Abstract

The achievable spatial resolution and the contrast transfer function (CTF) are key parameters characterizing an X-ray microscope. We measured the spatial resolution and the contrast transfer function of the transmission X-ray microscope (TXM) at the electron storage ring BESSY II. The TXM uses the radiation of an undulator source and operates under partially coherent illumination conditions. For spatial resolutions down to 25 nm, our measurements of the CTF’s are in good agreement with theoretical CTF data for partial coherence. With higher resolution zone plate objectives, we measured a spatial resolution (half-pitch) of 11 nm in 1st and 3rd order of diffraction. However, with these objectives the stray light level increases significantly.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on X-ray Microscopy, ed. I. McNulty, C. Eyberger, B. Lai, AIP Conference Proceedings 1365 (2011).
  2. A. Sakdinawat and D. Attwood, “Nanoscale X-ray imaging,” Nat. Photonics4(12), 840–848 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Weiß, G. Schneider, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, “Computed tomography of cryogenic biological specimens based on X-ray microscopic images,” Ultramicroscopy84(3-4), 185–197 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. G. Schneider, P. Guttmann, S. Heim, S. Rehbein, F. Mueller, K. Nagashima, J. B. Heymann, W. G. Müller, and J. G. McNally, “Three-dimensional cellular ultrastructure resolved by X-ray microscopy,” Nat. Methods7(12), 985–987 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. G. McDermott, M. A. Le Gros, C. G. Knoechel, M. Uchida, and C. A. Larabell, “Soft X-ray tomography and cryogenic light microscopy: the cool combination in cellular imaging,” Trends Cell Biol.19(11), 587–595 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. P. Guttmann, C. Bittencourt, S. Rehbein, P. Umek, X. Ke, G. Van Tendeloo, C. P. Ewels, and G. Schneider, “Nanoscale spectroscopy with polarized X-rays by NEXAFS-TXM,” Nat. Photon. DOI: 10.1038/NPHOTON.2011.268 (2011).
  7. C. Jacobsen, S. Wirick, G. Flynn, and C. Zimba, “Soft x-ray spectroscopy from image sequences with sub-100 nm spatial resolution,” J. Microsc.197(2), 173–184 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. W. Chao, J. Kim, S. Rekawa, P. Fischer, and E. H. Anderson, “Demonstration of 12 nm resolution Fresnel zone plate lens based soft x-ray microscopy,” Opt. Express17(20), 17669–17677 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. Rehbein, S. Heim, P. Guttmann, S. Werner, and G. Schneider, “Ultrahigh-resolution soft-x-ray microscopy with zone plates in high orders of diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(11), 110801 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maaßdorf, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Advanced thin film technology for ultrahigh resolution X-ray microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy109(11), 1360–1364 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. G. Schneider, “Cryo X-ray microscopy with high spatial resolution in amplitude and phase contrast,” Ultramicroscopy75(2), 85–104 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. P. Guttmann, X. Zheng, M. Feser, S. Heim, W. Yun, and G. Schneider, “Ellipsoidal capillary condenser for the BESSY full-field x-ray microscope” J. Phys.: Conf Series 186 2 012064,1–3 (2009).
  14. R. Heintzmann, “Band-limit and appropriate sampling in microscopy” in Cell Biology: A Laboratory Handbook, Vol. 3. ed. C. Julio (Elsevier Academic Press), pp. 29–36 (2006).
  15. D. Attwood, Soft X-rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation: Principles and Applications (Cambridge University Press, 1999)
  16. M. Bertilson, O. von Hofsten, H. M. Hertz, and U. Vogt, “Numerical model for tomographic image formation in transmission x-ray microscopy,” Opt. Express19(12), 11578–11583 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

S. Rehbein, P. Guttmann, S. Werner, G. Schneider, I. McNulty, C. Eyberger, and B. Lai, “Soft X-ray microscopy at HZB: Zone Plate Development and Imaging Using the Third Order of Diffraction,” AIP Conf. Proc.1365, 32–37 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Bertilson, O. von Hofsten, H. M. Hertz, and U. Vogt, “Numerical model for tomographic image formation in transmission x-ray microscopy,” Opt. Express19(12), 11578–11583 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

