Abstract

Large aperture image modulators used as demodulator in receiver path are an important component for the use in three dimensional (3D) image sensing. For practical applications, low voltage operation and high modulation performance are the key requirements for modulators. Here, we propose an asymmetric Fabry-Perot modulator (AFPM) with asymmetric tandem quantum wells (ATQWs) for 3D image sensing. By using ATQWs for the AFPM design, the device operated at −4.25V, and the operating voltage was significantly lower by about 23% compared to −5.5V of a conventional AFPM with 8nm thick multiple QW with a single QW thickness (SQWs), while achieving high reflectivity modulation in excess of 50%. The performance of the fabricated devices is in good agreement with theoretical calculations. The pixelated device shows a high modulation speed of 21.8 MHz over a large aperture and good uniformity. These results show that AFPM with ATQWs is a good candidate as an optical image modulator for 3D image sensing applications.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  22. N. Susa and T. Nakahara, “Design of AlGaAs/GaAs quantum well for electroabsorption modulator,” Solid-State Electron.36(9), 1277–1287 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  23. K. Bacher, B. Pezeshki, S. M. Lord, and J. S. Harris, “Molecular beam epitaxy growth of vertical cavity optical devices with in situ corrections,” Appl. Phys. Lett.61(12), 1387–1389 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  24. Q. Wang, S. Junique, D. Ågren, B. Noharet, and J. Y. Andersson, “Fabry-Perot electroabsorption modulators for high-speed free-space optical communication,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(6), 1471–1473 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  25. P. G. Goetz, W. S. Rabinovich, S. C. Binari, and J. A. Mittereder, “High-performance chirped electrode design for cat’s eye retro-reflector modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(21), 2278–2280 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2008

J. Roels, W. Van der Tempel, D. Van Nieuwenhove, R. Grootjans, M. Kuijk, D. van Thourhout, and R. G. Baets, “Continuous time-of-flight ranging using a MEMS diffractive subwavelength period grating (de)modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(22), 1827–1829 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

W. S. Rabinovich, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, L. Swingen, J. Murphy, M. Ferraro, J. H. Ray Burris, C. I. Moore, M. Suite, G. C. Gilbreath, S. Binari, and D. Klotzkin, “45-Mbit/s cat’s-eye modulating retroreflectors,” Opt. Eng.46(10), 104001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Junique, Q. Wang, S. Almqvist, B. Noharet, and J. Y. Andersson, “Large-area, three-state, binary amplitude and binary phase vertical-cavity multiple quantum well electroabsorption modulator,” Opt. Express15(14), 8566–8575 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

P. G. Goetz, W. S. Rabinovich, S. C. Binari, and J. A. Mittereder, “High-performance chirped electrode design for cat’s eye retro-reflector modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(21), 2278–2280 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yu, S. Karlsson, C. P. Liu, R. Schatz, U. Westergren, O. Kjebon, C. H. Chuang, and L. Sailing He, “Thylen, A. B. Krysa, J. S. Roberts, and A. J. Seeds, “Enhanced linear dynamic range of asymmetric Fabry–Perot modulator/detector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18, 770–772 (2006).

2005

2004

H. Mohseni, H. An, Z. A. Shellenbarger, M. H. Kwakernaak, and J. H. Abeles, “Enhanced electro-optic effect in GaInAsP–InP three-step quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(11), 1823–1825 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wang, S. Junique, D. Ågren, B. Noharet, and J. Y. Andersson, “Fabry-Perot electroabsorption modulators for high-speed free-space optical communication,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(6), 1471–1473 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

U. Arad, E. Redmard, M. Shamay, A. Averboukh, S. Levit, and U. Efron, “Development of a large high performance 2-D array of GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum-well modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(11), 1531–1533 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

J. S. Ahearn, M. H. Weiler, S. B. Adams, T. P. McElwain, A. Stark, L. DePaulis, A. L. Sarafinas, T. Hongsmatip, R. J. Martin, and B. Lane, “Multiple quantum well (MQW) spatial light modulators (SLMs) for optical data processing and beam steering,” Proc. SPIE4457, 43–53 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Lange and P. Seitz, “Solid-state time-of-flight range camera,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.37(3), 390–397 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, C. C. Lin, and J. S. Harris, “High-speed, dual-function vertical cavity multiple quantum well modulators and photodetectors for optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng.40(7), 1186–1191 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chiu, S. Z. Zhang, V. Kaman, J. Piprek, and J. E. Bowers, “High-speed traveling-wave electro-absorption modulators,” Proc. SPIE4490, 1–10 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998

H. Feng, J. P. Pang, M. Sugiyama, K. Tada, and Y. Nakano, “Field induced optical effect in a five-step asymmetric coupled quantum well with modified potential,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.34(7), 1197–1208 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

