Abstract

In this work we show that it is possible to increase the high-order harmonic yield when using wavefront-shaped laser beams. The investigation of the beam profile near the interaction region shows that the optimized beam is asymmetric and has a larger diameter. Thus, the optimized beam leads to a higher yield even if the peak intensity is lower compared to an unoptimized beam. This indicates that the wavefront of the fundamental laser beam and, accordingly, the focal profile play an important role in the efficient generation of high-order harmonic radiation.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. M. Fajardo, P. Zeitoun, G. Faivre, S. Sebban, T. Mocek, A. Hallou, D. Aubert, P. Balcou, F. Burgy, D. Douillet, P. Mercère, A. S. Morlens, J. P. Rousseau, C. Valentin, S. Kazamias, G. Lachèze-Murel, T. Lefrou, H. Merdji, S. Le Pape, M. F. Ravet, F. Delmotte, and J. Gautier, “Second generation x-ray lasers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 99, 142–152 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Sakdinawat and D. Attwood, “Nanoscale x-ray imaging,” Nat. Photonics 4, 840–848 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. M. Quiney, “Coherent diffractive imaging using short wavelength light sources,” J. Mod. Opt. 57, 1109–1149 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Antoine, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Attosecond pulse trains using high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1234–1237 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. C. Chen, M. R. Gerrity, S. Backus, T. Popmintchev, X. Zhou, P. Arpin, X. Zhang, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Spatially coherent, phase matched, high-order harmonic euv beams at 50 khz,” Opt. Express 17, 17376–17383 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Wieland, Ch. Spielmann, U. Kleineberg, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Heinzmann, and T. Wilhein, “Toward time-resolved soft x-ray microscopy using pulsed fs-high-harmonic radiation,” Ultramicroscopy 102, 93–100 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. Tzallas, E. Skantzakis, L. A. A. Nikolopoulos, G. D. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, “Extreme-ultraviolet pump-probe studies of one-femtosecond-scale electron dynamics,” Nat. Phys. 7, 781– 784 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. H. Ko, K. T. Kim, J. Park, J.-H. Lee, and C. H. Nam, “Attosecond chirp compensation over broadband high-order harmonics to generate near transform-limited 63 as pulses,” New. J. Phys. 12, 063008 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. Balcou, P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Generalized phase-matching conditions for high harmonics: the role of field-gradient forces,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 3204–3210 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Yoshitomi, J. Nees, N. Miyamoto, T. Sekikawa, T. Kanai, G. Mourou, and S. Watanabe, “Phase-matched enhancements of high-harmonic soft x-rays by adaptive wave-front control with a genetic algorithm,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 275–280 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. Villoresi, S. Bonora, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, C. Vozzi, M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, and S. Silvestri, “Optimization of high-order harmonic generation by adaptive control of a sub-10-fs pulse wave front,” Opt. Lett. 29, 207–209 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. Lohbreier, S. Eyring, R. Spitzenpfeil, C. Kern, M. Weger, and C. Spielmann, “Maximizing the brilliance of high-order harmonics in a gas jet,” New. J. Phys. 11, 023016 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. Spitzenpfeil, S. Eyring, C. Kern, C. Ott, J. Lohbreier, J. Henneberger, N. Franke, S. Jung, D. Walter, M. Weger, C. Winterfeldt, T. Pfeifer, and C. Spielmann, “Enhancing the brilliance of high-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys A 96, 69–81 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. Bartels, S. Backus, I. Christov, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, “Attosecond time-scale feedback control of coherent x-ray generation,” Chem. Phys. 267, 277–289 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. Walter, S. Eyring, J. Lohbreier, R. Spitzenpfeil, and C. Spielmann, “Spatial optimization of filaments,” Appl. Phys. B 88, 175–178 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light, 7th ed. (Cambridge University Press, 1999).
    [PubMed]

2011 (1)

P. Tzallas, E. Skantzakis, L. A. A. Nikolopoulos, G. D. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, “Extreme-ultraviolet pump-probe studies of one-femtosecond-scale electron dynamics,” Nat. Phys. 7, 781– 784 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

D. H. Ko, K. T. Kim, J. Park, J.-H. Lee, and C. H. Nam, “Attosecond chirp compensation over broadband high-order harmonics to generate near transform-limited 63 as pulses,” New. J. Phys. 12, 063008 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Sakdinawat and D. Attwood, “Nanoscale x-ray imaging,” Nat. Photonics 4, 840–848 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Quiney, “Coherent diffractive imaging using short wavelength light sources,” J. Mod. Opt. 57, 1109–1149 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

