Abstract

We present a single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) with a wide spectral range fabricated in an advanced 180 nm CMOS process. The realized SPAD achieves 20 % photon detection probability (PDP) for wavelengths ranging from 440 nm to 820 nm at an excess bias of 4 V, with 30 % PDP at wavelengths from 520 nm to 720 nm. Dark count rates (DCR) are at most 5 kHz, which is 30 Hz/μm2, at an excess bias of 4V when we measure 10 μm diameter active area structure. Afterpulsing probability, timing jitter, and temperature effects on DCR are also presented.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. S. Cova, A. Longoni, and A. Andreoni, “Towards picosecond resolution with single-photon avalanche diodes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52(3), 408–412 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Niclass, C. Favi, T. Kluter, F. Monnier, and E. Charbon, “Single-photon synchronous detection,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuit 44(7), 1977–1989 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. J. Walker, J. A. Richardson, and R. K. Henderson, “A 128×96 pixel event-driven phase-domain-based fully digital 3D camera in 0.13μm CMOS imaging technology,” IEEE ISSCC Dig. Tech. Papers (2011), pp. 410–412.
  4. T. Frach, G. Prescher, C. Degenhardt, R. de Gruyter, A. Schmitz, R. Ballizany, and R., “The digital silicon photomultiplier — Principle of operation and intrinsic detector performance,” IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record (2009), p. N28–5.
  5. C. Veerappan, J. Richardson, R. Walker, D. U. Li, M. W. Fishburn, Y. Maruyama, D. Stoppa, F. Borghetti, M. Gersbach, R. K. Henderson, and E. Charbon, “A 160x128 single-photon image sensor with on-pixel 55ps 10b time-to-digital converter,”; IEEE ISSCC Dig. Tech. Papers (2011), pp. 312–314.
  6. A. Rochas, “Single photon avalanche diodes in CMOS technology,” Ph.D. dissertation (École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland, 2003).
  7. C. Niclass, C. Favi, T. Kluter, M. Gersbach, and E. Charbon, “A 128x128 single-photon image sensor with column-level 10-bit time-to-digital converter array,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43(12), 2977–2989 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Gersbach, J. Richardson, E. Mazaleyrat, S. Hardillier, C. Niclass, R. Henderson, L. Grant, and E. Charbon, “A low-noise single-photon detector implemented in a 130 nm CMOS imaging process,” Solid-State Electron. 53(7), 803–808 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. A. Richardson, L. A. Grant, and R. K. Henderson, “Low dark count single-photon avalanche diode structure compatible with standard nanometer scale CMOS technology,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(14), 1020–1022 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. A. Karami, M. Gersbach, H. J. Yoon, and E. Charbon, “A new single-photon avalanche diode in 90nm standard CMOS technology,” Opt. Express 18(21), 102–105 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. A. G. Webster, J. A. Richardson, L. A. Grant, D. Renshaw, and R. K. Henderson, “An infra-red sensitive, low noise, single-photon avalanche diode in 90nm CMOS,” International Image Sensors Workshop (IISW) (2011).
  12. P. Schwille, U. Haupts, S. Maiti, and W. W. Webb, “Molecular dynamics in living cells observed by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy with one-and two-photon excitation,” Biophys. J. 77, 2251–2265 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. http://www.perkinelmer.com/opto , SPCM-AQR series.
  14. M. W. Fishburn, Y. Maruyama, and E. Charbon, “Reduction of fixed-position noise in position-sensitive single-photon avalanche diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 58(8), 2354–2361 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  15. W. J. Kindt, “Geiger mode avalanche photodiode arrays,” Ph.D. dissertation (Delft Univ. Technol., Delft, The Netherlands, 1999).
  16. M. Ghioni, S. Cova, A. Lacaita, and G. Ripamonti, “New silicon epitaxial avalanche diode for single-photon timing at room temperature,” Electron. Lett. 24(24), 1476–1477 (1988).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (3)

R. J. Walker, J. A. Richardson, and R. K. Henderson, “A 128×96 pixel event-driven phase-domain-based fully digital 3D camera in 0.13μm CMOS imaging technology,” IEEE ISSCC Dig. Tech. Papers (2011), pp. 410–412.