1995

T. Woodward, J. Cunningham, and W. Y. Jan, “Comparison of stepped‐well and square‐well multiple‐quantum‐well optical modulators,” J. Appl. Phys.78(3), 1411–1414 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Schwarte, H.-G. Heinol, Z. Xu, and K. Hartmann, ““New active 3D vision system based on rf-modulation interferometry of incoherent light,” Photonics East-Intelligent Systems and Advanced Manufacturing,” Proc. SPIE2588, 126–134 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

N. Susa and T. Nakahara, “Design of AlGaAs/GaAs quantum well for electroabsorption modulator,” Solid-State Electron.36(9), 1277–1287 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

K. Bacher, B. Pezeshki, S. M. Lord, and J. S. Harris, “Molecular beam epitaxy growth of vertical cavity optical devices with in situ corrections,” Appl. Phys. Lett.61(12), 1387–1389 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. Amano, S. Matsuo, T. Kurokawa, and H. Iwamura, “20 dB contrast GaAs /AlGaAs multiple quantum-well nonresonant modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.4(1), 31–33 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

Y. Chan and K. Tada, “Field induced optical effects in coupled quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.27(3), 702–707 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

K. K. Law, R. H. Yan, J. L. Merz, and L. A. Coldren, “Normally-off high‐contrast asymmetric Fabry-Perot reflection modulator using Wannier-Stark localization in a superlattice,” Appl. Phys. Lett.56(19), 1886–1888 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1984

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Bandedge electro-absorption in quantum well structures: the quantum confined Stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett.53(22), 2173–2176 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Abeles, J. H.

H. Mohseni, H. An, Z. A. Shellenbarger, M. H. Kwakernaak, and J. H. Abeles, “Enhanced electro-optic effect in GaInAsP–InP three-step quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(11), 1823–1825 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Adams, S. B.

J. S. Ahearn, M. H. Weiler, S. B. Adams, T. P. McElwain, A. Stark, L. DePaulis, A. L. Sarafinas, T. Hongsmatip, R. J. Martin, and B. Lane, “Multiple quantum well (MQW) spatial light modulators (SLMs) for optical data processing and beam steering,” Proc. SPIE4457, 43–53 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Agren, D.

Ågren, D.

Q. Wang, S. Junique, D. Ågren, B. Noharet, and J. Y. Andersson, “Fabry-Perot electroabsorption modulators for high-speed free-space optical communication,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(6), 1471–1473 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ahearn, J. S.

J. S. Ahearn, M. H. Weiler, S. B. Adams, T. P. McElwain, A. Stark, L. DePaulis, A. L. Sarafinas, T. Hongsmatip, R. J. Martin, and B. Lane, “Multiple quantum well (MQW) spatial light modulators (SLMs) for optical data processing and beam steering,” Proc. SPIE4457, 43–53 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Almqvist, S.

Amano, C.

C. Amano, S. Matsuo, T. Kurokawa, and H. Iwamura, “20 dB contrast GaAs /AlGaAs multiple quantum-well nonresonant modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.4(1), 31–33 (1992).
[CrossRef]

An, H.

H. Mohseni, H. An, Z. A. Shellenbarger, M. H. Kwakernaak, and J. H. Abeles, “Enhanced electro-optic effect in GaInAsP–InP three-step quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(11), 1823–1825 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Andersson, J. Y.

Arad, U.

U. Arad, E. Redmard, M. Shamay, A. Averboukh, S. Levit, and U. Efron, “Development of a large high performance 2-D array of GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum-well modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(11), 1531–1533 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Averboukh, A.

U. Arad, E. Redmard, M. Shamay, A. Averboukh, S. Levit, and U. Efron, “Development of a large high performance 2-D array of GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum-well modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(11), 1531–1533 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bacher, K.

K. Bacher, B. Pezeshki, S. M. Lord, and J. S. Harris, “Molecular beam epitaxy growth of vertical cavity optical devices with in situ corrections,” Appl. Phys. Lett.61(12), 1387–1389 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R. G.

J. Roels, W. Van der Tempel, D. Van Nieuwenhove, R. Grootjans, M. Kuijk, D. van Thourhout, and R. G. Baets, “Continuous time-of-flight ranging using a MEMS diffractive subwavelength period grating (de)modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(22), 1827–1829 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Binari, S.

W. S. Rabinovich, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, L. Swingen, J. Murphy, M. Ferraro, J. H. Ray Burris, C. I. Moore, M. Suite, G. C. Gilbreath, S. Binari, and D. Klotzkin, “45-Mbit/s cat’s-eye modulating retroreflectors,” Opt. Eng.46(10), 104001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Binari, S. C.

P. G. Goetz, W. S. Rabinovich, S. C. Binari, and J. A. Mittereder, “High-performance chirped electrode design for cat’s eye retro-reflector modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(21), 2278–2280 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J. E.