M. C. Chen, M. R. Gerrity, S. Backus, T. Popmintchev, X. Zhou, P. Arpin, X. Zhang, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Spatially coherent, phase matched, high-order harmonic euv beams at 50 khz,” Opt. Express 17, 17376–17383 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lohbreier, S. Eyring, R. Spitzenpfeil, C. Kern, M. Weger, and C. Spielmann, “Maximizing the brilliance of high-order harmonics in a gas jet,” New. J. Phys. 11, 023016 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Spitzenpfeil, S. Eyring, C. Kern, C. Ott, J. Lohbreier, J. Henneberger, N. Franke, S. Jung, D. Walter, M. Weger, C. Winterfeldt, T. Pfeifer, and C. Spielmann, “Enhancing the brilliance of high-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys A 96, 69–81 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

D. Walter, S. Eyring, J. Lohbreier, R. Spitzenpfeil, and C. Spielmann, “Spatial optimization of filaments,” Appl. Phys. B 88, 175–178 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

M. Fajardo, P. Zeitoun, G. Faivre, S. Sebban, T. Mocek, A. Hallou, D. Aubert, P. Balcou, F. Burgy, D. Douillet, P. Mercère, A. S. Morlens, J. P. Rousseau, C. Valentin, S. Kazamias, G. Lachèze-Murel, T. Lefrou, H. Merdji, S. Le Pape, M. F. Ravet, F. Delmotte, and J. Gautier, “Second generation x-ray lasers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 99, 142–152 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

M. Wieland, Ch. Spielmann, U. Kleineberg, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Heinzmann, and T. Wilhein, “Toward time-resolved soft x-ray microscopy using pulsed fs-high-harmonic radiation,” Ultramicroscopy 102, 93–100 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

D. Yoshitomi, J. Nees, N. Miyamoto, T. Sekikawa, T. Kanai, G. Mourou, and S. Watanabe, “Phase-matched enhancements of high-harmonic soft x-rays by adaptive wave-front control with a genetic algorithm,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 275–280 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Villoresi, S. Bonora, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, C. Vozzi, M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, and S. Silvestri, “Optimization of high-order harmonic generation by adaptive control of a sub-10-fs pulse wave front,” Opt. Lett. 29, 207–209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

R. Bartels, S. Backus, I. Christov, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, “Attosecond time-scale feedback control of coherent x-ray generation,” Chem. Phys. 267, 277–289 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

P. Balcou, P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Generalized phase-matching conditions for high harmonics: the role of field-gradient forces,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 3204–3210 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

P. Antoine, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Attosecond pulse trains using high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1234–1237 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Antoine, P.

P. Antoine, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Attosecond pulse trains using high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1234–1237 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arpin, P.

Attwood, D.

A. Sakdinawat and D. Attwood, “Nanoscale x-ray imaging,” Nat. Photonics 4, 840–848 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Aubert, D.

M. Fajardo, P. Zeitoun, G. Faivre, S. Sebban, T. Mocek, A. Hallou, D. Aubert, P. Balcou, F. Burgy, D. Douillet, P. Mercère, A. S. Morlens, J. P. Rousseau, C. Valentin, S. Kazamias, G. Lachèze-Murel, T. Lefrou, H. Merdji, S. Le Pape, M. F. Ravet, F. Delmotte, and J. Gautier, “Second generation x-ray lasers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 99, 142–152 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Backus, S.

Balcou, P.

M. Fajardo, P. Zeitoun, G. Faivre, S. Sebban, T. Mocek, A. Hallou, D. Aubert, P. Balcou, F. Burgy, D. Douillet, P. Mercère, A. S. Morlens, J. P. Rousseau, C. Valentin, S. Kazamias, G. Lachèze-Murel, T. Lefrou, H. Merdji, S. Le Pape, M. F. Ravet, F. Delmotte, and J. Gautier, “Second generation x-ray lasers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 99, 142–152 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Balcou, P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Generalized phase-matching conditions for high harmonics: the role of field-gradient forces,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 3204–3210 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bartels, R.

R. Bartels, S. Backus, I. Christov, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, “Attosecond time-scale feedback control of coherent x-ray generation,” Chem. Phys. 267, 277–289 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bonora, S.

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light, 7th ed. (Cambridge University Press, 1999).
[PubMed]

Burgy, F.

M. Fajardo, P. Zeitoun, G. Faivre, S. Sebban, T. Mocek, A. Hallou, D. Aubert, P. Balcou, F. Burgy, D. Douillet, P. Mercère, A. S. Morlens, J. P. Rousseau, C. Valentin, S. Kazamias, G. Lachèze-Murel, T. Lefrou, H. Merdji, S. Le Pape, M. F. Ravet, F. Delmotte, and J. Gautier, “Second generation x-ray lasers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 99, 142–152 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Charalambidis, D.

P. Tzallas, E. Skantzakis, L. A. A. Nikolopoulos, G. D. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, “Extreme-ultraviolet pump-probe studies of one-femtosecond-scale electron dynamics,” Nat. Phys. 7, 781– 784 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, M. C.

