Fushman, J. Vuckovic, N. Stoltz, and P. Petroff, “Local quantum dot tuning on photonic crystal chips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 213110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Strauf, S.

S. Strauf, M. T. Rakher, I. Carmeli, K. Hennessy, C. Meier, A. Badolato, M. J. A. DeDood, P. M. Petroff, E. L. Hu, E. G. Gwinn, and D. Bouwmeester, “Frequency control of photonic crystal membrane resonators by monolayer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 043116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stroeve, P.

S. Dante, R. Advincula, C. W. Frank, and P. Stroeve, “Photoisomerization of polyionic layer-by-layer films containing azobenzene,” Langmuir 15, 193–201 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stroock, A.

W. T. S. Huck, L. Yan, A. Stroock, R. Haag, and G. M. Whitesides, “Patterned polymer multilayers as etch resists,” Langmuir 15, 6862–6867 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stumpe, J.

T. Fischer, L. Läsker, J. Stumpe, and S. G. Kostromin, “Photoinduced optical anisotropy in films of photochromic liquid crystalline polymers,” J. Photochem. Photobiol., A 80, 453–459 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sutherland, R.

A. Urbas, J. Klosterman, V. Tondiglia, L. Natarajan, R. Sutherland, O. Tsutsumi, T. Ikeda, and T. Bunning, “Optically switchable Bragg reflectors,” Adv. Mater. 16, 1453–1456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tabiryan, N.

Tondiglia, V.

A. Urbas, J. Klosterman, V. Tondiglia, L. Natarajan, R. Sutherland, O. Tsutsumi, T. Ikeda, and T. Bunning, “Optically switchable Bragg reflectors,” Adv. Mater. 16, 1453–1456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tondiglia, V. P.

Tsutsumi, O.

A. Urbas, J. Klosterman, V. Tondiglia, L. Natarajan, R. Sutherland, O. Tsutsumi, T. Ikeda, and T. Bunning, “Optically switchable Bragg reflectors,” Adv. Mater. 16, 1453–1456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Ikeda and O. Tsutsumi, “Optical switching and image storage by means of azobenzene liquid-crystal films,” Science 268, 1873–1875 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Urbanski, M.

K. A. Piegdon, M. Offer, A. Lorke, M. Urbanski, A. Hoischen, H.-S. Kiterow, S. Declair, J. Förstner, T. Meier, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, and C. Meier, “Self-assembled quantum dots in a liquid-crystal-tunable microdisk resonator,” Physica E (Amsterdam) 42, 2552–2555 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Piegdon, S. Declair, J. Förstner, T. Meier, H. Matthias, M. Urbanski, H.-S. Kitzerow, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, A. Lorke, and C. Meier, “Tuning quantum-dot based photonic devices with liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 18, 7946–7954 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Urbas, A.

A. Urbas, J. Klosterman, V. Tondiglia, L. Natarajan, R. Sutherland, O. Tsutsumi, T. Ikeda, and T. Bunning, “Optically switchable Bragg reflectors,” Adv. Mater. 16, 1453–1456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vuckovic, J.

I. Fushman, D. Englund, A. Faraon, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vuckovic, “Controlled phase shifts with a single quantum dot,” Science 320, 769–772 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Faraon, D. Englund, I. Fushman, J. Vuckovic, N. Stoltz, and P. Petroff, “Local quantum dot tuning on photonic crystal chips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 213110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.-T.

H.-Y. Liu, C.-T. Wang, C.-Y. Hsu, T.-H. Lin, and J.-H. Liu, “Optically tuneable blue phase photonic band gaps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 121103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H. L.

P. A. Chiarelli, M. S. Johal, J. L. Casson, J. B. Roberts, J. M. Robinson, and H. L. Wang, “Controlled fabrication of polyelectrolyte multilayer thin films using spin-assembly,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1167–1171 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.-L.

P. A. Chiarelli, M. S. Johal, D. J. Holmes, J. L. Casson, J. M. Robinson, and H.-L. Wang, “Polyelectrolyte spin-assembly,” Langmuir 18, 168–173 (2001).
[CrossRef]

White, T. J.

Whitesides, G. M.

W. T. S. Huck, L. Yan, A. Stroock, R. Haag, and G. M. Whitesides, “Patterned polymer multilayers as etch resists,” Langmuir 15, 6862–6867 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wieck, A. D.

K. A. Piegdon, S. Declair, J. Förstner, T. Meier, H. Matthias, M. Urbanski, H.-S. Kitzerow, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, A. Lorke, and C. Meier, “Tuning quantum-dot based photonic devices with liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 18, 7946–7954 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Piegdon, M. Offer, A. Lorke, M. Urbanski, A. Hoischen, H.-S. Kiterow, S. Declair, J. Förstner, T. Meier, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, and C. Meier, “Self-assembled quantum dots in a liquid-crystal-tunable microdisk resonator,” Physica E (Amsterdam) 42, 2552–2555 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.-H.

T.-H. Lin, Y.-J. Chen, C.-H. Wu, A. Y. G. Fuh, J. H. Liu, and P. C. Yang, “Cholesteric liquid crystal laser with wide tuning capability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 161120 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yan, L.

W. T. S. Huck, L. Yan, A. Stroock, R. Haag, and G. M. Whitesides, “Patterned polymer multilayers as etch resists,” Langmuir 15, 6862–6867 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yang, P. C.