Y. Chiu, S. Z. Zhang, V. Kaman, J. Piprek, and J. E. Bowers, “High-speed traveling-wave electro-absorption modulators,” Proc. SPIE4490, 1–10 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Burrus, C. A.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Bandedge electro-absorption in quantum well structures: the quantum confined Stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett.53(22), 2173–2176 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Chan, Y.

Y. Chan and K. Tada, “Field induced optical effects in coupled quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.27(3), 702–707 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chemla, D. S.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Bandedge electro-absorption in quantum well structures: the quantum confined Stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett.53(22), 2173–2176 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, Y.

Y. Chiu, S. Z. Zhang, V. Kaman, J. Piprek, and J. E. Bowers, “High-speed traveling-wave electro-absorption modulators,” Proc. SPIE4490, 1–10 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chuang, C. H.

Y. Yu, S. Karlsson, C. P. Liu, R. Schatz, U. Westergren, O. Kjebon, C. H. Chuang, and L. Sailing He, “Thylen, A. B. Krysa, J. S. Roberts, and A. J. Seeds, “Enhanced linear dynamic range of asymmetric Fabry–Perot modulator/detector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18, 770–772 (2006).

Coldren, L. A.

K. K. Law, R. H. Yan, J. L. Merz, and L. A. Coldren, “Normally-off high‐contrast asymmetric Fabry-Perot reflection modulator using Wannier-Stark localization in a superlattice,” Appl. Phys. Lett.56(19), 1886–1888 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, J.

T. Woodward, J. Cunningham, and W. Y. Jan, “Comparison of stepped‐well and square‐well multiple‐quantum‐well optical modulators,” J. Appl. Phys.78(3), 1411–1414 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Damen, T. C.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Bandedge electro-absorption in quantum well structures: the quantum confined Stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett.53(22), 2173–2176 (1984).
[CrossRef]

DePaulis, L.

J. S. Ahearn, M. H. Weiler, S. B. Adams, T. P. McElwain, A. Stark, L. DePaulis, A. L. Sarafinas, T. Hongsmatip, R. J. Martin, and B. Lane, “Multiple quantum well (MQW) spatial light modulators (SLMs) for optical data processing and beam steering,” Proc. SPIE4457, 43–53 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Efron, U.

U. Arad, E. Redmard, M. Shamay, A. Averboukh, S. Levit, and U. Efron, “Development of a large high performance 2-D array of GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum-well modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(11), 1531–1533 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Feng, H.

H. Feng, J. P. Pang, M. Sugiyama, K. Tada, and Y. Nakano, “Field induced optical effect in a five-step asymmetric coupled quantum well with modified potential,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.34(7), 1197–1208 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ferraro, M.

W. S. Rabinovich, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, L. Swingen, J. Murphy, M. Ferraro, J. H. Ray Burris, C. I. Moore, M. Suite, G. C. Gilbreath, S. Binari, and D. Klotzkin, “45-Mbit/s cat’s-eye modulating retroreflectors,” Opt. Eng.46(10), 104001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gilbreath, G. C.

W. S. Rabinovich, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, L. Swingen, J. Murphy, M. Ferraro, J. H. Ray Burris, C. I. Moore, M. Suite, G. C. Gilbreath, S. Binari, and D. Klotzkin, “45-Mbit/s cat’s-eye modulating retroreflectors,” Opt. Eng.46(10), 104001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Goetz, P. G.

W. S. Rabinovich, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, L. Swingen, J. Murphy, M. Ferraro, J. H. Ray Burris, C. I. Moore, M. Suite, G. C. Gilbreath, S. Binari, and D. Klotzkin, “45-Mbit/s cat’s-eye modulating retroreflectors,” Opt. Eng.46(10), 104001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Goetz, W. S. Rabinovich, S. C. Binari, and J. A. Mittereder, “High-performance chirped electrode design for cat’s eye retro-reflector modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(21), 2278–2280 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gossard, A. C.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Bandedge electro-absorption in quantum well structures: the quantum confined Stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett.53(22), 2173–2176 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Grootjans, R.

J. Roels, W. Van der Tempel, D. Van Nieuwenhove, R. Grootjans, M. Kuijk, D. van Thourhout, and R. G. Baets, “Continuous time-of-flight ranging using a MEMS diffractive subwavelength period grating (de)modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(22), 1827–1829 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Guo, J.

Harris, J. S.

H. Liu, C. C. Lin, and J. S. Harris, “High-speed, dual-function vertical cavity multiple quantum well modulators and photodetectors for optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng.40(7), 1186–1191 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Bacher, B. Pezeshki, S. M. Lord, and J. S. Harris, “Molecular beam epitaxy growth of vertical cavity optical devices with in situ corrections,” Appl. Phys. Lett.61(12), 1387–1389 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hartmann, K.