A. Sakdinawat and D. Attwood, “Nanoscale X-ray imaging,” Nat. Photonics4(12), 840–848 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Schneider, P. Guttmann, S. Heim, S. Rehbein, F. Mueller, K. Nagashima, J. B. Heymann, W. G. Müller, and J. G. McNally, “Three-dimensional cellular ultrastructure resolved by X-ray microscopy,” Nat. Methods7(12), 985–987 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

G. McDermott, M. A. Le Gros, C. G. Knoechel, M. Uchida, and C. A. Larabell, “Soft X-ray tomography and cryogenic light microscopy: the cool combination in cellular imaging,” Trends Cell Biol.19(11), 587–595 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Chao, J. Kim, S. Rekawa, P. Fischer, and E. H. Anderson, “Demonstration of 12 nm resolution Fresnel zone plate lens based soft x-ray microscopy,” Opt. Express17(20), 17669–17677 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Rehbein, S. Heim, P. Guttmann, S. Werner, and G. Schneider, “Ultrahigh-resolution soft-x-ray microscopy with zone plates in high orders of diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(11), 110801 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maaßdorf, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Advanced thin film technology for ultrahigh resolution X-ray microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy109(11), 1360–1364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

C. Jacobsen, S. Wirick, G. Flynn, and C. Zimba, “Soft x-ray spectroscopy from image sequences with sub-100 nm spatial resolution,” J. Microsc.197(2), 173–184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Weiß, G. Schneider, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, “Computed tomography of cryogenic biological specimens based on X-ray microscopic images,” Ultramicroscopy84(3-4), 185–197 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

G. Schneider, “Cryo X-ray microscopy with high spatial resolution in amplitude and phase contrast,” Ultramicroscopy75(2), 85–104 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, E. H.

Attwood, D.

A. Sakdinawat and D. Attwood, “Nanoscale X-ray imaging,” Nat. Photonics4(12), 840–848 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bertilson, M.

Chao, W.

David, C.

J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maaßdorf, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Advanced thin film technology for ultrahigh resolution X-ray microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy109(11), 1360–1364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eyberger, C.

S. Rehbein, P. Guttmann, S. Werner, G. Schneider, I. McNulty, C. Eyberger, and B. Lai, “Soft X-ray microscopy at HZB: Zone Plate Development and Imaging Using the Third Order of Diffraction,” AIP Conf. Proc.1365, 32–37 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fink, R. H.

J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maaßdorf, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Advanced thin film technology for ultrahigh resolution X-ray microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy109(11), 1360–1364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, P.

Flynn, G.

C. Jacobsen, S. Wirick, G. Flynn, and C. Zimba, “Soft x-ray spectroscopy from image sequences with sub-100 nm spatial resolution,” J. Microsc.197(2), 173–184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guttmann, P.

S. Rehbein, P. Guttmann, S. Werner, G. Schneider, I. McNulty, C. Eyberger, and B. Lai, “Soft X-ray microscopy at HZB: Zone Plate Development and Imaging Using the Third Order of Diffraction,” AIP Conf. Proc.1365, 32–37 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Schneider, P. Guttmann, S. Heim, S. Rehbein, F. Mueller, K. Nagashima, J. B. Heymann, W. G. Müller, and J. G. McNally, “Three-dimensional cellular ultrastructure resolved by X-ray microscopy,” Nat. Methods7(12), 985–987 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Rehbein, S. Heim, P. Guttmann, S. Werner, and G. Schneider, “Ultrahigh-resolution soft-x-ray microscopy with zone plates in high orders of diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(11), 110801 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Weiß, G. Schneider, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, “Computed tomography of cryogenic biological specimens based on X-ray microscopic images,” Ultramicroscopy84(3-4), 185–197 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heim, S.