Christov, I.

R. Bartels, S. Backus, I. Christov, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, “Attosecond time-scale feedback control of coherent x-ray generation,” Chem. Phys. 267, 277–289 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Delmotte, F.

M. Fajardo, P. Zeitoun, G. Faivre, S. Sebban, T. Mocek, A. Hallou, D. Aubert, P. Balcou, F. Burgy, D. Douillet, P. Mercère, A. S. Morlens, J. P. Rousseau, C. Valentin, S. Kazamias, G. Lachèze-Murel, T. Lefrou, H. Merdji, S. Le Pape, M. F. Ravet, F. Delmotte, and J. Gautier, “Second generation x-ray lasers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 99, 142–152 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Douillet, D.

M. Fajardo, P. Zeitoun, G. Faivre, S. Sebban, T. Mocek, A. Hallou, D. Aubert, P. Balcou, F. Burgy, D. Douillet, P. Mercère, A. S. Morlens, J. P. Rousseau, C. Valentin, S. Kazamias, G. Lachèze-Murel, T. Lefrou, H. Merdji, S. Le Pape, M. F. Ravet, F. Delmotte, and J. Gautier, “Second generation x-ray lasers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 99, 142–152 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Eyring, S.

J. Lohbreier, S. Eyring, R. Spitzenpfeil, C. Kern, M. Weger, and C. Spielmann, “Maximizing the brilliance of high-order harmonics in a gas jet,” New. J. Phys. 11, 023016 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Spitzenpfeil, S. Eyring, C. Kern, C. Ott, J. Lohbreier, J. Henneberger, N. Franke, S. Jung, D. Walter, M. Weger, C. Winterfeldt, T. Pfeifer, and C. Spielmann, “Enhancing the brilliance of high-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys A 96, 69–81 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Walter, S. Eyring, J. Lohbreier, R. Spitzenpfeil, and C. Spielmann, “Spatial optimization of filaments,” Appl. Phys. B 88, 175–178 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Faivre, G.

M. Fajardo, P. Zeitoun, G. Faivre, S. Sebban, T. Mocek, A. Hallou, D. Aubert, P. Balcou, F. Burgy, D. Douillet, P. Mercère, A. S. Morlens, J. P. Rousseau, C. Valentin, S. Kazamias, G. Lachèze-Murel, T. Lefrou, H. Merdji, S. Le Pape, M. F. Ravet, F. Delmotte, and J. Gautier, “Second generation x-ray lasers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 99, 142–152 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fajardo, M.

M. Fajardo, P. Zeitoun, G. Faivre, S. Sebban, T. Mocek, A. Hallou, D. Aubert, P. Balcou, F. Burgy, D. Douillet, P. Mercère, A. S. Morlens, J. P. Rousseau, C. Valentin, S. Kazamias, G. Lachèze-Murel, T. Lefrou, H. Merdji, S. Le Pape, M. F. Ravet, F. Delmotte, and J. Gautier, “Second generation x-ray lasers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 99, 142–152 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Franke, N.

R. Spitzenpfeil, S. Eyring, C. Kern, C. Ott, J. Lohbreier, J. Henneberger, N. Franke, S. Jung, D. Walter, M. Weger, C. Winterfeldt, T. Pfeifer, and C. Spielmann, “Enhancing the brilliance of high-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys A 96, 69–81 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gautier, J.

M. Fajardo, P. Zeitoun, G. Faivre, S. Sebban, T. Mocek, A. Hallou, D. Aubert, P. Balcou, F. Burgy, D. Douillet, P. Mercère, A. S. Morlens, J. P. Rousseau, C. Valentin, S. Kazamias, G. Lachèze-Murel, T. Lefrou, H. Merdji, S. Le Pape, M. F. Ravet, F. Delmotte, and J. Gautier, “Second generation x-ray lasers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 99, 142–152 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gerrity, M. R.

Hallou, A.

M. Fajardo, P. Zeitoun, G. Faivre, S. Sebban, T. Mocek, A. Hallou, D. Aubert, P. Balcou, F. Burgy, D. Douillet, P. Mercère, A. S. Morlens, J. P. Rousseau, C. Valentin, S. Kazamias, G. Lachèze-Murel, T. Lefrou, H. Merdji, S. Le Pape, M. F. Ravet, F. Delmotte, and J. Gautier, “Second generation x-ray lasers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 99, 142–152 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Heinzmann, U.

M. Wieland, Ch. Spielmann, U. Kleineberg, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Heinzmann, and T. Wilhein, “Toward time-resolved soft x-ray microscopy using pulsed fs-high-harmonic radiation,” Ultramicroscopy 102, 93–100 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Henneberger, J.

