Abstract

We demonstrate spectral filtering with state-of-the-art Bragg gratings in plasmonic V-groove waveguides fabricated by wafer scale processing based on nanoimprint lithography. Transmission spectra of the devices having 16 grating periods exhibit spectral rejection of the channel plasmon polaritons with 8.2 dB extinction ratio and −3 dB bandwidth of Δλ = 39.9 nm near telecommunications wavelengths. Near-field scanning optical microscopy measurements verify spectral reflection from the grating structures, and the oscillations of propagating modes along grating-less V-grooves correspond well with effective refractive index values calculated by finite element simulations in COMSOL. The results represent advancement towards the implementation of plasmonic V-grooves with greater functional complexity and mass-production compatibility.

© 2012 OSA

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2011 (1)

2010 (4)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi and K. V. Nerkararyan, “Adiabatic nanofocusing of channel plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Lett. 35(4), 541–543 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Goykhman, B. Desiatov, and U. Levy, “Experimental demonstration of locally oxidized hybrid silicon-plasmonic waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(14), 141106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics 4(2), 83–91 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Schleunitz and H. Schift, “Fabrication of 3D nanoimprint stamps with continuous reliefs using dose-modulated electron beam lithography and thermal reflow,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 20(9), 095002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

I. Fernandez-Cuesta, R. B. Nielsen, A. Boltasseva, X. Borrise, F. Perez-Murano, and A. Kristensen, “Excitation of fluorescent nanoparticles by channel plasmon polaritons propagating in V-grooves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 203102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi and K. V. Nerkararyan, “Analytic description of channel plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Lett. 34(13), 2039–2041 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Choi, D. F. P. Pile, S. Nam, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Compressing surface plasmons for nano-scale optical focusing,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7519–7524 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Nanofocusing with channel plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1278–1282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (8)

K. C. Vernon, D. K. Gramotnev, and D. F. P. Pile, “Channel plasmon-polariton modes in V grooves filled with dielectric,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(3), 034304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi and J. Jung, “Scaling for gap plasmon based waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2676–2684 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Arbel and M. Orenstein, “Plasmonic modes in W-shaped metal-coated silicon grooves,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3114–3119 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. B. Nielsen, I. Fernandez-Cuesta, A. Boltasseva, V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. Klukowska, and A. Kristensen, “Channel plasmon polariton propagation in nanoimprinted V-groove waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 33(23), 2800–2802 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Verhagen, A. Polman, and L. K. Kuipers, “Nanofocusing in laterally tapered plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(1), 45–57 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, P. Bolger, and A. V. Zayats, “Efficient excitation of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguide modes at telecommunication wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. B 78(16), 165431 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, C. Genet, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface-plasmon circuitry,” Phys. Today 61(5), 44–50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (5)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channelling surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 89(2), 225–231 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Lal, S. Link, and N. J. Halas, “Nano-optics from sensing to waveguiding,” Nat. Photonics 1(11), 641–648 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Wavelength selective nanophotonic components utilizing channel plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 880–884 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. J. Guo, “Nanoimprint lithography: Methods and material requirements,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 19(4), 495–513 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Fernandez-Cuesta, R. B. Nielsen, A. Boltasseva, X. Borrise, F. Perez-Murano, and A. Kristensen, “V-groove plasmonic waveguides fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(6), 2649–2653 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (5)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Effective-index modeling of channel plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9467–9476 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Channel plasmon-polaritons: modal shape, dispersion, and losses,” Opt. Lett. 31(23), 3447–3449 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, and M. L. Brongersma, “Near-field characterization of guided polariton propagation and cutoff in surface plasmon waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 74(16), 165415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

S. Lin, M. Li, E. Dujardin, C. Girard, and S. Mann, “One-dimensional plasmon coupling by facile self-assembly of gold nanoparticles into branched chain networks,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 17(21), 2553–2559 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(4), 046802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. F. Pile and D. K. Gramotnev, “Plasmonic subwavelength waveguides: next to zero losses at sharp bends,” Opt. Lett. 30(10), 1186–1188 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jetté-Charbonneau, R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, G. Mattiussi, and P. Berini, “Demonstration of Bragg gratings based on long-ranging surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4674–4682 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