G. Schneider, P. Guttmann, S. Heim, S. Rehbein, F. Mueller, K. Nagashima, J. B. Heymann, W. G. Müller, and J. G. McNally, “Three-dimensional cellular ultrastructure resolved by X-ray microscopy,” Nat. Methods7(12), 985–987 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Rehbein, S. Heim, P. Guttmann, S. Werner, and G. Schneider, “Ultrahigh-resolution soft-x-ray microscopy with zone plates in high orders of diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(11), 110801 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hertz, H. M.

Heymann, J. B.

G. Schneider, P. Guttmann, S. Heim, S. Rehbein, F. Mueller, K. Nagashima, J. B. Heymann, W. G. Müller, and J. G. McNally, “Three-dimensional cellular ultrastructure resolved by X-ray microscopy,” Nat. Methods7(12), 985–987 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacobsen, C.

C. Jacobsen, S. Wirick, G. Flynn, and C. Zimba, “Soft x-ray spectroscopy from image sequences with sub-100 nm spatial resolution,” J. Microsc.197(2), 173–184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jefimovs, K.

J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maaßdorf, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Advanced thin film technology for ultrahigh resolution X-ray microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy109(11), 1360–1364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

Knoechel, C. G.

G. McDermott, M. A. Le Gros, C. G. Knoechel, M. Uchida, and C. A. Larabell, “Soft X-ray tomography and cryogenic light microscopy: the cool combination in cellular imaging,” Trends Cell Biol.19(11), 587–595 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lai, B.

S. Rehbein, P. Guttmann, S. Werner, G. Schneider, I. McNulty, C. Eyberger, and B. Lai, “Soft X-ray microscopy at HZB: Zone Plate Development and Imaging Using the Third Order of Diffraction,” AIP Conf. Proc.1365, 32–37 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Larabell, C. A.

G. McDermott, M. A. Le Gros, C. G. Knoechel, M. Uchida, and C. A. Larabell, “Soft X-ray tomography and cryogenic light microscopy: the cool combination in cellular imaging,” Trends Cell Biol.19(11), 587–595 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Le Gros, M. A.

G. McDermott, M. A. Le Gros, C. G. Knoechel, M. Uchida, and C. A. Larabell, “Soft X-ray tomography and cryogenic light microscopy: the cool combination in cellular imaging,” Trends Cell Biol.19(11), 587–595 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maaßdorf, A.

J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maaßdorf, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Advanced thin film technology for ultrahigh resolution X-ray microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy109(11), 1360–1364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McDermott, G.

G. McDermott, M. A. Le Gros, C. G. Knoechel, M. Uchida, and C. A. Larabell, “Soft X-ray tomography and cryogenic light microscopy: the cool combination in cellular imaging,” Trends Cell Biol.19(11), 587–595 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McNally, J. G.

G. Schneider, P. Guttmann, S. Heim, S. Rehbein, F. Mueller, K. Nagashima, J. B. Heymann, W. G. Müller, and J. G. McNally, “Three-dimensional cellular ultrastructure resolved by X-ray microscopy,” Nat. Methods7(12), 985–987 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McNulty, I.

S. Rehbein, P. Guttmann, S. Werner, G. Schneider, I. McNulty, C. Eyberger, and B. Lai, “Soft X-ray microscopy at HZB: Zone Plate Development and Imaging Using the Third Order of Diffraction,” AIP Conf. Proc.1365, 32–37 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, F.

G. Schneider, P. Guttmann, S. Heim, S. Rehbein, F. Mueller, K. Nagashima, J. B. Heymann, W. G. Müller, and J. G. McNally, “Three-dimensional cellular ultrastructure resolved by X-ray microscopy,” Nat. Methods7(12), 985–987 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Müller, W. G.

G. Schneider, P. Guttmann, S. Heim, S. Rehbein, F. Mueller, K. Nagashima, J. B. Heymann, W. G. Müller, and J. G. McNally, “Three-dimensional cellular ultrastructure resolved by X-ray microscopy,” Nat. Methods7(12), 985–987 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nagashima, K.