R. Spitzenpfeil, S. Eyring, C. Kern, C. Ott, J. Lohbreier, J. Henneberger, N. Franke, S. Jung, D. Walter, M. Weger, C. Winterfeldt, T. Pfeifer, and C. Spielmann, “Enhancing the brilliance of high-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys A 96, 69–81 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jung, S.

R. Spitzenpfeil, S. Eyring, C. Kern, C. Ott, J. Lohbreier, J. Henneberger, N. Franke, S. Jung, D. Walter, M. Weger, C. Winterfeldt, T. Pfeifer, and C. Spielmann, “Enhancing the brilliance of high-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys A 96, 69–81 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kanai, T.

D. Yoshitomi, J. Nees, N. Miyamoto, T. Sekikawa, T. Kanai, G. Mourou, and S. Watanabe, “Phase-matched enhancements of high-harmonic soft x-rays by adaptive wave-front control with a genetic algorithm,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 275–280 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kapteyn, H.

R. Bartels, S. Backus, I. Christov, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, “Attosecond time-scale feedback control of coherent x-ray generation,” Chem. Phys. 267, 277–289 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kapteyn, H. C.

Kazamias, S.

M. Fajardo, P. Zeitoun, G. Faivre, S. Sebban, T. Mocek, A. Hallou, D. Aubert, P. Balcou, F. Burgy, D. Douillet, P. Mercère, A. S. Morlens, J. P. Rousseau, C. Valentin, S. Kazamias, G. Lachèze-Murel, T. Lefrou, H. Merdji, S. Le Pape, M. F. Ravet, F. Delmotte, and J. Gautier, “Second generation x-ray lasers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 99, 142–152 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kern, C.

R. Spitzenpfeil, S. Eyring, C. Kern, C. Ott, J. Lohbreier, J. Henneberger, N. Franke, S. Jung, D. Walter, M. Weger, C. Winterfeldt, T. Pfeifer, and C. Spielmann, “Enhancing the brilliance of high-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys A 96, 69–81 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Lohbreier, S. Eyring, R. Spitzenpfeil, C. Kern, M. Weger, and C. Spielmann, “Maximizing the brilliance of high-order harmonics in a gas jet,” New. J. Phys. 11, 023016 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. T.

D. H. Ko, K. T. Kim, J. Park, J.-H. Lee, and C. H. Nam, “Attosecond chirp compensation over broadband high-order harmonics to generate near transform-limited 63 as pulses,” New. J. Phys. 12, 063008 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kleineberg, U.

M. Wieland, Ch. Spielmann, U. Kleineberg, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Heinzmann, and T. Wilhein, “Toward time-resolved soft x-ray microscopy using pulsed fs-high-harmonic radiation,” Ultramicroscopy 102, 93–100 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ko, D. H.

D. H. Ko, K. T. Kim, J. Park, J.-H. Lee, and C. H. Nam, “Attosecond chirp compensation over broadband high-order harmonics to generate near transform-limited 63 as pulses,” New. J. Phys. 12, 063008 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L’Huillier, A.

P. Balcou, P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Generalized phase-matching conditions for high harmonics: the role of field-gradient forces,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 3204–3210 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Antoine, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Attosecond pulse trains using high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1234–1237 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lachèze-Murel, G.

M. Fajardo, P. Zeitoun, G. Faivre, S. Sebban, T. Mocek, A. Hallou, D. Aubert, P. Balcou, F. Burgy, D. Douillet, P. Mercère, A. S. Morlens, J. P. Rousseau, C. Valentin, S. Kazamias, G. Lachèze-Murel, T. Lefrou, H. Merdji, S. Le Pape, M. F. Ravet, F. Delmotte, and J. Gautier, “Second generation x-ray lasers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 99, 142–152 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Le Pape, S.

M. Fajardo, P. Zeitoun, G. Faivre, S. Sebban, T. Mocek, A. Hallou, D. Aubert, P. Balcou, F. Burgy, D. Douillet, P. Mercère, A. S. Morlens, J. P. Rousseau, C. Valentin, S. Kazamias, G. Lachèze-Murel, T. Lefrou, H. Merdji, S. Le Pape, M. F. Ravet, F. Delmotte, and J. Gautier, “Second generation x-ray lasers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 99, 142–152 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.-H.

D. H. Ko, K. T. Kim, J. Park, J.-H. Lee, and C. H. Nam, “Attosecond chirp compensation over broadband high-order harmonics to generate near transform-limited 63 as pulses,” New. J. Phys. 12, 063008 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lefrou, T.

M. Fajardo, P. Zeitoun, G. Faivre, S. Sebban, T. Mocek, A. Hallou, D. Aubert, P. Balcou, F. Burgy, D. Douillet, P. Mercère, A. S. Morlens, J. P. Rousseau, C. Valentin, S. Kazamias, G. Lachèze-Murel, T. Lefrou, H. Merdji, S. Le Pape, M. F. Ravet, F. Delmotte, and J. Gautier, “Second generation x-ray lasers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 99, 142–152 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lewenstein, M.