C. Veerappan, J. Richardson, R. Walker, D. U. Li, M. W. Fishburn, Y. Maruyama, D. Stoppa, F. Borghetti, M. Gersbach, R. K. Henderson, and E. Charbon, “A 160x128 single-photon image sensor with on-pixel 55ps 10b time-to-digital converter,”; IEEE ISSCC Dig. Tech. Papers (2011), pp. 312–314.

M. W. Fishburn, Y. Maruyama, and E. Charbon, “Reduction of fixed-position noise in position-sensitive single-photon avalanche diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 58(8), 2354–2361 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2009 (3)

M. Gersbach, J. Richardson, E. Mazaleyrat, S. Hardillier, C. Niclass, R. Henderson, L. Grant, and E. Charbon, “A low-noise single-photon detector implemented in a 130 nm CMOS imaging process,” Solid-State Electron. 53(7), 803–808 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Richardson, L. A. Grant, and R. K. Henderson, “Low dark count single-photon avalanche diode structure compatible with standard nanometer scale CMOS technology,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(14), 1020–1022 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Niclass, C. Favi, T. Kluter, F. Monnier, and E. Charbon, “Single-photon synchronous detection,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuit 44(7), 1977–1989 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

C. Niclass, C. Favi, T. Kluter, M. Gersbach, and E. Charbon, “A 128x128 single-photon image sensor with column-level 10-bit time-to-digital converter array,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43(12), 2977–2989 (2008).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

P. Schwille, U. Haupts, S. Maiti, and W. W. Webb, “Molecular dynamics in living cells observed by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy with one-and two-photon excitation,” Biophys. J. 77, 2251–2265 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

M. Ghioni, S. Cova, A. Lacaita, and G. Ripamonti, “New silicon epitaxial avalanche diode for single-photon timing at room temperature,” Electron. Lett. 24(24), 1476–1477 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

S. Cova, A. Longoni, and A. Andreoni, “Towards picosecond resolution with single-photon avalanche diodes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52(3), 408–412 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Andreoni, A.

S. Cova, A. Longoni, and A. Andreoni, “Towards picosecond resolution with single-photon avalanche diodes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52(3), 408–412 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Ballizany, R.

T. Frach, G. Prescher, C. Degenhardt, R. de Gruyter, A. Schmitz, R. Ballizany, and R., “The digital silicon photomultiplier — Principle of operation and intrinsic detector performance,” IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record (2009), p. N28–5.

Borghetti, F.

C. Veerappan, J. Richardson, R. Walker, D. U. Li, M. W. Fishburn, Y. Maruyama, D. Stoppa, F. Borghetti, M. Gersbach, R. K. Henderson, and E. Charbon, “A 160x128 single-photon image sensor with on-pixel 55ps 10b time-to-digital converter,”; IEEE ISSCC Dig. Tech. Papers (2011), pp. 312–314.

Charbon, E.

C. Veerappan, J. Richardson, R. Walker, D. U. Li, M. W. Fishburn, Y. Maruyama, D. Stoppa, F. Borghetti, M. Gersbach, R. K. Henderson, and E. Charbon, “A 160x128 single-photon image sensor with on-pixel 55ps 10b time-to-digital converter,”; IEEE ISSCC Dig. Tech. Papers (2011), pp. 312–314.