R. Schwarte, H.-G. Heinol, Z. Xu, and K. Hartmann, ““New active 3D vision system based on rf-modulation interferometry of incoherent light,” Photonics East-Intelligent Systems and Advanced Manufacturing,” Proc. SPIE2588, 126–134 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Heinol, H.-G.

R. Schwarte, H.-G. Heinol, Z. Xu, and K. Hartmann, ““New active 3D vision system based on rf-modulation interferometry of incoherent light,” Photonics East-Intelligent Systems and Advanced Manufacturing,” Proc. SPIE2588, 126–134 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hongsmatip, T.

J. S. Ahearn, M. H. Weiler, S. B. Adams, T. P. McElwain, A. Stark, L. DePaulis, A. L. Sarafinas, T. Hongsmatip, R. J. Martin, and B. Lane, “Multiple quantum well (MQW) spatial light modulators (SLMs) for optical data processing and beam steering,” Proc. SPIE4457, 43–53 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Iwamura, H.

C. Amano, S. Matsuo, T. Kurokawa, and H. Iwamura, “20 dB contrast GaAs /AlGaAs multiple quantum-well nonresonant modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.4(1), 31–33 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jan, W. Y.

T. Woodward, J. Cunningham, and W. Y. Jan, “Comparison of stepped‐well and square‐well multiple‐quantum‐well optical modulators,” J. Appl. Phys.78(3), 1411–1414 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Junique, S.

Kaman, V.

Y. Chiu, S. Z. Zhang, V. Kaman, J. Piprek, and J. E. Bowers, “High-speed traveling-wave electro-absorption modulators,” Proc. SPIE4490, 1–10 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Karlsson, S.

Y. Yu, S. Karlsson, C. P. Liu, R. Schatz, U. Westergren, O. Kjebon, C. H. Chuang, and L. Sailing He, “Thylen, A. B. Krysa, J. S. Roberts, and A. J. Seeds, “Enhanced linear dynamic range of asymmetric Fabry–Perot modulator/detector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18, 770–772 (2006).

Kjebon, O.

Y. Yu, S. Karlsson, C. P. Liu, R. Schatz, U. Westergren, O. Kjebon, C. H. Chuang, and L. Sailing He, “Thylen, A. B. Krysa, J. S. Roberts, and A. J. Seeds, “Enhanced linear dynamic range of asymmetric Fabry–Perot modulator/detector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18, 770–772 (2006).

Klotzkin, D.

W. S. Rabinovich, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, L. Swingen, J. Murphy, M. Ferraro, J. H. Ray Burris, C. I. Moore, M. Suite, G. C. Gilbreath, S. Binari, and D. Klotzkin, “45-Mbit/s cat’s-eye modulating retroreflectors,” Opt. Eng.46(10), 104001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kuijk, M.

J. Roels, W. Van der Tempel, D. Van Nieuwenhove, R. Grootjans, M. Kuijk, D. van Thourhout, and R. G. Baets, “Continuous time-of-flight ranging using a MEMS diffractive subwavelength period grating (de)modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(22), 1827–1829 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kurokawa, T.

C. Amano, S. Matsuo, T. Kurokawa, and H. Iwamura, “20 dB contrast GaAs /AlGaAs multiple quantum-well nonresonant modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.4(1), 31–33 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kwakernaak, M. H.

H. Mohseni, H. An, Z. A. Shellenbarger, M. H. Kwakernaak, and J. H. Abeles, “Enhanced electro-optic effect in GaInAsP–InP three-step quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(11), 1823–1825 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lane, B.

J. S. Ahearn, M. H. Weiler, S. B. Adams, T. P. McElwain, A. Stark, L. DePaulis, A. L. Sarafinas, T. Hongsmatip, R. J. Martin, and B. Lane, “Multiple quantum well (MQW) spatial light modulators (SLMs) for optical data processing and beam steering,” Proc. SPIE4457, 43–53 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Worchesky, K. J. Ritter, R. Martin, and B. Lane, “Large arrays of spatial light modulators hybridized to silicon integrated circuits,” Appl. Opt.35(8), 1180–1186 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lange, R.

R. Lange and P. Seitz, “Solid-state time-of-flight range camera,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.37(3), 390–397 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Law, K. K.

K. K. Law, R. H. Yan, J. L. Merz, and L. A. Coldren, “Normally-off high‐contrast asymmetric Fabry-Perot reflection modulator using Wannier-Stark localization in a superlattice,” Appl. Phys. Lett.56(19), 1886–1888 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Levit, S.

U. Arad, E. Redmard, M. Shamay, A. Averboukh, S. Levit, and U. Efron, “Development of a large high performance 2-D array of GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum-well modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(11), 1531–1533 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. C.

H. Liu, C. C. Lin, and J. S. Harris, “High-speed, dual-function vertical cavity multiple quantum well modulators and photodetectors for optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng.40(7), 1186–1191 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C. P.