I. R. Hooper and J. R. Sambles, “Coupled surface plasmon polaritons on thin metal slabs corrugated on both surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 70(4), 045421 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Gramotnev and D. F. P. Pile, “Single-mode subwavelength waveguide with channel plasmon-polaritons in triangular grooves on a metal surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(26), 6323–6325 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. F. P. Pile and D. K. Gramotnev, “Channel plasmon-polariton in a triangular groove on a metal surface,” Opt. Lett. 29(10), 1069–1071 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater. 2(4), 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Non diffraction-limited light transport by gold nanowires,” Europhys. Lett. 60(5), 663–669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. V. Novikov and A. A. Maradudin, “Channel polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B 66(3), 035403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1995 (1)

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Imprint of Sub-25 Nm Vias and Trenches in Polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(21), 3114–3116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

E. N. Economou, “Surface Plasmons in thin films,” Phys. Rev. 182(2), 539–554 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Arbel, D.

Atwater, H. A.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater. 2(4), 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aussenegg, F. R.

J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Non diffraction-limited light transport by gold nanowires,” Europhys. Lett. 60(5), 663–669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Quinten, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Electromagnetic energy transport via linear chains of silver nanoparticles,” Opt. Lett. 23(17), 1331–1333 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartal, G.

Berini, P.

Bolger, P.

T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, P. Bolger, and A. V. Zayats, “Efficient excitation of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguide modes at telecommunication wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. B 78(16), 165431 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Boltasseva, A.

I. Fernandez-Cuesta, R. B. Nielsen, A. Boltasseva, X. Borrise, F. Perez-Murano, and A. Kristensen, “Excitation of fluorescent nanoparticles by channel plasmon polaritons propagating in V-grooves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 203102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Nielsen, I. Fernandez-Cuesta, A. Boltasseva, V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. Klukowska, and A. Kristensen, “Channel plasmon polariton propagation in nanoimprinted V-groove waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 33(23), 2800–2802 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Fernandez-Cuesta, R. B. Nielsen, A. Boltasseva, X. Borrise, F. Perez-Murano, and A. Kristensen, “V-groove plasmonic waveguides fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(6), 2649–2653 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Borrise, X.

I. Fernandez-Cuesta, R. B. Nielsen, A. Boltasseva, X. Borrise, F. Perez-Murano, and A. Kristensen, “Excitation of fluorescent nanoparticles by channel plasmon polaritons propagating in V-grooves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 203102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Fernandez-Cuesta, R. B. Nielsen, A. Boltasseva, X. Borrise, F. Perez-Murano, and A. Kristensen, “V-groove plasmonic waveguides fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(6), 2649–2653 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

V. A. Zenin, V. S. Volkov, Z. Han, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Dispersion of strongly confined channel plasmon polariton modes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(7), 1596–1602 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi and K. V. Nerkararyan, “Adiabatic nanofocusing of channel plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Lett. 35(4), 541–543 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics 4(2), 83–91 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Nanofocusing with channel plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1278–1282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi and K. V. Nerkararyan, “Analytic description of channel plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Lett. 34(13), 2039–2041 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi and J. Jung, “Scaling for gap plasmon based waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2676–2684 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. B. Nielsen, I. Fernandez-Cuesta, A. Boltasseva, V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. Klukowska, and A. Kristensen, “Channel plasmon polariton propagation in nanoimprinted V-groove waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 33(23), 2800–2802 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, P. Bolger, and A. V. Zayats, “Efficient excitation of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguide modes at telecommunication wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. B 78(16), 165431 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, C. Genet, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface-plasmon circuitry,” Phys. Today 61(5), 44–50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channelling surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 89(2), 225–231 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Wavelength selective nanophotonic components utilizing channel plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 880–884 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Effective-index modeling of channel plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9467–9476 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Channel plasmon-polaritons: modal shape, dispersion, and losses,” Opt. Lett. 31(23), 3447–3449 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(4), 046802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, and M. L. Brongersma, “Near-field characterization of guided polariton propagation and cutoff in surface plasmon waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 74(16), 165415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Charbonneau, R.