M. W. Fishburn, Y. Maruyama, and E. Charbon, “Reduction of fixed-position noise in position-sensitive single-photon avalanche diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 58(8), 2354–2361 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Karami, M. Gersbach, H. J. Yoon, and E. Charbon, “A new single-photon avalanche diode in 90nm standard CMOS technology,” Opt. Express 18(21), 102–105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Gersbach, J. Richardson, E. Mazaleyrat, S. Hardillier, C. Niclass, R. Henderson, L. Grant, and E. Charbon, “A low-noise single-photon detector implemented in a 130 nm CMOS imaging process,” Solid-State Electron. 53(7), 803–808 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Niclass, C. Favi, T. Kluter, F. Monnier, and E. Charbon, “Single-photon synchronous detection,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuit 44(7), 1977–1989 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Niclass, C. Favi, T. Kluter, M. Gersbach, and E. Charbon, “A 128x128 single-photon image sensor with column-level 10-bit time-to-digital converter array,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43(12), 2977–2989 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cova, S.

M. Ghioni, S. Cova, A. Lacaita, and G. Ripamonti, “New silicon epitaxial avalanche diode for single-photon timing at room temperature,” Electron. Lett. 24(24), 1476–1477 (1988).
[CrossRef]

S. Cova, A. Longoni, and A. Andreoni, “Towards picosecond resolution with single-photon avalanche diodes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52(3), 408–412 (1981).
[CrossRef]

de Gruyter, R.

T. Frach, G. Prescher, C. Degenhardt, R. de Gruyter, A. Schmitz, R. Ballizany, and R., “The digital silicon photomultiplier — Principle of operation and intrinsic detector performance,” IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record (2009), p. N28–5.

Degenhardt, C.

T. Frach, G. Prescher, C. Degenhardt, R. de Gruyter, A. Schmitz, R. Ballizany, and R., “The digital silicon photomultiplier — Principle of operation and intrinsic detector performance,” IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record (2009), p. N28–5.

Favi, C.

C. Niclass, C. Favi, T. Kluter, F. Monnier, and E. Charbon, “Single-photon synchronous detection,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuit 44(7), 1977–1989 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Niclass, C. Favi, T. Kluter, M. Gersbach, and E. Charbon, “A 128x128 single-photon image sensor with column-level 10-bit time-to-digital converter array,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43(12), 2977–2989 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fishburn, M. W.

C. Veerappan, J. Richardson, R. Walker, D. U. Li, M. W. Fishburn, Y. Maruyama, D. Stoppa, F. Borghetti, M. Gersbach, R. K. Henderson, and E. Charbon, “A 160x128 single-photon image sensor with on-pixel 55ps 10b time-to-digital converter,”; IEEE ISSCC Dig. Tech. Papers (2011), pp. 312–314.

M. W. Fishburn, Y. Maruyama, and E. Charbon, “Reduction of fixed-position noise in position-sensitive single-photon avalanche diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 58(8), 2354–2361 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Frach, T.

T. Frach, G. Prescher, C. Degenhardt, R. de Gruyter, A. Schmitz, R. Ballizany, and R., “The digital silicon photomultiplier — Principle of operation and intrinsic detector performance,” IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record (2009), p. N28–5.

Gersbach, M.

C. Veerappan, J. Richardson, R. Walker, D. U. Li, M. W. Fishburn, Y. Maruyama, D. Stoppa, F. Borghetti, M. Gersbach, R. K. Henderson, and E. Charbon, “A 160x128 single-photon image sensor with on-pixel 55ps 10b time-to-digital converter,”; IEEE ISSCC Dig. Tech. Papers (2011), pp. 312–314.

M. A. Karami, M. Gersbach, H. J. Yoon, and E. Charbon, “A new single-photon avalanche diode in 90nm standard CMOS technology,” Opt. Express 18(21), 102–105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Gersbach, J. Richardson, E. Mazaleyrat, S. Hardillier, C. Niclass, R. Henderson, L. Grant, and E. Charbon, “A low-noise single-photon detector implemented in a 130 nm CMOS imaging process,” Solid-State Electron. 53(7), 803–808 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Niclass, C. Favi, T. Kluter, M. Gersbach, and E. Charbon, “A 128x128 single-photon image sensor with column-level 10-bit time-to-digital converter array,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43(12), 2977–2989 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ghioni, M.