Y. Yu, S. Karlsson, C. P. Liu, R. Schatz, U. Westergren, O. Kjebon, C. H. Chuang, and L. Sailing He, “Thylen, A. B. Krysa, J. S. Roberts, and A. J. Seeds, “Enhanced linear dynamic range of asymmetric Fabry–Perot modulator/detector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18, 770–772 (2006).

Liu, H.

H. Liu, C. C. Lin, and J. S. Harris, “High-speed, dual-function vertical cavity multiple quantum well modulators and photodetectors for optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng.40(7), 1186–1191 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lord, S. M.

K. Bacher, B. Pezeshki, S. M. Lord, and J. S. Harris, “Molecular beam epitaxy growth of vertical cavity optical devices with in situ corrections,” Appl. Phys. Lett.61(12), 1387–1389 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mahon, R.

W. S. Rabinovich, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, L. Swingen, J. Murphy, M. Ferraro, J. H. Ray Burris, C. I. Moore, M. Suite, G. C. Gilbreath, S. Binari, and D. Klotzkin, “45-Mbit/s cat’s-eye modulating retroreflectors,” Opt. Eng.46(10), 104001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Martijn, H.

Martin, R.

Martin, R. J.

J. S. Ahearn, M. H. Weiler, S. B. Adams, T. P. McElwain, A. Stark, L. DePaulis, A. L. Sarafinas, T. Hongsmatip, R. J. Martin, and B. Lane, “Multiple quantum well (MQW) spatial light modulators (SLMs) for optical data processing and beam steering,” Proc. SPIE4457, 43–53 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Matsuo, S.

C. Amano, S. Matsuo, T. Kurokawa, and H. Iwamura, “20 dB contrast GaAs /AlGaAs multiple quantum-well nonresonant modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.4(1), 31–33 (1992).
[CrossRef]

McElwain, T. P.

J. S. Ahearn, M. H. Weiler, S. B. Adams, T. P. McElwain, A. Stark, L. DePaulis, A. L. Sarafinas, T. Hongsmatip, R. J. Martin, and B. Lane, “Multiple quantum well (MQW) spatial light modulators (SLMs) for optical data processing and beam steering,” Proc. SPIE4457, 43–53 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Merz, J. L.

K. K. Law, R. H. Yan, J. L. Merz, and L. A. Coldren, “Normally-off high‐contrast asymmetric Fabry-Perot reflection modulator using Wannier-Stark localization in a superlattice,” Appl. Phys. Lett.56(19), 1886–1888 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Bandedge electro-absorption in quantum well structures: the quantum confined Stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett.53(22), 2173–2176 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Mittereder, J. A.

P. G. Goetz, W. S. Rabinovich, S. C. Binari, and J. A. Mittereder, “High-performance chirped electrode design for cat’s eye retro-reflector modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(21), 2278–2280 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mohseni, H.

H. Mohseni, H. An, Z. A. Shellenbarger, M. H. Kwakernaak, and J. H. Abeles, “Enhanced electro-optic effect in GaInAsP–InP three-step quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(11), 1823–1825 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Moore, C. I.

W. S. Rabinovich, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, L. Swingen, J. Murphy, M. Ferraro, J. H. Ray Burris, C. I. Moore, M. Suite, G. C. Gilbreath, S. Binari, and D. Klotzkin, “45-Mbit/s cat’s-eye modulating retroreflectors,” Opt. Eng.46(10), 104001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, J.

W. S. Rabinovich, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, L. Swingen, J. Murphy, M. Ferraro, J. H. Ray Burris, C. I. Moore, M. Suite, G. C. Gilbreath, S. Binari, and D. Klotzkin, “45-Mbit/s cat’s-eye modulating retroreflectors,” Opt. Eng.46(10), 104001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nakahara, T.

N. Susa and T. Nakahara, “Design of AlGaAs/GaAs quantum well for electroabsorption modulator,” Solid-State Electron.36(9), 1277–1287 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nakano, Y.

H. Feng, J. P. Pang, M. Sugiyama, K. Tada, and Y. Nakano, “Field induced optical effect in a five-step asymmetric coupled quantum well with modified potential,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.34(7), 1197–1208 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Noharet, B.

Pang, J. P.

H. Feng, J. P. Pang, M. Sugiyama, K. Tada, and Y. Nakano, “Field induced optical effect in a five-step asymmetric coupled quantum well with modified potential,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.34(7), 1197–1208 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pezeshki, B.

K. Bacher, B. Pezeshki, S. M. Lord, and J. S. Harris, “Molecular beam epitaxy growth of vertical cavity optical devices with in situ corrections,” Appl. Phys. Lett.61(12), 1387–1389 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Piprek, J.

