Abstract

Materials presenting high optical nonlinearity, such as materials containing metal nanoparticles (NPs), can be used in various applications in photonics. This motivated the research presented in this paper, where morphological, linear and nonlinear optical characteristics of gold NPs on the surface of bulk soda-lime glass substrates were investigated as a function of nanoparticle height. The NPs were obtained by annealing gold (Au) thin films previously deposited on the substrates. Pixel intensity histogram fitting on Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) images was performed to obtain the thickness of the deposited film. Image analysis was employed to obtain the statistical distribution of the average height of the NPs. In addition, absorbance spectra of the samples before and after annealing were measured. Finally, the nonlinear refractive index (n2) and the nonlinear absorption index (α2) at 800 nm were obtained before and after annealing by using the thermally managed eclipse Z-scan (TM-EZ) technique with a Ti:Sapphire laser (150 fs pulses). Results show that both n2 and α2 at this wavelength change signs after the annealing and that the samples presented a high nonlinear refractive index.

© 2012 OSA

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  3. J. W. Haus, H. S. Zhou, S. Takami, M. Hirasawa, I. Honma, and H. Komiyama, “Enhanced optical properties of metal-coated nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(3), 1043–1048 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. J. Haes and R. P. Duyne, “A unified view of propagating and localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 379(7-8), 920–930 (2004).
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  5. P. M. P. Gouvêa, H. Jang, I. C. S. Carvalho, M. Cremona, A. M. B. Braga, and M. Fokine, “Internal specular reflection from nanoparticle layers on the end face of optical fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 103114 (2011).
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  6. F. Z. Henari and A. A. Dakhel, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of gold nanoparticle-Eu oxide composite thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(3), 033110 (2008).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  25. G. Lenz, J. Zimmermann, T. Katsufuji, M. E. Lines, H. Y. Hwang, S. Spälter, R. E. Slusher, S.-W. Cheong, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Large Kerr effect in bulk Se-based chalcogenide glasses,” Opt. Lett. 25(4), 254–256 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. K. W. DeLong, K. B. Rochford, and G. I. Stegeman, “Effect of two-photon absorption on all-optical guided-wave devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55(18), 1823–1825 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  27. R. F. Souza, M. A. R. C. Alencar, E. C. da Silva, M. R. Meneghetti, and J. M. Hickmann, “Nonlinear optical properties of Au nanoparticles colloidal system: local and nonlocal responses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 201902 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2011

P. M. P. Gouvêa, H. Jang, I. C. S. Carvalho, M. Cremona, A. M. B. Braga, and M. Fokine, “Internal specular reflection from nanoparticle layers on the end face of optical fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 103114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

K. Wang, H. Long, M. Fu, G. Yang, and P. Lu, “Intensity-dependent reversal of nonlinearity sign in a gold nanoparticle array,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1560–1562 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Shahriari, W. M. M. Yunus, and E. Saion, “Effect of particle size on nonlinear refractive index of Au nanoparticle in PVA solution,” Braz. J. Phys. 40(2), 256–260 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

R. P. de Melo, B. J. P. da Silva, F. E. P. dos Santos, A. Azevedo, and C. B. de Araújo, “Nonlinear refraction properties of nickel oxide thin films at 800nm,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(9), 093517 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

F. Z. Henari and A. A. Dakhel, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of gold nanoparticle-Eu oxide composite thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(3), 033110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, X. Kou, Z. Yang, W. Ni, and J. Wang, “Shape- and size-dependent refractive index sensitivity of gold nanoparticles,” Langmuir 24(10), 5233–5237 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Souza, M. A. R. C. Alencar, E. C. da Silva, M. R. Meneghetti, and J. M. Hickmann, “Nonlinear optical properties of Au nanoparticles colloidal system: local and nonlocal responses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 201902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

A. S. L. Gomes, E. L. Filho, C. B. de Araújo, D. Rativa, and R. E. de Araujo, “Thermally managed eclipse Z-scan,” Opt. Express 15(4), 1712–1717 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Ghosh, P. Chakraborty, S. Mohapatra, P. A. Kurian, C. Vijayan, P. C. Deshmukh, and P. Mazzoldi, “Linear and nonlinear optical absorption in copper nanocluster-glass composites,” Mater. Lett. 61(23-24), 4512–4515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

P. K. Jain, K. S. Lee, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Calculated absorption and scattering properties of gold nanoparticles of different size, shape, and composition: applications in biological imaging and biomedicine,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(14), 7238–7248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

K. Jamshidi-Ghaleh, N. Mansour, and A. Namdar, “Nonlinear optical properties of sodalime glass at 800-nm femtosecond irradiation,” Laser Phys. 15, 1714–1717 (2005).