P. Balcou, P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Generalized phase-matching conditions for high harmonics: the role of field-gradient forces,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 3204–3210 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Antoine, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Attosecond pulse trains using high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1234–1237 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lohbreier, J.

J. Lohbreier, S. Eyring, R. Spitzenpfeil, C. Kern, M. Weger, and C. Spielmann, “Maximizing the brilliance of high-order harmonics in a gas jet,” New. J. Phys. 11, 023016 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Spitzenpfeil, S. Eyring, C. Kern, C. Ott, J. Lohbreier, J. Henneberger, N. Franke, S. Jung, D. Walter, M. Weger, C. Winterfeldt, T. Pfeifer, and C. Spielmann, “Enhancing the brilliance of high-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys A 96, 69–81 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Walter, S. Eyring, J. Lohbreier, R. Spitzenpfeil, and C. Spielmann, “Spatial optimization of filaments,” Appl. Phys. B 88, 175–178 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mercère, P.

M. Fajardo, P. Zeitoun, G. Faivre, S. Sebban, T. Mocek, A. Hallou, D. Aubert, P. Balcou, F. Burgy, D. Douillet, P. Mercère, A. S. Morlens, J. P. Rousseau, C. Valentin, S. Kazamias, G. Lachèze-Murel, T. Lefrou, H. Merdji, S. Le Pape, M. F. Ravet, F. Delmotte, and J. Gautier, “Second generation x-ray lasers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 99, 142–152 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Merdji, H.

M. Fajardo, P. Zeitoun, G. Faivre, S. Sebban, T. Mocek, A. Hallou, D. Aubert, P. Balcou, F. Burgy, D. Douillet, P. Mercère, A. S. Morlens, J. P. Rousseau, C. Valentin, S. Kazamias, G. Lachèze-Murel, T. Lefrou, H. Merdji, S. Le Pape, M. F. Ravet, F. Delmotte, and J. Gautier, “Second generation x-ray lasers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 99, 142–152 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Miyamoto, N.

D. Yoshitomi, J. Nees, N. Miyamoto, T. Sekikawa, T. Kanai, G. Mourou, and S. Watanabe, “Phase-matched enhancements of high-harmonic soft x-rays by adaptive wave-front control with a genetic algorithm,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 275–280 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mocek, T.

M. Fajardo, P. Zeitoun, G. Faivre, S. Sebban, T. Mocek, A. Hallou, D. Aubert, P. Balcou, F. Burgy, D. Douillet, P. Mercère, A. S. Morlens, J. P. Rousseau, C. Valentin, S. Kazamias, G. Lachèze-Murel, T. Lefrou, H. Merdji, S. Le Pape, M. F. Ravet, F. Delmotte, and J. Gautier, “Second generation x-ray lasers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 99, 142–152 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Morlens, A. S.

M. Fajardo, P. Zeitoun, G. Faivre, S. Sebban, T. Mocek, A. Hallou, D. Aubert, P. Balcou, F. Burgy, D. Douillet, P. Mercère, A. S. Morlens, J. P. Rousseau, C. Valentin, S. Kazamias, G. Lachèze-Murel, T. Lefrou, H. Merdji, S. Le Pape, M. F. Ravet, F. Delmotte, and J. Gautier, “Second generation x-ray lasers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 99, 142–152 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G.

D. Yoshitomi, J. Nees, N. Miyamoto, T. Sekikawa, T. Kanai, G. Mourou, and S. Watanabe, “Phase-matched enhancements of high-harmonic soft x-rays by adaptive wave-front control with a genetic algorithm,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 275–280 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Murnane, M.

R. Bartels, S. Backus, I. Christov, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, “Attosecond time-scale feedback control of coherent x-ray generation,” Chem. Phys. 267, 277–289 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Murnane, M. M.

Nam, C. H.

D. H. Ko, K. T. Kim, J. Park, J.-H. Lee, and C. H. Nam, “Attosecond chirp compensation over broadband high-order harmonics to generate near transform-limited 63 as pulses,” New. J. Phys. 12, 063008 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nees, J.

D. Yoshitomi, J. Nees, N. Miyamoto, T. Sekikawa, T. Kanai, G. Mourou, and S. Watanabe, “Phase-matched enhancements of high-harmonic soft x-rays by adaptive wave-front control with a genetic algorithm,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 275–280 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nikolopoulos, L. A. A.

P. Tzallas, E. Skantzakis, L. A. A. Nikolopoulos, G. D. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, “Extreme-ultraviolet pump-probe studies of one-femtosecond-scale electron dynamics,” Nat. Phys. 7, 781– 784 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nisoli, M.

Ott, C.