T.-H. Lin, Y.-J. Chen, C.-H. Wu, A. Y. G. Fuh, J. H. Liu, and P. C. Yang, “Cholesteric liquid crystal laser with wide tuning capability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 161120 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (3)

A. Urbas, J. Klosterman, V. Tondiglia, L. Natarajan, R. Sutherland, O. Tsutsumi, T. Ikeda, and T. Bunning, “Optically switchable Bragg reflectors,” Adv. Mater. 16, 1453–1456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Cho, K. Char, J. D. Hong, and K. B. Lee, “Fabrication of highly ordered multilayer films using a spin self-assembly method,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1076–1078 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Chiarelli, M. S. Johal, J. L. Casson, J. B. Roberts, J. M. Robinson, and H. L. Wang, “Controlled fabrication of polyelectrolyte multilayer thin films using spin-assembly,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1167–1171 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

A. Faraon, D. Englund, I. Fushman, J. Vuckovic, N. Stoltz, and P. Petroff, “Local quantum dot tuning on photonic crystal chips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 213110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Srinivasan and O. Painter, “Optical fiber taper coupling and high-resolution wavelength tuning of microdisk resonators at cryogenic temperatures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 031114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Strauf, M. T. Rakher, I. Carmeli, K. Hennessy, C. Meier, A. Badolato, M. J. A. DeDood, P. M. Petroff, E. L. Hu, E. G. Gwinn, and D. Bouwmeester, “Frequency control of photonic crystal membrane resonators by monolayer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 043116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T.-H. Lin, Y.-J. Chen, C.-H. Wu, A. Y. G. Fuh, J. H. Liu, and P. C. Yang, “Cholesteric liquid crystal laser with wide tuning capability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 161120 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H.-Y. Liu, C.-T. Wang, C.-Y. Hsu, T.-H. Lin, and J.-H. Liu, “Optically tuneable blue phase photonic band gaps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 121103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

M. Irie, “Diarylethenes for memories and switches,” Chem. Rev. 100, 1685–1716 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. (1)

Q. Ferreira, P. J. Gomes, M. Raposo, J. A. Giacometti, O. N. Oliveira, and P. A. Ribeiro, “Influence of ionic interactions on the photoinduced birefringence of poly[1-[4-(3-Carboxy-4 Hydroxyphenylazo) benzene sulfonamido]-1,2-ethanediyl, sodium salt] films,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 7, 2659–2666 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Photochem. Photobiol., A (1)

T. Fischer, L. Läsker, J. Stumpe, and S. G. Kostromin, “Photoinduced optical anisotropy in films of photochromic liquid crystalline polymers,” J. Photochem. Photobiol., A 80, 453–459 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (3)

P. A. Chiarelli, M. S. Johal, D. J. Holmes, J. L. Casson, J. M. Robinson, and H.-L. Wang, “Polyelectrolyte spin-assembly,” Langmuir 18, 168–173 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Dante, R. Advincula, C. W. Frank, and P. Stroeve, “Photoisomerization of polyionic layer-by-layer films containing azobenzene,” Langmuir 15, 193–201 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. T. S. Huck, L. Yan, A. Stroock, R. Haag, and G. M. Whitesides, “Patterned polymer multilayers as etch resists,” Langmuir 15, 6862–6867 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Org. Synth. (1)

H. E. Bigelow and D. B. Robinson, “Azobenzene,” Org. Synth. 22, 28 (1942).

Phys. Rev. E (1)

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, and P. J. Collings, “Trans-cis isomerization and the blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 051705 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Physica E (Amsterdam) (1)

K. A. Piegdon, M. Offer, A. Lorke, M. Urbanski, A. Hoischen, H.-S. Kiterow, S. Declair, J. Förstner, T. Meier, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, and C. Meier, “Self-assembled quantum dots in a liquid-crystal-tunable microdisk resonator,” Physica E (Amsterdam) 42, 2552–2555 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Science (3)

I. Fushman, D. Englund, A. Faraon, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vuckovic, “Controlled phase shifts with a single quantum dot,” Science 320, 769–772 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ikeda and O. Tsutsumi, “Optical switching and image storage by means of azobenzene liquid-crystal films,” Science 268, 1873–1875 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Decher, “Fuzzy nanoassemblies: toward layered polymeric multicomposites,” Science 277, 1232–1237 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic design of the heterostructure that was used as a base material and the principal geometry of the microdisk resonators device (not to scale).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) PEI/PAZO film thickness as a function of bilayer number determined using spectroscopic ellipsometry on a bare GaAs (100) surface and on a sample with patterned microdisk. The inset shows an imaging ellipsometry scan of a surface after deposition of 15 bilayers. (b) Photoluminescence spectra of a microdisk device before and after coating. The insets show secondary electron micrographs (SEM).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Shift of WGM energy during the PEL deposition process observed experimentally and computed theoretically. (b) Step index profile used for computation together with obtained mode profile.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Lasing action performance analysis. Mode intensity and linewidth at half maximum before and after coating as a function of excitation power, exhibiting lasing behavior. The insets show parts of the photoluminescence spectra.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Development of laser threshold with increasing PEL film thickness.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spectral mode shift of two whispering gallery modes during UV irradiation at λ = 340 nm −380 nm, initializing the trans-cis isomerization of the azobenzene side groups.

Equations (1)

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[ d 2 / d z 2 ( k 2 n ( z ) 2 k 0 2 ) ] H z ( z ) = 0

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