Y. Chiu, S. Z. Zhang, V. Kaman, J. Piprek, and J. E. Bowers, “High-speed traveling-wave electro-absorption modulators,” Proc. SPIE4490, 1–10 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rabinovich, W. S.

W. S. Rabinovich, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, L. Swingen, J. Murphy, M. Ferraro, J. H. Ray Burris, C. I. Moore, M. Suite, G. C. Gilbreath, S. Binari, and D. Klotzkin, “45-Mbit/s cat’s-eye modulating retroreflectors,” Opt. Eng.46(10), 104001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Goetz, W. S. Rabinovich, S. C. Binari, and J. A. Mittereder, “High-performance chirped electrode design for cat’s eye retro-reflector modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(21), 2278–2280 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ray Burris, J. H.

W. S. Rabinovich, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, L. Swingen, J. Murphy, M. Ferraro, J. H. Ray Burris, C. I. Moore, M. Suite, G. C. Gilbreath, S. Binari, and D. Klotzkin, “45-Mbit/s cat’s-eye modulating retroreflectors,” Opt. Eng.46(10), 104001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Redmard, E.

U. Arad, E. Redmard, M. Shamay, A. Averboukh, S. Levit, and U. Efron, “Development of a large high performance 2-D array of GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum-well modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(11), 1531–1533 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ritter, K. J.

Roels, J.

J. Roels, W. Van der Tempel, D. Van Nieuwenhove, R. Grootjans, M. Kuijk, D. van Thourhout, and R. G. Baets, “Continuous time-of-flight ranging using a MEMS diffractive subwavelength period grating (de)modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(22), 1827–1829 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sailing He, L.

Y. Yu, S. Karlsson, C. P. Liu, R. Schatz, U. Westergren, O. Kjebon, C. H. Chuang, and L. Sailing He, “Thylen, A. B. Krysa, J. S. Roberts, and A. J. Seeds, “Enhanced linear dynamic range of asymmetric Fabry–Perot modulator/detector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18, 770–772 (2006).

Sarafinas, A. L.

J. S. Ahearn, M. H. Weiler, S. B. Adams, T. P. McElwain, A. Stark, L. DePaulis, A. L. Sarafinas, T. Hongsmatip, R. J. Martin, and B. Lane, “Multiple quantum well (MQW) spatial light modulators (SLMs) for optical data processing and beam steering,” Proc. SPIE4457, 43–53 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schatz, R.

Y. Yu, S. Karlsson, C. P. Liu, R. Schatz, U. Westergren, O. Kjebon, C. H. Chuang, and L. Sailing He, “Thylen, A. B. Krysa, J. S. Roberts, and A. J. Seeds, “Enhanced linear dynamic range of asymmetric Fabry–Perot modulator/detector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18, 770–772 (2006).

Schwarte, R.

R. Schwarte, H.-G. Heinol, Z. Xu, and K. Hartmann, ““New active 3D vision system based on rf-modulation interferometry of incoherent light,” Photonics East-Intelligent Systems and Advanced Manufacturing,” Proc. SPIE2588, 126–134 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Seitz, P.

R. Lange and P. Seitz, “Solid-state time-of-flight range camera,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.37(3), 390–397 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shamay, M.

U. Arad, E. Redmard, M. Shamay, A. Averboukh, S. Levit, and U. Efron, “Development of a large high performance 2-D array of GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum-well modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(11), 1531–1533 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shellenbarger, Z. A.

H. Mohseni, H. An, Z. A. Shellenbarger, M. H. Kwakernaak, and J. H. Abeles, “Enhanced electro-optic effect in GaInAsP–InP three-step quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(11), 1823–1825 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stark, A.

J. S. Ahearn, M. H. Weiler, S. B. Adams, T. P. McElwain, A. Stark, L. DePaulis, A. L. Sarafinas, T. Hongsmatip, R. J. Martin, and B. Lane, “Multiple quantum well (MQW) spatial light modulators (SLMs) for optical data processing and beam steering,” Proc. SPIE4457, 43–53 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sugiyama, M.

H. Feng, J. P. Pang, M. Sugiyama, K. Tada, and Y. Nakano, “Field induced optical effect in a five-step asymmetric coupled quantum well with modified potential,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.34(7), 1197–1208 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Suite, M.

W. S. Rabinovich, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, L. Swingen, J. Murphy, M. Ferraro, J. H. Ray Burris, C. I. Moore, M. Suite, G. C. Gilbreath, S. Binari, and D. Klotzkin, “45-Mbit/s cat’s-eye modulating retroreflectors,” Opt. Eng.46(10), 104001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Susa, N.

N. Susa and T. Nakahara, “Design of AlGaAs/GaAs quantum well for electroabsorption modulator,” Solid-State Electron.36(9), 1277–1287 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Swingen, L.