R. Spitzenpfeil, S. Eyring, C. Kern, C. Ott, J. Lohbreier, J. Henneberger, N. Franke, S. Jung, D. Walter, M. Weger, C. Winterfeldt, T. Pfeifer, and C. Spielmann, “Enhancing the brilliance of high-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys A 96, 69–81 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.

D. H. Ko, K. T. Kim, J. Park, J.-H. Lee, and C. H. Nam, “Attosecond chirp compensation over broadband high-order harmonics to generate near transform-limited 63 as pulses,” New. J. Phys. 12, 063008 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pascolini, M.

Pfeifer, T.

R. Spitzenpfeil, S. Eyring, C. Kern, C. Ott, J. Lohbreier, J. Henneberger, N. Franke, S. Jung, D. Walter, M. Weger, C. Winterfeldt, T. Pfeifer, and C. Spielmann, “Enhancing the brilliance of high-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys A 96, 69–81 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Poletto, L.

Popmintchev, T.

Quiney, H. M.

H. M. Quiney, “Coherent diffractive imaging using short wavelength light sources,” J. Mod. Opt. 57, 1109–1149 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ravet, M. F.

M. Fajardo, P. Zeitoun, G. Faivre, S. Sebban, T. Mocek, A. Hallou, D. Aubert, P. Balcou, F. Burgy, D. Douillet, P. Mercère, A. S. Morlens, J. P. Rousseau, C. Valentin, S. Kazamias, G. Lachèze-Murel, T. Lefrou, H. Merdji, S. Le Pape, M. F. Ravet, F. Delmotte, and J. Gautier, “Second generation x-ray lasers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 99, 142–152 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rousseau, J. P.

M. Fajardo, P. Zeitoun, G. Faivre, S. Sebban, T. Mocek, A. Hallou, D. Aubert, P. Balcou, F. Burgy, D. Douillet, P. Mercère, A. S. Morlens, J. P. Rousseau, C. Valentin, S. Kazamias, G. Lachèze-Murel, T. Lefrou, H. Merdji, S. Le Pape, M. F. Ravet, F. Delmotte, and J. Gautier, “Second generation x-ray lasers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 99, 142–152 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sakdinawat, A.

A. Sakdinawat and D. Attwood, “Nanoscale x-ray imaging,” Nat. Photonics 4, 840–848 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Salières, P.

P. Balcou, P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Generalized phase-matching conditions for high harmonics: the role of field-gradient forces,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 3204–3210 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sansone, G.

Sebban, S.

M. Fajardo, P. Zeitoun, G. Faivre, S. Sebban, T. Mocek, A. Hallou, D. Aubert, P. Balcou, F. Burgy, D. Douillet, P. Mercère, A. S. Morlens, J. P. Rousseau, C. Valentin, S. Kazamias, G. Lachèze-Murel, T. Lefrou, H. Merdji, S. Le Pape, M. F. Ravet, F. Delmotte, and J. Gautier, “Second generation x-ray lasers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 99, 142–152 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sekikawa, T.

D. Yoshitomi, J. Nees, N. Miyamoto, T. Sekikawa, T. Kanai, G. Mourou, and S. Watanabe, “Phase-matched enhancements of high-harmonic soft x-rays by adaptive wave-front control with a genetic algorithm,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 275–280 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Silvestri, S.

Skantzakis, E.

P. Tzallas, E. Skantzakis, L. A. A. Nikolopoulos, G. D. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, “Extreme-ultraviolet pump-probe studies of one-femtosecond-scale electron dynamics,” Nat. Phys. 7, 781– 784 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Spielmann, C.

J. Lohbreier, S. Eyring, R. Spitzenpfeil, C. Kern, M. Weger, and C. Spielmann, “Maximizing the brilliance of high-order harmonics in a gas jet,” New. J. Phys. 11, 023016 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Spitzenpfeil, S. Eyring, C. Kern, C. Ott, J. Lohbreier, J. Henneberger, N. Franke, S. Jung, D. Walter, M. Weger, C. Winterfeldt, T. Pfeifer, and C. Spielmann, “Enhancing the brilliance of high-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys A 96, 69–81 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Walter, S. Eyring, J. Lohbreier, R. Spitzenpfeil, and C. Spielmann, “Spatial optimization of filaments,” Appl. Phys. B 88, 175–178 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Spielmann, Ch.

M. Wieland, Ch. Spielmann, U. Kleineberg, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Heinzmann, and T. Wilhein, “Toward time-resolved soft x-ray microscopy using pulsed fs-high-harmonic radiation,” Ultramicroscopy 102, 93–100 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Spitzenpfeil, R.