M. Ghioni, S. Cova, A. Lacaita, and G. Ripamonti, “New silicon epitaxial avalanche diode for single-photon timing at room temperature,” Electron. Lett. 24(24), 1476–1477 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Grant, L.

M. Gersbach, J. Richardson, E. Mazaleyrat, S. Hardillier, C. Niclass, R. Henderson, L. Grant, and E. Charbon, “A low-noise single-photon detector implemented in a 130 nm CMOS imaging process,” Solid-State Electron. 53(7), 803–808 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Grant, L. A.

J. A. Richardson, L. A. Grant, and R. K. Henderson, “Low dark count single-photon avalanche diode structure compatible with standard nanometer scale CMOS technology,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(14), 1020–1022 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. A. G. Webster, J. A. Richardson, L. A. Grant, D. Renshaw, and R. K. Henderson, “An infra-red sensitive, low noise, single-photon avalanche diode in 90nm CMOS,” International Image Sensors Workshop (IISW) (2011).

Hardillier, S.

M. Gersbach, J. Richardson, E. Mazaleyrat, S. Hardillier, C. Niclass, R. Henderson, L. Grant, and E. Charbon, “A low-noise single-photon detector implemented in a 130 nm CMOS imaging process,” Solid-State Electron. 53(7), 803–808 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Haupts, U.

P. Schwille, U. Haupts, S. Maiti, and W. W. Webb, “Molecular dynamics in living cells observed by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy with one-and two-photon excitation,” Biophys. J. 77, 2251–2265 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henderson, R.

M. Gersbach, J. Richardson, E. Mazaleyrat, S. Hardillier, C. Niclass, R. Henderson, L. Grant, and E. Charbon, “A low-noise single-photon detector implemented in a 130 nm CMOS imaging process,” Solid-State Electron. 53(7), 803–808 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Henderson, R. K.

C. Veerappan, J. Richardson, R. Walker, D. U. Li, M. W. Fishburn, Y. Maruyama, D. Stoppa, F. Borghetti, M. Gersbach, R. K. Henderson, and E. Charbon, “A 160x128 single-photon image sensor with on-pixel 55ps 10b time-to-digital converter,”; IEEE ISSCC Dig. Tech. Papers (2011), pp. 312–314.

R. J. Walker, J. A. Richardson, and R. K. Henderson, “A 128×96 pixel event-driven phase-domain-based fully digital 3D camera in 0.13μm CMOS imaging technology,” IEEE ISSCC Dig. Tech. Papers (2011), pp. 410–412.

J. A. Richardson, L. A. Grant, and R. K. Henderson, “Low dark count single-photon avalanche diode structure compatible with standard nanometer scale CMOS technology,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(14), 1020–1022 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. A. G. Webster, J. A. Richardson, L. A. Grant, D. Renshaw, and R. K. Henderson, “An infra-red sensitive, low noise, single-photon avalanche diode in 90nm CMOS,” International Image Sensors Workshop (IISW) (2011).

Karami, M. A.

Kindt, W. J.

W. J. Kindt, “Geiger mode avalanche photodiode arrays,” Ph.D. dissertation (Delft Univ. Technol., Delft, The Netherlands, 1999).

Kluter, T.

C. Niclass, C. Favi, T. Kluter, F. Monnier, and E. Charbon, “Single-photon synchronous detection,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuit 44(7), 1977–1989 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Niclass, C. Favi, T. Kluter, M. Gersbach, and E. Charbon, “A 128x128 single-photon image sensor with column-level 10-bit time-to-digital converter array,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43(12), 2977–2989 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lacaita, A.

M. Ghioni, S. Cova, A. Lacaita, and G. Ripamonti, “New silicon epitaxial avalanche diode for single-photon timing at room temperature,” Electron. Lett. 24(24), 1476–1477 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Li, D. U.