G. Schneider, P. Guttmann, S. Heim, S. Rehbein, F. Mueller, K. Nagashima, J. B. Heymann, W. G. Müller, and J. G. McNally, “Three-dimensional cellular ultrastructure resolved by X-ray microscopy,” Nat. Methods7(12), 985–987 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niemann, B.

D. Weiß, G. Schneider, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, “Computed tomography of cryogenic biological specimens based on X-ray microscopic images,” Ultramicroscopy84(3-4), 185–197 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pilvi, T.

J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maaßdorf, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Advanced thin film technology for ultrahigh resolution X-ray microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy109(11), 1360–1364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raabe, J.

J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maaßdorf, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Advanced thin film technology for ultrahigh resolution X-ray microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy109(11), 1360–1364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rehbein, S.

S. Rehbein, P. Guttmann, S. Werner, G. Schneider, I. McNulty, C. Eyberger, and B. Lai, “Soft X-ray microscopy at HZB: Zone Plate Development and Imaging Using the Third Order of Diffraction,” AIP Conf. Proc.1365, 32–37 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Schneider, P. Guttmann, S. Heim, S. Rehbein, F. Mueller, K. Nagashima, J. B. Heymann, W. G. Müller, and J. G. McNally, “Three-dimensional cellular ultrastructure resolved by X-ray microscopy,” Nat. Methods7(12), 985–987 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Rehbein, S. Heim, P. Guttmann, S. Werner, and G. Schneider, “Ultrahigh-resolution soft-x-ray microscopy with zone plates in high orders of diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(11), 110801 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rekawa, S.

Ritala, M.

J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maaßdorf, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Advanced thin film technology for ultrahigh resolution X-ray microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy109(11), 1360–1364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rudolph, D.

D. Weiß, G. Schneider, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, “Computed tomography of cryogenic biological specimens based on X-ray microscopic images,” Ultramicroscopy84(3-4), 185–197 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakdinawat, A.

A. Sakdinawat and D. Attwood, “Nanoscale X-ray imaging,” Nat. Photonics4(12), 840–848 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schmahl, G.

D. Weiß, G. Schneider, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, “Computed tomography of cryogenic biological specimens based on X-ray microscopic images,” Ultramicroscopy84(3-4), 185–197 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schneider, G.

S. Rehbein, P. Guttmann, S. Werner, G. Schneider, I. McNulty, C. Eyberger, and B. Lai, “Soft X-ray microscopy at HZB: Zone Plate Development and Imaging Using the Third Order of Diffraction,” AIP Conf. Proc.1365, 32–37 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Schneider, P. Guttmann, S. Heim, S. Rehbein, F. Mueller, K. Nagashima, J. B. Heymann, W. G. Müller, and J. G. McNally, “Three-dimensional cellular ultrastructure resolved by X-ray microscopy,” Nat. Methods7(12), 985–987 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Rehbein, S. Heim, P. Guttmann, S. Werner, and G. Schneider, “Ultrahigh-resolution soft-x-ray microscopy with zone plates in high orders of diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(11), 110801 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Weiß, G. Schneider, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, “Computed tomography of cryogenic biological specimens based on X-ray microscopic images,” Ultramicroscopy84(3-4), 185–197 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Schneider, “Cryo X-ray microscopy with high spatial resolution in amplitude and phase contrast,” Ultramicroscopy75(2), 85–104 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Senoner, M.

J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maaßdorf, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Advanced thin film technology for ultrahigh resolution X-ray microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy109(11), 1360–1364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uchida, M.

G. McDermott, M. A. Le Gros, C. G. Knoechel, M. Uchida, and C. A. Larabell, “Soft X-ray tomography and cryogenic light microscopy: the cool combination in cellular imaging,” Trends Cell Biol.19(11), 587–595 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vila-Comamala, J.

J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maaßdorf, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Advanced thin film technology for ultrahigh resolution X-ray microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy109(11), 1360–1364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vogt, U.

von Hofsten, O.

Weiß, D.