R. Spitzenpfeil, S. Eyring, C. Kern, C. Ott, J. Lohbreier, J. Henneberger, N. Franke, S. Jung, D. Walter, M. Weger, C. Winterfeldt, T. Pfeifer, and C. Spielmann, “Enhancing the brilliance of high-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys A 96, 69–81 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Lohbreier, S. Eyring, R. Spitzenpfeil, C. Kern, M. Weger, and C. Spielmann, “Maximizing the brilliance of high-order harmonics in a gas jet,” New. J. Phys. 11, 023016 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Walter, S. Eyring, J. Lohbreier, R. Spitzenpfeil, and C. Spielmann, “Spatial optimization of filaments,” Appl. Phys. B 88, 175–178 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stagira, S.

Tondello, G.

Tsakiris, G. D.

P. Tzallas, E. Skantzakis, L. A. A. Nikolopoulos, G. D. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, “Extreme-ultraviolet pump-probe studies of one-femtosecond-scale electron dynamics,” Nat. Phys. 7, 781– 784 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tzallas, P.

P. Tzallas, E. Skantzakis, L. A. A. Nikolopoulos, G. D. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, “Extreme-ultraviolet pump-probe studies of one-femtosecond-scale electron dynamics,” Nat. Phys. 7, 781– 784 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Valentin, C.

M. Fajardo, P. Zeitoun, G. Faivre, S. Sebban, T. Mocek, A. Hallou, D. Aubert, P. Balcou, F. Burgy, D. Douillet, P. Mercère, A. S. Morlens, J. P. Rousseau, C. Valentin, S. Kazamias, G. Lachèze-Murel, T. Lefrou, H. Merdji, S. Le Pape, M. F. Ravet, F. Delmotte, and J. Gautier, “Second generation x-ray lasers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 99, 142–152 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Villoresi, P.

Vozzi, C.

Walter, D.

R. Spitzenpfeil, S. Eyring, C. Kern, C. Ott, J. Lohbreier, J. Henneberger, N. Franke, S. Jung, D. Walter, M. Weger, C. Winterfeldt, T. Pfeifer, and C. Spielmann, “Enhancing the brilliance of high-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys A 96, 69–81 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Walter, S. Eyring, J. Lohbreier, R. Spitzenpfeil, and C. Spielmann, “Spatial optimization of filaments,” Appl. Phys. B 88, 175–178 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, S.

D. Yoshitomi, J. Nees, N. Miyamoto, T. Sekikawa, T. Kanai, G. Mourou, and S. Watanabe, “Phase-matched enhancements of high-harmonic soft x-rays by adaptive wave-front control with a genetic algorithm,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 275–280 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Weger, M.

R. Spitzenpfeil, S. Eyring, C. Kern, C. Ott, J. Lohbreier, J. Henneberger, N. Franke, S. Jung, D. Walter, M. Weger, C. Winterfeldt, T. Pfeifer, and C. Spielmann, “Enhancing the brilliance of high-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys A 96, 69–81 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Lohbreier, S. Eyring, R. Spitzenpfeil, C. Kern, M. Weger, and C. Spielmann, “Maximizing the brilliance of high-order harmonics in a gas jet,” New. J. Phys. 11, 023016 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Westerwalbesloh, Th.

M. Wieland, Ch. Spielmann, U. Kleineberg, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Heinzmann, and T. Wilhein, “Toward time-resolved soft x-ray microscopy using pulsed fs-high-harmonic radiation,” Ultramicroscopy 102, 93–100 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wieland, M.

M. Wieland, Ch. Spielmann, U. Kleineberg, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Heinzmann, and T. Wilhein, “Toward time-resolved soft x-ray microscopy using pulsed fs-high-harmonic radiation,” Ultramicroscopy 102, 93–100 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wilhein, T.

M. Wieland, Ch. Spielmann, U. Kleineberg, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Heinzmann, and T. Wilhein, “Toward time-resolved soft x-ray microscopy using pulsed fs-high-harmonic radiation,” Ultramicroscopy 102, 93–100 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Winterfeldt, C.

R. Spitzenpfeil, S. Eyring, C. Kern, C. Ott, J. Lohbreier, J. Henneberger, N. Franke, S. Jung, D. Walter, M. Weger, C. Winterfeldt, T. Pfeifer, and C. Spielmann, “Enhancing the brilliance of high-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys A 96, 69–81 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light, 7th ed. (Cambridge University Press, 1999).
[PubMed]

Yoshitomi, D.

D. Yoshitomi, J. Nees, N. Miyamoto, T. Sekikawa, T. Kanai, G. Mourou, and S. Watanabe, “Phase-matched enhancements of high-harmonic soft x-rays by adaptive wave-front control with a genetic algorithm,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 275–280 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zeitoun, P.