Choi, H.

Chou, S. Y.

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Imprint of Sub-25 Nm Vias and Trenches in Polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(21), 3114–3116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dereux, A.

T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, P. Bolger, and A. V. Zayats, “Efficient excitation of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguide modes at telecommunication wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. B 78(16), 165431 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Desiatov, B.

I. Goykhman, B. Desiatov, and U. Levy, “Experimental demonstration of locally oxidized hybrid silicon-plasmonic waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(14), 141106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Devaux, E.

V. A. Zenin, V. S. Volkov, Z. Han, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Dispersion of strongly confined channel plasmon polariton modes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(7), 1596–1602 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Nanofocusing with channel plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1278–1282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Wavelength selective nanophotonic components utilizing channel plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 880–884 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channelling surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 89(2), 225–231 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(4), 046802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ditlbacher, H.

J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Non diffraction-limited light transport by gold nanowires,” Europhys. Lett. 60(5), 663–669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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S. Lin, M. Li, E. Dujardin, C. Girard, and S. Mann, “One-dimensional plasmon coupling by facile self-assembly of gold nanoparticles into branched chain networks,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 17(21), 2553–2559 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

V. A. Zenin, V. S. Volkov, Z. Han, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Dispersion of strongly confined channel plasmon polariton modes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(7), 1596–1602 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Nanofocusing with channel plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1278–1282 (2009).
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T. W. Ebbesen, C. Genet, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface-plasmon circuitry,” Phys. Today 61(5), 44–50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channelling surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 89(2), 225–231 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Wavelength selective nanophotonic components utilizing channel plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 880–884 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(4), 046802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
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E. N. Economou, “Surface Plasmons in thin films,” Phys. Rev. 182(2), 539–554 (1969).
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Fernandez-Cuesta, I.

I. Fernandez-Cuesta, R. B. Nielsen, A. Boltasseva, X. Borrise, F. Perez-Murano, and A. Kristensen, “Excitation of fluorescent nanoparticles by channel plasmon polaritons propagating in V-grooves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 203102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Nielsen, I. Fernandez-Cuesta, A. Boltasseva, V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. Klukowska, and A. Kristensen, “Channel plasmon polariton propagation in nanoimprinted V-groove waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 33(23), 2800–2802 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Fernandez-Cuesta, R. B. Nielsen, A. Boltasseva, X. Borrise, F. Perez-Murano, and A. Kristensen, “V-groove plasmonic waveguides fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(6), 2649–2653 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Vidal, F. J.

García-Vidal, F. J.

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Nanofocusing with channel plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1278–1282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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T. W. Ebbesen, C. Genet, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface-plasmon circuitry,” Phys. Today 61(5), 44–50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Genov, D. A.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Girard, C.

S. Lin, M. Li, E. Dujardin, C. Girard, and S. Mann, “One-dimensional plasmon coupling by facile self-assembly of gold nanoparticles into branched chain networks,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 17(21), 2553–2559 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Goykhman, I.