2004

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, M. Baba, M. Suzuki, N. Ishizawa, M. Turu, S. Sakakibara, and H. Kuroda, “Nonlinear refraction in CS2,” Appl. Phys. B 78(3-4), 433–438 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Haes and R. P. Duyne, “A unified view of propagating and localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 379(7-8), 920–930 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Doron-Mor, Z. Barkay, N. Filip-Granit, A. Vaskevich, and I. Rubinstein, “Ultrathin gold island films on silanized glass. Morphology and optical properties,” Chem. Mater. 16(18), 3476–3483 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: the influence of size, shape and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(3), 668–677 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000

F. Meriaudeau, A. Wig, A. Passian, T. Downey, M. Buncick, and T. L. Ferrell, “Gold island fiber optic sensor for refractive index sensing,” Sens. Actuators B 69(1-2), 51–57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Lenz, J. Zimmermann, T. Katsufuji, M. E. Lines, H. Y. Hwang, S. Spälter, R. E. Slusher, S.-W. Cheong, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Large Kerr effect in bulk Se-based chalcogenide glasses,” Opt. Lett. 25(4), 254–256 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

R. D. Averitt, S. L. Westcott, and N. J. Halas, “Linear optical properties of gold nanoshells,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(10), 1824–1832 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Smith, Y. Yoon, R. W. Boyd, J. K. Campbell, L. A. Baker, R. M. Crooks, and M. George, “Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear absorption of a thin gold film,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(11), 6200–6205 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

J. S. Villarrubia, “Algorithms for scanned probe microscope image simulation, surface reconstruction, and tip estimation,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 102, 425–454 (1997).

1993

J. W. Haus, H. S. Zhou, S. Takami, M. Hirasawa, I. Honma, and H. Komiyama, “Enhanced optical properties of metal-coated nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(3), 1043–1048 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

K. W. DeLong, K. B. Rochford, and G. I. Stegeman, “Effect of two-photon absorption on all-optical guided-wave devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55(18), 1823–1825 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986

F. Hache, D. Ricard, and C. Flytzanis, “Optical nonlinearities of small metal particles: surface-mediated resonance and quantum size effects,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3(12), 1647–1655 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Warmack and S. L. Humphrey, “Observation of two surface-plasmon modes on gold particles,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 34(4), 2246–2252 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1958

W. T. Doyle, “Absorption of light by colloids in alkali halide crystals,” Phys. Rev. 111(4), 1067–1072 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Aggarwal, I. D.

Alencar, M. A. R. C.

R. F. Souza, M. A. R. C. Alencar, E. C. da Silva, M. R. Meneghetti, and J. M. Hickmann, “Nonlinear optical properties of Au nanoparticles colloidal system: local and nonlocal responses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 201902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Averitt, R. D.

Azevedo, A.

R. P. de Melo, B. J. P. da Silva, F. E. P. dos Santos, A. Azevedo, and C. B. de Araújo, “Nonlinear refraction properties of nickel oxide thin films at 800nm,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(9), 093517 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baba, M.

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, M. Baba, M. Suzuki, N. Ishizawa, M. Turu, S. Sakakibara, and H. Kuroda, “Nonlinear refraction in CS2,” Appl. Phys. B 78(3-4), 433–438 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Baker, L. A.

D. D. Smith, Y. Yoon, R. W. Boyd, J. K. Campbell, L. A. Baker, R. M. Crooks, and M. George, “Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear absorption of a thin gold film,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(11), 6200–6205 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Barkay, Z.

I. Doron-Mor, Z. Barkay, N. Filip-Granit, A. Vaskevich, and I. Rubinstein, “Ultrathin gold island films on silanized glass. Morphology and optical properties,” Chem. Mater. 16(18), 3476–3483 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R. W.

D. D. Smith, Y. Yoon, R. W. Boyd, J. K. Campbell, L. A. Baker, R. M. Crooks, and M. George, “Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear absorption of a thin gold film,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(11), 6200–6205 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Braga, A. M. B.

P. M. P. Gouvêa, H. Jang, I. C. S. Carvalho, M. Cremona, A. M. B. Braga, and M. Fokine, “Internal specular reflection from nanoparticle layers on the end face of optical fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 103114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Buncick, M.

F. Meriaudeau, A. Wig, A. Passian, T. Downey, M. Buncick, and T. L. Ferrell, “Gold island fiber optic sensor for refractive index sensing,” Sens. Actuators B 69(1-2), 51–57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, J. K.

D. D. Smith, Y. Yoon, R. W. Boyd, J. K. Campbell, L. A. Baker, R. M. Crooks, and M. George, “Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear absorption of a thin gold film,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(11), 6200–6205 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Carvalho, I. C. S.