M. Fajardo, P. Zeitoun, G. Faivre, S. Sebban, T. Mocek, A. Hallou, D. Aubert, P. Balcou, F. Burgy, D. Douillet, P. Mercère, A. S. Morlens, J. P. Rousseau, C. Valentin, S. Kazamias, G. Lachèze-Murel, T. Lefrou, H. Merdji, S. Le Pape, M. F. Ravet, F. Delmotte, and J. Gautier, “Second generation x-ray lasers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 99, 142–152 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

Zhou, X.

Appl. Phys A (1)

R. Spitzenpfeil, S. Eyring, C. Kern, C. Ott, J. Lohbreier, J. Henneberger, N. Franke, S. Jung, D. Walter, M. Weger, C. Winterfeldt, T. Pfeifer, and C. Spielmann, “Enhancing the brilliance of high-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys A 96, 69–81 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

D. Yoshitomi, J. Nees, N. Miyamoto, T. Sekikawa, T. Kanai, G. Mourou, and S. Watanabe, “Phase-matched enhancements of high-harmonic soft x-rays by adaptive wave-front control with a genetic algorithm,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 275–280 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Walter, S. Eyring, J. Lohbreier, R. Spitzenpfeil, and C. Spielmann, “Spatial optimization of filaments,” Appl. Phys. B 88, 175–178 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. (1)

R. Bartels, S. Backus, I. Christov, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, “Attosecond time-scale feedback control of coherent x-ray generation,” Chem. Phys. 267, 277–289 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

H. M. Quiney, “Coherent diffractive imaging using short wavelength light sources,” J. Mod. Opt. 57, 1109–1149 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. (1)

M. Fajardo, P. Zeitoun, G. Faivre, S. Sebban, T. Mocek, A. Hallou, D. Aubert, P. Balcou, F. Burgy, D. Douillet, P. Mercère, A. S. Morlens, J. P. Rousseau, C. Valentin, S. Kazamias, G. Lachèze-Murel, T. Lefrou, H. Merdji, S. Le Pape, M. F. Ravet, F. Delmotte, and J. Gautier, “Second generation x-ray lasers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 99, 142–152 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

A. Sakdinawat and D. Attwood, “Nanoscale x-ray imaging,” Nat. Photonics 4, 840–848 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (1)

P. Tzallas, E. Skantzakis, L. A. A. Nikolopoulos, G. D. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, “Extreme-ultraviolet pump-probe studies of one-femtosecond-scale electron dynamics,” Nat. Phys. 7, 781– 784 (2011).
[CrossRef]

New. J. Phys. (2)

D. H. Ko, K. T. Kim, J. Park, J.-H. Lee, and C. H. Nam, “Attosecond chirp compensation over broadband high-order harmonics to generate near transform-limited 63 as pulses,” New. J. Phys. 12, 063008 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lohbreier, S. Eyring, R. Spitzenpfeil, C. Kern, M. Weger, and C. Spielmann, “Maximizing the brilliance of high-order harmonics in a gas jet,” New. J. Phys. 11, 023016 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

P. Balcou, P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Generalized phase-matching conditions for high harmonics: the role of field-gradient forces,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 3204–3210 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

P. Antoine, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Attosecond pulse trains using high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1234–1237 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ultramicroscopy (1)

M. Wieland, Ch. Spielmann, U. Kleineberg, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Heinzmann, and T. Wilhein, “Toward time-resolved soft x-ray microscopy using pulsed fs-high-harmonic radiation,” Ultramicroscopy 102, 93–100 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light, 7th ed. (Cambridge University Press, 1999).
[PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Setup for high-order harmonic generation with wavefront controlled laser pulses. The laser beam is spatially shaped before it is focused into the generation chamber. The generated high-order harmonics are refocused onto a spectrometer where they are analyzed. A long-working-distance microscope is available to measure the beam profile of the fundamental laser beam near the focus.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The high-order harmonic spectrum before (black curve) and after (red curve) optimization. The optimization goal was set to increase the overall high-order harmonic yield in the regions B and C. The order of each harmonic is shown on top of the harmonic line. The spectra are rescaled for a better readability while preserving the relative intensities.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Beam profile of the reference beam at full intensity with argon gas (120 mbar backing pressure) as interaction medium. The spatial resolution of the beam profile measurement is about 5 μm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Phase-mask applied to the SLM to create the optimized laser beam. The phase-mask is dominated by large Zernike coefficients for trefoil, coma and astigmatism.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Beam profile of the optimized beam calculated from the SLM phase-mask assuming a Gaussian beam profile. The spatial resolution of the calculation is 10 μm. (b) Beam profile of the optimized beam at low intensity (attenuation: 10−9 in front of focusing lens) with no interaction medium present. (c) Beam profile of the optimized beam at full intensity with argon gas (120 mbar backing pressure) as interaction medium. The spatial resolution of the beam profile measurement is about 5 μm.

Equations (2)

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W ( x , y ) = n c n Z n ( x , y )
F B + C .

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