W. S. Rabinovich, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, L. Swingen, J. Murphy, M. Ferraro, J. H. Ray Burris, C. I. Moore, M. Suite, G. C. Gilbreath, S. Binari, and D. Klotzkin, “45-Mbit/s cat’s-eye modulating retroreflectors,” Opt. Eng.46(10), 104001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tada, K.

H. Feng, J. P. Pang, M. Sugiyama, K. Tada, and Y. Nakano, “Field induced optical effect in a five-step asymmetric coupled quantum well with modified potential,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.34(7), 1197–1208 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chan and K. Tada, “Field induced optical effects in coupled quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.27(3), 702–707 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Van der Tempel, W.

J. Roels, W. Van der Tempel, D. Van Nieuwenhove, R. Grootjans, M. Kuijk, D. van Thourhout, and R. G. Baets, “Continuous time-of-flight ranging using a MEMS diffractive subwavelength period grating (de)modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(22), 1827–1829 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Van Nieuwenhove, D.

J. Roels, W. Van der Tempel, D. Van Nieuwenhove, R. Grootjans, M. Kuijk, D. van Thourhout, and R. G. Baets, “Continuous time-of-flight ranging using a MEMS diffractive subwavelength period grating (de)modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(22), 1827–1829 (2008).
[CrossRef]

van Thourhout, D.

J. Roels, W. Van der Tempel, D. Van Nieuwenhove, R. Grootjans, M. Kuijk, D. van Thourhout, and R. G. Baets, “Continuous time-of-flight ranging using a MEMS diffractive subwavelength period grating (de)modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(22), 1827–1829 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.

Weiler, M. H.

J. S. Ahearn, M. H. Weiler, S. B. Adams, T. P. McElwain, A. Stark, L. DePaulis, A. L. Sarafinas, T. Hongsmatip, R. J. Martin, and B. Lane, “Multiple quantum well (MQW) spatial light modulators (SLMs) for optical data processing and beam steering,” Proc. SPIE4457, 43–53 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Westergren, U.

Y. Yu, S. Karlsson, C. P. Liu, R. Schatz, U. Westergren, O. Kjebon, C. H. Chuang, and L. Sailing He, “Thylen, A. B. Krysa, J. S. Roberts, and A. J. Seeds, “Enhanced linear dynamic range of asymmetric Fabry–Perot modulator/detector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18, 770–772 (2006).

Wiegmann, W.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Bandedge electro-absorption in quantum well structures: the quantum confined Stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett.53(22), 2173–2176 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Wood, T. H.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Bandedge electro-absorption in quantum well structures: the quantum confined Stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett.53(22), 2173–2176 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Woodward, T.

T. Woodward, J. Cunningham, and W. Y. Jan, “Comparison of stepped‐well and square‐well multiple‐quantum‐well optical modulators,” J. Appl. Phys.78(3), 1411–1414 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Worchesky, T. L.

Xu, Z.

R. Schwarte, H.-G. Heinol, Z. Xu, and K. Hartmann, ““New active 3D vision system based on rf-modulation interferometry of incoherent light,” Photonics East-Intelligent Systems and Advanced Manufacturing,” Proc. SPIE2588, 126–134 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yan, R. H.

K. K. Law, R. H. Yan, J. L. Merz, and L. A. Coldren, “Normally-off high‐contrast asymmetric Fabry-Perot reflection modulator using Wannier-Stark localization in a superlattice,” Appl. Phys. Lett.56(19), 1886–1888 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Y.

Y. Yu, S. Karlsson, C. P. Liu, R. Schatz, U. Westergren, O. Kjebon, C. H. Chuang, and L. Sailing He, “Thylen, A. B. Krysa, J. S. Roberts, and A. J. Seeds, “Enhanced linear dynamic range of asymmetric Fabry–Perot modulator/detector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18, 770–772 (2006).

Zhang, S. Z.

Y. Chiu, S. Z. Zhang, V. Kaman, J. Piprek, and J. E. Bowers, “High-speed traveling-wave electro-absorption modulators,” Proc. SPIE4490, 1–10 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

K. Bacher, B. Pezeshki, S. M. Lord, and J. S. Harris, “Molecular beam epitaxy growth of vertical cavity optical devices with in situ corrections,” Appl. Phys. Lett.61(12), 1387–1389 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Law, R. H. Yan, J. L. Merz, and L. A. Coldren, “Normally-off high‐contrast asymmetric Fabry-Perot reflection modulator using Wannier-Stark localization in a superlattice,” Appl. Phys. Lett.56(19), 1886–1888 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. Mohseni, H. An, Z. A. Shellenbarger, M. H. Kwakernaak, and J. H. Abeles, “Enhanced electro-optic effect in GaInAsP–InP three-step quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(11), 1823–1825 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