P. M. P. Gouvêa, H. Jang, I. C. S. Carvalho, M. Cremona, A. M. B. Braga, and M. Fokine, “Internal specular reflection from nanoparticle layers on the end face of optical fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 103114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chakraborty, P.

B. Ghosh, P. Chakraborty, S. Mohapatra, P. A. Kurian, C. Vijayan, P. C. Deshmukh, and P. Mazzoldi, “Linear and nonlinear optical absorption in copper nanocluster-glass composites,” Mater. Lett. 61(23-24), 4512–4515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

H. Chen, X. Kou, Z. Yang, W. Ni, and J. Wang, “Shape- and size-dependent refractive index sensitivity of gold nanoparticles,” Langmuir 24(10), 5233–5237 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheong, S.-W.

Coronado, E.

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: the influence of size, shape and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(3), 668–677 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cremona, M.

P. M. P. Gouvêa, H. Jang, I. C. S. Carvalho, M. Cremona, A. M. B. Braga, and M. Fokine, “Internal specular reflection from nanoparticle layers on the end face of optical fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 103114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Crooks, R. M.

D. D. Smith, Y. Yoon, R. W. Boyd, J. K. Campbell, L. A. Baker, R. M. Crooks, and M. George, “Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear absorption of a thin gold film,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(11), 6200–6205 (1999).
[CrossRef]

da Silva, B. J. P.

R. P. de Melo, B. J. P. da Silva, F. E. P. dos Santos, A. Azevedo, and C. B. de Araújo, “Nonlinear refraction properties of nickel oxide thin films at 800nm,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(9), 093517 (2009).
[CrossRef]

da Silva, E. C.

R. F. Souza, M. A. R. C. Alencar, E. C. da Silva, M. R. Meneghetti, and J. M. Hickmann, “Nonlinear optical properties of Au nanoparticles colloidal system: local and nonlocal responses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 201902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dakhel, A. A.

F. Z. Henari and A. A. Dakhel, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of gold nanoparticle-Eu oxide composite thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(3), 033110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

de Araujo, R. E.

de Araújo, C. B.

R. P. de Melo, B. J. P. da Silva, F. E. P. dos Santos, A. Azevedo, and C. B. de Araújo, “Nonlinear refraction properties of nickel oxide thin films at 800nm,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(9), 093517 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. S. L. Gomes, E. L. Filho, C. B. de Araújo, D. Rativa, and R. E. de Araujo, “Thermally managed eclipse Z-scan,” Opt. Express 15(4), 1712–1717 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Melo, R. P.

R. P. de Melo, B. J. P. da Silva, F. E. P. dos Santos, A. Azevedo, and C. B. de Araújo, “Nonlinear refraction properties of nickel oxide thin films at 800nm,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(9), 093517 (2009).
[CrossRef]

DeLong, K. W.

K. W. DeLong, K. B. Rochford, and G. I. Stegeman, “Effect of two-photon absorption on all-optical guided-wave devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55(18), 1823–1825 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Deshmukh, P. C.

B. Ghosh, P. Chakraborty, S. Mohapatra, P. A. Kurian, C. Vijayan, P. C. Deshmukh, and P. Mazzoldi, “Linear and nonlinear optical absorption in copper nanocluster-glass composites,” Mater. Lett. 61(23-24), 4512–4515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Doron-Mor, I.

I. Doron-Mor, Z. Barkay, N. Filip-Granit, A. Vaskevich, and I. Rubinstein, “Ultrathin gold island films on silanized glass. Morphology and optical properties,” Chem. Mater. 16(18), 3476–3483 (2004).
[CrossRef]

dos Santos, F. E. P.

R. P. de Melo, B. J. P. da Silva, F. E. P. dos Santos, A. Azevedo, and C. B. de Araújo, “Nonlinear refraction properties of nickel oxide thin films at 800nm,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(9), 093517 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Downey, T.

F. Meriaudeau, A. Wig, A. Passian, T. Downey, M. Buncick, and T. L. Ferrell, “Gold island fiber optic sensor for refractive index sensing,” Sens. Actuators B 69(1-2), 51–57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Doyle, W. T.

W. T. Doyle, “Absorption of light by colloids in alkali halide crystals,” Phys. Rev. 111(4), 1067–1072 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Duyne, R. P.

A. J. Haes and R. P. Duyne, “A unified view of propagating and localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 379(7-8), 920–930 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El-Sayed, I. H.

P. K. Jain, K. S. Lee, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Calculated absorption and scattering properties of gold nanoparticles of different size, shape, and composition: applications in biological imaging and biomedicine,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(14), 7238–7248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El-Sayed, M. A.

P. K. Jain, K. S. Lee, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Calculated absorption and scattering properties of gold nanoparticles of different size, shape, and composition: applications in biological imaging and biomedicine,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(14), 7238–7248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferrell, T. L.