I. Goykhman, B. Desiatov, and U. Levy, “Experimental demonstration of locally oxidized hybrid silicon-plasmonic waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(14), 141106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics 4(2), 83–91 (2010).
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K. C. Vernon, D. K. Gramotnev, and D. F. P. Pile, “Channel plasmon-polariton modes in V grooves filled with dielectric,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(3), 034304 (2008).
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D. F. Pile and D. K. Gramotnev, “Plasmonic subwavelength waveguides: next to zero losses at sharp bends,” Opt. Lett. 30(10), 1186–1188 (2005).
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D. F. P. Pile and D. K. Gramotnev, “Channel plasmon-polariton in a triangular groove on a metal surface,” Opt. Lett. 29(10), 1069–1071 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Gramotnev and D. F. P. Pile, “Single-mode subwavelength waveguide with channel plasmon-polaritons in triangular grooves on a metal surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(26), 6323–6325 (2004).
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L. J. Guo, “Nanoimprint lithography: Methods and material requirements,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 19(4), 495–513 (2007).
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S. Lal, S. Link, and N. J. Halas, “Nano-optics from sensing to waveguiding,” Nat. Photonics 1(11), 641–648 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Han, Z.

Harel, E.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater. 2(4), 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holmgaard, T.

T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, P. Bolger, and A. V. Zayats, “Efficient excitation of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguide modes at telecommunication wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. B 78(16), 165431 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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I. R. Hooper and J. R. Sambles, “Coupled surface plasmon polaritons on thin metal slabs corrugated on both surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 70(4), 045421 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Jung, J.

Kik, P. G.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater. 2(4), 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klukowska, A.

Koel, B. E.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater. 2(4), 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krasavin, A. V.

T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, P. Bolger, and A. V. Zayats, “Efficient excitation of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguide modes at telecommunication wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. B 78(16), 165431 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, P. R.

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Imprint of Sub-25 Nm Vias and Trenches in Polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(21), 3114–3116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Krenn, J. R.

J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Non diffraction-limited light transport by gold nanowires,” Europhys. Lett. 60(5), 663–669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Quinten, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Electromagnetic energy transport via linear chains of silver nanoparticles,” Opt. Lett. 23(17), 1331–1333 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kristensen, A.

I. Fernandez-Cuesta, R. B. Nielsen, A. Boltasseva, X. Borrise, F. Perez-Murano, and A. Kristensen, “Excitation of fluorescent nanoparticles by channel plasmon polaritons propagating in V-grooves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 203102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Nielsen, I. Fernandez-Cuesta, A. Boltasseva, V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. Klukowska, and A. Kristensen, “Channel plasmon polariton propagation in nanoimprinted V-groove waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 33(23), 2800–2802 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Fernandez-Cuesta, R. B. Nielsen, A. Boltasseva, X. Borrise, F. Perez-Murano, and A. Kristensen, “V-groove plasmonic waveguides fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(6), 2649–2653 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kuipers, L. K.

Lahoud, N.

Lal, S.

S. Lal, S. Link, and N. J. Halas, “Nano-optics from sensing to waveguiding,” Nat. Photonics 1(11), 641–648 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Laluet, J. Y.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channelling surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 89(2), 225–231 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Wavelength selective nanophotonic components utilizing channel plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 880–884 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lamprecht, B.

J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Non diffraction-limited light transport by gold nanowires,” Europhys. Lett. 60(5), 663–669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Leitner, A.

J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Non diffraction-limited light transport by gold nanowires,” Europhys. Lett. 60(5), 663–669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Quinten, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Electromagnetic energy transport via linear chains of silver nanoparticles,” Opt. Lett. 23(17), 1331–1333 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levy, U.

I. Goykhman, B. Desiatov, and U. Levy, “Experimental demonstration of locally oxidized hybrid silicon-plasmonic waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(14), 141106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.

S. Lin, M. Li, E. Dujardin, C. Girard, and S. Mann, “One-dimensional plasmon coupling by facile self-assembly of gold nanoparticles into branched chain networks,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 17(21), 2553–2559 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S.

S. Lin, M. Li, E. Dujardin, C. Girard, and S. Mann, “One-dimensional plasmon coupling by facile self-assembly of gold nanoparticles into branched chain networks,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 17(21), 2553–2559 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Link, S.

S. Lal, S. Link, and N. J. Halas, “Nano-optics from sensing to waveguiding,” Nat. Photonics 1(11), 641–648 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Maier, S. A.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater. 2(4), 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mann, S.