C. Veerappan, J. Richardson, R. Walker, D. U. Li, M. W. Fishburn, Y. Maruyama, D. Stoppa, F. Borghetti, M. Gersbach, R. K. Henderson, and E. Charbon, “A 160x128 single-photon image sensor with on-pixel 55ps 10b time-to-digital converter,”; IEEE ISSCC Dig. Tech. Papers (2011), pp. 312–314.

Longoni, A.

S. Cova, A. Longoni, and A. Andreoni, “Towards picosecond resolution with single-photon avalanche diodes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52(3), 408–412 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Maiti, S.

P. Schwille, U. Haupts, S. Maiti, and W. W. Webb, “Molecular dynamics in living cells observed by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy with one-and two-photon excitation,” Biophys. J. 77, 2251–2265 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maruyama, Y.

M. W. Fishburn, Y. Maruyama, and E. Charbon, “Reduction of fixed-position noise in position-sensitive single-photon avalanche diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 58(8), 2354–2361 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Veerappan, J. Richardson, R. Walker, D. U. Li, M. W. Fishburn, Y. Maruyama, D. Stoppa, F. Borghetti, M. Gersbach, R. K. Henderson, and E. Charbon, “A 160x128 single-photon image sensor with on-pixel 55ps 10b time-to-digital converter,”; IEEE ISSCC Dig. Tech. Papers (2011), pp. 312–314.

Mazaleyrat, E.

M. Gersbach, J. Richardson, E. Mazaleyrat, S. Hardillier, C. Niclass, R. Henderson, L. Grant, and E. Charbon, “A low-noise single-photon detector implemented in a 130 nm CMOS imaging process,” Solid-State Electron. 53(7), 803–808 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Monnier, F.

C. Niclass, C. Favi, T. Kluter, F. Monnier, and E. Charbon, “Single-photon synchronous detection,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuit 44(7), 1977–1989 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Niclass, C.

C. Niclass, C. Favi, T. Kluter, F. Monnier, and E. Charbon, “Single-photon synchronous detection,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuit 44(7), 1977–1989 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Gersbach, J. Richardson, E. Mazaleyrat, S. Hardillier, C. Niclass, R. Henderson, L. Grant, and E. Charbon, “A low-noise single-photon detector implemented in a 130 nm CMOS imaging process,” Solid-State Electron. 53(7), 803–808 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Niclass, C. Favi, T. Kluter, M. Gersbach, and E. Charbon, “A 128x128 single-photon image sensor with column-level 10-bit time-to-digital converter array,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43(12), 2977–2989 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Prescher, G.

T. Frach, G. Prescher, C. Degenhardt, R. de Gruyter, A. Schmitz, R. Ballizany, and R., “The digital silicon photomultiplier — Principle of operation and intrinsic detector performance,” IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record (2009), p. N28–5.

R.,

T. Frach, G. Prescher, C. Degenhardt, R. de Gruyter, A. Schmitz, R. Ballizany, and R., “The digital silicon photomultiplier — Principle of operation and intrinsic detector performance,” IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record (2009), p. N28–5.

Renshaw, D.

E. A. G. Webster, J. A. Richardson, L. A. Grant, D. Renshaw, and R. K. Henderson, “An infra-red sensitive, low noise, single-photon avalanche diode in 90nm CMOS,” International Image Sensors Workshop (IISW) (2011).

Richardson, J.

C. Veerappan, J. Richardson, R. Walker, D. U. Li, M. W. Fishburn, Y. Maruyama, D. Stoppa, F. Borghetti, M. Gersbach, R. K. Henderson, and E. Charbon, “A 160x128 single-photon image sensor with on-pixel 55ps 10b time-to-digital converter,”; IEEE ISSCC Dig. Tech. Papers (2011), pp. 312–314.

M. Gersbach, J. Richardson, E. Mazaleyrat, S. Hardillier, C. Niclass, R. Henderson, L. Grant, and E. Charbon, “A low-noise single-photon detector implemented in a 130 nm CMOS imaging process,” Solid-State Electron. 53(7), 803–808 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, J. A.