D. Weiß, G. Schneider, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, “Computed tomography of cryogenic biological specimens based on X-ray microscopic images,” Ultramicroscopy84(3-4), 185–197 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Werner, S.

S. Rehbein, P. Guttmann, S. Werner, G. Schneider, I. McNulty, C. Eyberger, and B. Lai, “Soft X-ray microscopy at HZB: Zone Plate Development and Imaging Using the Third Order of Diffraction,” AIP Conf. Proc.1365, 32–37 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Rehbein, S. Heim, P. Guttmann, S. Werner, and G. Schneider, “Ultrahigh-resolution soft-x-ray microscopy with zone plates in high orders of diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(11), 110801 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wirick, S.

C. Jacobsen, S. Wirick, G. Flynn, and C. Zimba, “Soft x-ray spectroscopy from image sequences with sub-100 nm spatial resolution,” J. Microsc.197(2), 173–184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zimba, C.

C. Jacobsen, S. Wirick, G. Flynn, and C. Zimba, “Soft x-ray spectroscopy from image sequences with sub-100 nm spatial resolution,” J. Microsc.197(2), 173–184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

AIP Conf. Proc.

S. Rehbein, P. Guttmann, S. Werner, G. Schneider, I. McNulty, C. Eyberger, and B. Lai, “Soft X-ray microscopy at HZB: Zone Plate Development and Imaging Using the Third Order of Diffraction,” AIP Conf. Proc.1365, 32–37 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc.

C. Jacobsen, S. Wirick, G. Flynn, and C. Zimba, “Soft x-ray spectroscopy from image sequences with sub-100 nm spatial resolution,” J. Microsc.197(2), 173–184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Methods

G. Schneider, P. Guttmann, S. Heim, S. Rehbein, F. Mueller, K. Nagashima, J. B. Heymann, W. G. Müller, and J. G. McNally, “Three-dimensional cellular ultrastructure resolved by X-ray microscopy,” Nat. Methods7(12), 985–987 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics

A. Sakdinawat and D. Attwood, “Nanoscale X-ray imaging,” Nat. Photonics4(12), 840–848 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. Lett.

S. Rehbein, S. Heim, P. Guttmann, S. Werner, and G. Schneider, “Ultrahigh-resolution soft-x-ray microscopy with zone plates in high orders of diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(11), 110801 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trends Cell Biol.

G. McDermott, M. A. Le Gros, C. G. Knoechel, M. Uchida, and C. A. Larabell, “Soft X-ray tomography and cryogenic light microscopy: the cool combination in cellular imaging,” Trends Cell Biol.19(11), 587–595 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ultramicroscopy

D. Weiß, G. Schneider, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, “Computed tomography of cryogenic biological specimens based on X-ray microscopic images,” Ultramicroscopy84(3-4), 185–197 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maaßdorf, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Advanced thin film technology for ultrahigh resolution X-ray microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy109(11), 1360–1364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Schneider, “Cryo X-ray microscopy with high spatial resolution in amplitude and phase contrast,” Ultramicroscopy75(2), 85–104 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

P. Guttmann, C. Bittencourt, S. Rehbein, P. Umek, X. Ke, G. Van Tendeloo, C. P. Ewels, and G. Schneider, “Nanoscale spectroscopy with polarized X-rays by NEXAFS-TXM,” Nat. Photon. DOI: 10.1038/NPHOTON.2011.268 (2011).

Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on X-ray Microscopy, ed. I. McNulty, C. Eyberger, B. Lai, AIP Conference Proceedings 1365 (2011).

P. Guttmann, X. Zheng, M. Feser, S. Heim, W. Yun, and G. Schneider, “Ellipsoidal capillary condenser for the BESSY full-field x-ray microscope” J. Phys.: Conf Series 186 2 012064,1–3 (2009).

R. Heintzmann, “Band-limit and appropriate sampling in microscopy” in Cell Biology: A Laboratory Handbook, Vol. 3. ed. C. Julio (Elsevier Academic Press), pp. 29–36 (2006).

D. Attwood, Soft X-rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation: Principles and Applications (Cambridge University Press, 1999)

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