S. Lin, M. Li, E. Dujardin, C. Girard, and S. Mann, “One-dimensional plasmon coupling by facile self-assembly of gold nanoparticles into branched chain networks,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 17(21), 2553–2559 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Maradudin, A. A.

I. V. Novikov and A. A. Maradudin, “Channel polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B 66(3), 035403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Markey, L.

T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, P. Bolger, and A. V. Zayats, “Efficient excitation of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguide modes at telecommunication wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. B 78(16), 165431 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Martin-Moreno, L.

Martín-Moreno, L.

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Nanofocusing with channel plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1278–1282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mattiussi, G.

Meltzer, S.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater. 2(4), 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moreno, E.

Nam, S.

Nerkararyan, K. V.

Nielsen, R. B.

I. Fernandez-Cuesta, R. B. Nielsen, A. Boltasseva, X. Borrise, F. Perez-Murano, and A. Kristensen, “Excitation of fluorescent nanoparticles by channel plasmon polaritons propagating in V-grooves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 203102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Nielsen, I. Fernandez-Cuesta, A. Boltasseva, V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. Klukowska, and A. Kristensen, “Channel plasmon polariton propagation in nanoimprinted V-groove waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 33(23), 2800–2802 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Fernandez-Cuesta, R. B. Nielsen, A. Boltasseva, X. Borrise, F. Perez-Murano, and A. Kristensen, “V-groove plasmonic waveguides fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(6), 2649–2653 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Novikov, I. V.

I. V. Novikov and A. A. Maradudin, “Channel polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B 66(3), 035403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Orenstein, M.

Oulton, R. F.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Perez-Murano, F.

I. Fernandez-Cuesta, R. B. Nielsen, A. Boltasseva, X. Borrise, F. Perez-Murano, and A. Kristensen, “Excitation of fluorescent nanoparticles by channel plasmon polaritons propagating in V-grooves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 203102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Fernandez-Cuesta, R. B. Nielsen, A. Boltasseva, X. Borrise, F. Perez-Murano, and A. Kristensen, “V-groove plasmonic waveguides fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(6), 2649–2653 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pile, D. F.

Pile, D. F. P.

H. Choi, D. F. P. Pile, S. Nam, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Compressing surface plasmons for nano-scale optical focusing,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7519–7524 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. C. Vernon, D. K. Gramotnev, and D. F. P. Pile, “Channel plasmon-polariton modes in V grooves filled with dielectric,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(3), 034304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Gramotnev and D. F. P. Pile, “Single-mode subwavelength waveguide with channel plasmon-polaritons in triangular grooves on a metal surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(26), 6323–6325 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. F. P. Pile and D. K. Gramotnev, “Channel plasmon-polariton in a triangular groove on a metal surface,” Opt. Lett. 29(10), 1069–1071 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polman, A.

E. Verhagen, A. Polman, and L. K. Kuipers, “Nanofocusing in laterally tapered plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(1), 45–57 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Quinten, M.

Renstrom, P. J.

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Imprint of Sub-25 Nm Vias and Trenches in Polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(21), 3114–3116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Requicha, A. A. G.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater. 2(4), 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodrigo, S. G.

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Nanofocusing with channel plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1278–1282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Channel plasmon-polaritons: modal shape, dispersion, and losses,” Opt. Lett. 31(23), 3447–3449 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salerno, M.

J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Non diffraction-limited light transport by gold nanowires,” Europhys. Lett. 60(5), 663–669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sambles, J. R.

I. R. Hooper and J. R. Sambles, “Coupled surface plasmon polaritons on thin metal slabs corrugated on both surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 70(4), 045421 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schider, G.