R. J. Walker, J. A. Richardson, and R. K. Henderson, “A 128×96 pixel event-driven phase-domain-based fully digital 3D camera in 0.13μm CMOS imaging technology,” IEEE ISSCC Dig. Tech. Papers (2011), pp. 410–412.

J. A. Richardson, L. A. Grant, and R. K. Henderson, “Low dark count single-photon avalanche diode structure compatible with standard nanometer scale CMOS technology,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(14), 1020–1022 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. A. G. Webster, J. A. Richardson, L. A. Grant, D. Renshaw, and R. K. Henderson, “An infra-red sensitive, low noise, single-photon avalanche diode in 90nm CMOS,” International Image Sensors Workshop (IISW) (2011).

Ripamonti, G.

M. Ghioni, S. Cova, A. Lacaita, and G. Ripamonti, “New silicon epitaxial avalanche diode for single-photon timing at room temperature,” Electron. Lett. 24(24), 1476–1477 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Rochas, A.

A. Rochas, “Single photon avalanche diodes in CMOS technology,” Ph.D. dissertation (École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland, 2003).

Schmitz, A.

T. Frach, G. Prescher, C. Degenhardt, R. de Gruyter, A. Schmitz, R. Ballizany, and R., “The digital silicon photomultiplier — Principle of operation and intrinsic detector performance,” IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record (2009), p. N28–5.

Schwille, P.

P. Schwille, U. Haupts, S. Maiti, and W. W. Webb, “Molecular dynamics in living cells observed by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy with one-and two-photon excitation,” Biophys. J. 77, 2251–2265 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stoppa, D.

C. Veerappan, J. Richardson, R. Walker, D. U. Li, M. W. Fishburn, Y. Maruyama, D. Stoppa, F. Borghetti, M. Gersbach, R. K. Henderson, and E. Charbon, “A 160x128 single-photon image sensor with on-pixel 55ps 10b time-to-digital converter,”; IEEE ISSCC Dig. Tech. Papers (2011), pp. 312–314.

Veerappan, C.

C. Veerappan, J. Richardson, R. Walker, D. U. Li, M. W. Fishburn, Y. Maruyama, D. Stoppa, F. Borghetti, M. Gersbach, R. K. Henderson, and E. Charbon, “A 160x128 single-photon image sensor with on-pixel 55ps 10b time-to-digital converter,”; IEEE ISSCC Dig. Tech. Papers (2011), pp. 312–314.

Walker, R.

C. Veerappan, J. Richardson, R. Walker, D. U. Li, M. W. Fishburn, Y. Maruyama, D. Stoppa, F. Borghetti, M. Gersbach, R. K. Henderson, and E. Charbon, “A 160x128 single-photon image sensor with on-pixel 55ps 10b time-to-digital converter,”; IEEE ISSCC Dig. Tech. Papers (2011), pp. 312–314.

Walker, R. J.

R. J. Walker, J. A. Richardson, and R. K. Henderson, “A 128×96 pixel event-driven phase-domain-based fully digital 3D camera in 0.13μm CMOS imaging technology,” IEEE ISSCC Dig. Tech. Papers (2011), pp. 410–412.

Webb, W. W.

P. Schwille, U. Haupts, S. Maiti, and W. W. Webb, “Molecular dynamics in living cells observed by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy with one-and two-photon excitation,” Biophys. J. 77, 2251–2265 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webster, E. A. G.

E. A. G. Webster, J. A. Richardson, L. A. Grant, D. Renshaw, and R. K. Henderson, “An infra-red sensitive, low noise, single-photon avalanche diode in 90nm CMOS,” International Image Sensors Workshop (IISW) (2011).

Yoon, H. J.