Y. Chan and K. Tada, “Field induced optical effects in coupled quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.27(3), 702–707 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H. Feng, J. P. Pang, M. Sugiyama, K. Tada, and Y. Nakano, “Field induced optical effect in a five-step asymmetric coupled quantum well with modified potential,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.34(7), 1197–1208 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Lange and P. Seitz, “Solid-state time-of-flight range camera,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.37(3), 390–397 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

C. Amano, S. Matsuo, T. Kurokawa, and H. Iwamura, “20 dB contrast GaAs /AlGaAs multiple quantum-well nonresonant modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.4(1), 31–33 (1992).
[CrossRef]

U. Arad, E. Redmard, M. Shamay, A. Averboukh, S. Levit, and U. Efron, “Development of a large high performance 2-D array of GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum-well modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(11), 1531–1533 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Roels, W. Van der Tempel, D. Van Nieuwenhove, R. Grootjans, M. Kuijk, D. van Thourhout, and R. G. Baets, “Continuous time-of-flight ranging using a MEMS diffractive subwavelength period grating (de)modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(22), 1827–1829 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yu, S. Karlsson, C. P. Liu, R. Schatz, U. Westergren, O. Kjebon, C. H. Chuang, and L. Sailing He, “Thylen, A. B. Krysa, J. S. Roberts, and A. J. Seeds, “Enhanced linear dynamic range of asymmetric Fabry–Perot modulator/detector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18, 770–772 (2006).

Q. Wang, S. Junique, D. Ågren, B. Noharet, and J. Y. Andersson, “Fabry-Perot electroabsorption modulators for high-speed free-space optical communication,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(6), 1471–1473 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Goetz, W. S. Rabinovich, S. C. Binari, and J. A. Mittereder, “High-performance chirped electrode design for cat’s eye retro-reflector modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(21), 2278–2280 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

T. Woodward, J. Cunningham, and W. Y. Jan, “Comparison of stepped‐well and square‐well multiple‐quantum‐well optical modulators,” J. Appl. Phys.78(3), 1411–1414 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

H. Liu, C. C. Lin, and J. S. Harris, “High-speed, dual-function vertical cavity multiple quantum well modulators and photodetectors for optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng.40(7), 1186–1191 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Rabinovich, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, L. Swingen, J. Murphy, M. Ferraro, J. H. Ray Burris, C. I. Moore, M. Suite, G. C. Gilbreath, S. Binari, and D. Klotzkin, “45-Mbit/s cat’s-eye modulating retroreflectors,” Opt. Eng.46(10), 104001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. Lett.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Bandedge electro-absorption in quantum well structures: the quantum confined Stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett.53(22), 2173–2176 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

J. S. Ahearn, M. H. Weiler, S. B. Adams, T. P. McElwain, A. Stark, L. DePaulis, A. L. Sarafinas, T. Hongsmatip, R. J. Martin, and B. Lane, “Multiple quantum well (MQW) spatial light modulators (SLMs) for optical data processing and beam steering,” Proc. SPIE4457, 43–53 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Schwarte, H.-G. Heinol, Z. Xu, and K. Hartmann, ““New active 3D vision system based on rf-modulation interferometry of incoherent light,” Photonics East-Intelligent Systems and Advanced Manufacturing,” Proc. SPIE2588, 126–134 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chiu, S. Z. Zhang, V. Kaman, J. Piprek, and J. E. Bowers, “High-speed traveling-wave electro-absorption modulators,” Proc. SPIE4490, 1–10 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Solid-State Electron.

N. Susa and T. Nakahara, “Design of AlGaAs/GaAs quantum well for electroabsorption modulator,” Solid-State Electron.36(9), 1277–1287 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other

F. L. Pedrotti and L. S. Pedrotti, Introduction to Optics (Pearson Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 2007), Chap. 22.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) The schematic of AFPM with ATQWs structure as depicted (not to scale). (b) The calculated zero-field reflectivity for SQWs with different well thickness and ATQWs. The inset shows maximum reflectivity change of AFPM with ATQWs and various SQWs widths at 850nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated reflectivity modulation performance of AFPM with ATQWs and an 8nm SQWs design. The inset shows reflectivity change for each structure.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The measured reflectivity spectrum of fabricated AFPM with ATQWs for bias voltage ranging from 0 to 7.5V. The inset shows calculated and measured reflectivity spectra of ATQW AFPM at zero bias.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) The insertion loss variation with applied bias voltage at an operating wavelength of 850nm for AFPM with 7nm, 7.5nm, 8nm, and 8.5nm SQWs and ATQWs (b) reflectivity change at 850nm as a function of reverse bias voltage.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The normalized electro-optic (EO) response of AFPM with ATQWs for frequencies from 0.2MHz to 40MHz for a 2mm x 1mm pixel. The inset shows reflected optical power vs. time for 10MHz.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R T = R B e -2( α 7nmQW L 7nmQW + α 8.5nmQW L 8.5nmQW )

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