J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Non diffraction-limited light transport by gold nanowires,” Europhys. Lett. 60(5), 663–669 (2002).
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A. Schleunitz and H. Schift, “Fabrication of 3D nanoimprint stamps with continuous reliefs using dose-modulated electron beam lithography and thermal reflow,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 20(9), 095002 (2010).
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A. Schleunitz and H. Schift, “Fabrication of 3D nanoimprint stamps with continuous reliefs using dose-modulated electron beam lithography and thermal reflow,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 20(9), 095002 (2010).
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Schuller, J. A.

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, and M. L. Brongersma, “Near-field characterization of guided polariton propagation and cutoff in surface plasmon waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 74(16), 165415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sorger, V. J.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sweatlock, L. A.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Verhagen, E.

Vernon, K. C.

K. C. Vernon, D. K. Gramotnev, and D. F. P. Pile, “Channel plasmon-polariton modes in V grooves filled with dielectric,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(3), 034304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Volkov, V. S.

V. A. Zenin, V. S. Volkov, Z. Han, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Dispersion of strongly confined channel plasmon polariton modes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(7), 1596–1602 (2011).
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V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Nanofocusing with channel plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1278–1282 (2009).
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S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(4), 046802 (2005).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Distribution of the devices over a 4 inch wafer. (b) Illustration depicting the V-grooves along the device cross-bar. (c) and (d) The fabrication process of both (c) stamp, and (d) device. (e) A 6 mm × 6 mm gold device next to a common match. The crossbar of the device contains 10 V-grooves. (f) Tilted SEM image of a V-groove containing a BGF.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) SEM image of a Si stamp V-groove with BGF. (b) SEM image of a gold V-groove device with BGF. (c) General SEM image showing a V-groove of a gold device with a BGF. (d) Transverse profile of a gold V-groove taken by AFM. (e) BGF topography taken by AFM near a gold V-groove vertex. The corrugation has 96 ± 8 nm depressions with 43% duty cycle.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup for NSOM and transmission measurements. Two PM lensed optical fibers on 6-axis stages are used for end-fire launch and collection. A scanning NSOM tip may simultaneously probe the near-field light intensity while light is coupled to the V-groove.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmission measurements. (a) Light intensity exiting a V-groove end facet imaged with an objective and IR camera, showing successful coupling to a CPP mode. (b) Transmission spectrum through a 311 µm-length V-groove containing a BGF using a PM lensed fiber for collection. The filter −3 dB bandwidth is Δλ = 39.9 nm and the extinction ratio is 8.2 dB. The center wavelength is λ = 1454.4 nm. Inset: reference transmission (vertical axis is dBm units) obtained for a similar V-groove without BGF.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a), (b) and (c): NSOM measurements for a V-groove containing a 16-period BGF. (a) Intensity profiles along the V-groove taken from the 5.0 × 27.9 µm panels of (b) and (c) for the excitation wavelengths λ = 1465 nm and λ = 1550 nm respectively. (d) Topographical image taken by AFM for the same region of (b) and (c). (e) Cross-section close to the V-groove vertex from (d) with inset: 5 × 1 µm panels showing topography and near field optical intensity (λ = 1550 nm) taken simultaneously by NSOM probe. (f), (g) and (h): NSOM measurements for a V-groove without BGF. (f) Intensity profiles with fitted propagation decay curves along the V-groove taken from the 5.0 × 15.0 µm panels (g) and (h) for the excitation wavelengths λ = 1465 nm and λ = 1550 nm respectively. (i) Topographical image taken by AFM for the same region of (g) and (h). (j) Cross-section close to the V-groove vertex from (i) with inset: 5 × 1 µm panels showing topography and near field intensity (λ = 1550 nm) taken simultaneously by NSOM probe.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Intensity distributions of the fundamental optical modes for a 3.4 µm-wide gold V-groove excited by free-space wavelengths (a) λ = 1465 nm and (b) λ = 1550 nm. Panels are 6 × 8 µm. (c) Vertical intensity profiles obtained in (a) (dashed black) and (b) (solid red) taken along the y coordinate at the V-groove vertices.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Numerically Calculated and Experimental CPP Mode Characteristics

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