Biophys. J. (1)

P. Schwille, U. Haupts, S. Maiti, and W. W. Webb, “Molecular dynamics in living cells observed by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy with one-and two-photon excitation,” Biophys. J. 77, 2251–2265 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. Ghioni, S. Cova, A. Lacaita, and G. Ripamonti, “New silicon epitaxial avalanche diode for single-photon timing at room temperature,” Electron. Lett. 24(24), 1476–1477 (1988).
[CrossRef]

IEEE ISSCC Dig. Tech. Papers (2)

R. J. Walker, J. A. Richardson, and R. K. Henderson, “A 128×96 pixel event-driven phase-domain-based fully digital 3D camera in 0.13μm CMOS imaging technology,” IEEE ISSCC Dig. Tech. Papers (2011), pp. 410–412.

C. Veerappan, J. Richardson, R. Walker, D. U. Li, M. W. Fishburn, Y. Maruyama, D. Stoppa, F. Borghetti, M. Gersbach, R. K. Henderson, and E. Charbon, “A 160x128 single-photon image sensor with on-pixel 55ps 10b time-to-digital converter,”; IEEE ISSCC Dig. Tech. Papers (2011), pp. 312–314.

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuit (1)

C. Niclass, C. Favi, T. Kluter, F. Monnier, and E. Charbon, “Single-photon synchronous detection,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuit 44(7), 1977–1989 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (1)

C. Niclass, C. Favi, T. Kluter, M. Gersbach, and E. Charbon, “A 128x128 single-photon image sensor with column-level 10-bit time-to-digital converter array,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43(12), 2977–2989 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. A. Richardson, L. A. Grant, and R. K. Henderson, “Low dark count single-photon avalanche diode structure compatible with standard nanometer scale CMOS technology,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(14), 1020–1022 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices (1)

M. W. Fishburn, Y. Maruyama, and E. Charbon, “Reduction of fixed-position noise in position-sensitive single-photon avalanche diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 58(8), 2354–2361 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

S. Cova, A. Longoni, and A. Andreoni, “Towards picosecond resolution with single-photon avalanche diodes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52(3), 408–412 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Solid-State Electron. (1)

M. Gersbach, J. Richardson, E. Mazaleyrat, S. Hardillier, C. Niclass, R. Henderson, L. Grant, and E. Charbon, “A low-noise single-photon detector implemented in a 130 nm CMOS imaging process,” Solid-State Electron. 53(7), 803–808 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

A. Rochas, “Single photon avalanche diodes in CMOS technology,” Ph.D. dissertation (École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland, 2003).

T. Frach, G. Prescher, C. Degenhardt, R. de Gruyter, A. Schmitz, R. Ballizany, and R., “The digital silicon photomultiplier — Principle of operation and intrinsic detector performance,” IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record (2009), p. N28–5.

W. J. Kindt, “Geiger mode avalanche photodiode arrays,” Ph.D. dissertation (Delft Univ. Technol., Delft, The Netherlands, 1999).

E. A. G. Webster, J. A. Richardson, L. A. Grant, D. Renshaw, and R. K. Henderson, “An infra-red sensitive, low noise, single-photon avalanche diode in 90nm CMOS,” International Image Sensors Workshop (IISW) (2011).

http://www.perkinelmer.com/opto , SPCM-AQR series.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Active area structure excluding guard ring region: (a) Conventional blue or green sensitive SPAD structure. (b) Infra-red sensitive structure. (c) Wide spectral structure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) SPAD strucuture. (b) Simulation result of electrical fields. (c) Measurement setup.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

DCR measurement results of 10μm diameter SPADs: (a) Excess bias dependence. (b) Temperature dependence.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

PDP measurements from a 10 μm diameter SPAD: (a) Light-emission test. (b) PDP results.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Counts in each inter-avalanche time. (b) Afterpulsing probability.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Timing response: (a) Measurement setup. (b) Timing response for a 405nm of wavelength. (c) Timing response for a 790nm of wavelength.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Performance Summary and Comparison

Metrics