F. Meriaudeau, A. Wig, A. Passian, T. Downey, M. Buncick, and T. L. Ferrell, “Gold island fiber optic sensor for refractive index sensing,” Sens. Actuators B 69(1-2), 51–57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Filho, E. L.

Filip-Granit, N.

I. Doron-Mor, Z. Barkay, N. Filip-Granit, A. Vaskevich, and I. Rubinstein, “Ultrathin gold island films on silanized glass. Morphology and optical properties,” Chem. Mater. 16(18), 3476–3483 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Flytzanis, C.

Fokine, M.

P. M. P. Gouvêa, H. Jang, I. C. S. Carvalho, M. Cremona, A. M. B. Braga, and M. Fokine, “Internal specular reflection from nanoparticle layers on the end face of optical fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 103114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fu, M.

Ganeev, R. A.

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, M. Baba, M. Suzuki, N. Ishizawa, M. Turu, S. Sakakibara, and H. Kuroda, “Nonlinear refraction in CS2,” Appl. Phys. B 78(3-4), 433–438 (2004).
[CrossRef]

George, M.

D. D. Smith, Y. Yoon, R. W. Boyd, J. K. Campbell, L. A. Baker, R. M. Crooks, and M. George, “Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear absorption of a thin gold film,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(11), 6200–6205 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ghosh, B.

B. Ghosh, P. Chakraborty, S. Mohapatra, P. A. Kurian, C. Vijayan, P. C. Deshmukh, and P. Mazzoldi, “Linear and nonlinear optical absorption in copper nanocluster-glass composites,” Mater. Lett. 61(23-24), 4512–4515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gomes, A. S. L.

Gouvêa, P. M. P.

P. M. P. Gouvêa, H. Jang, I. C. S. Carvalho, M. Cremona, A. M. B. Braga, and M. Fokine, “Internal specular reflection from nanoparticle layers on the end face of optical fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 103114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hache, F.

Haes, A. J.

A. J. Haes and R. P. Duyne, “A unified view of propagating and localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 379(7-8), 920–930 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hagan, D. J.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Halas, N. J.

Haus, J. W.

J. W. Haus, H. S. Zhou, S. Takami, M. Hirasawa, I. Honma, and H. Komiyama, “Enhanced optical properties of metal-coated nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(3), 1043–1048 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Henari, F. Z.

F. Z. Henari and A. A. Dakhel, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of gold nanoparticle-Eu oxide composite thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(3), 033110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hickmann, J. M.

R. F. Souza, M. A. R. C. Alencar, E. C. da Silva, M. R. Meneghetti, and J. M. Hickmann, “Nonlinear optical properties of Au nanoparticles colloidal system: local and nonlocal responses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 201902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hirasawa, M.

J. W. Haus, H. S. Zhou, S. Takami, M. Hirasawa, I. Honma, and H. Komiyama, “Enhanced optical properties of metal-coated nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(3), 1043–1048 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Honma, I.

J. W. Haus, H. S. Zhou, S. Takami, M. Hirasawa, I. Honma, and H. Komiyama, “Enhanced optical properties of metal-coated nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(3), 1043–1048 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Humphrey, S. L.

R. J. Warmack and S. L. Humphrey, “Observation of two surface-plasmon modes on gold particles,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 34(4), 2246–2252 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hwang, H. Y.

Ishizawa, N.

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, M. Baba, M. Suzuki, N. Ishizawa, M. Turu, S. Sakakibara, and H. Kuroda, “Nonlinear refraction in CS2,” Appl. Phys. B 78(3-4), 433–438 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jain, P. K.

P. K. Jain, K. S. Lee, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Calculated absorption and scattering properties of gold nanoparticles of different size, shape, and composition: applications in biological imaging and biomedicine,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(14), 7238–7248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jamshidi-Ghaleh, K.

K. Jamshidi-Ghaleh, N. Mansour, and A. Namdar, “Nonlinear optical properties of sodalime glass at 800-nm femtosecond irradiation,” Laser Phys. 15, 1714–1717 (2005).

Jang, H.

P. M. P. Gouvêa, H. Jang, I. C. S. Carvalho, M. Cremona, A. M. B. Braga, and M. Fokine, “Internal specular reflection from nanoparticle layers on the end face of optical fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 103114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Katsufuji, T.

Kelly, K. L.

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: the influence of size, shape and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(3), 668–677 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Komiyama, H.

J. W. Haus, H. S. Zhou, S. Takami, M. Hirasawa, I. Honma, and H. Komiyama, “Enhanced optical properties of metal-coated nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(3), 1043–1048 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kou, X.

H. Chen, X. Kou, Z. Yang, W. Ni, and J. Wang, “Shape- and size-dependent refractive index sensitivity of gold nanoparticles,” Langmuir 24(10), 5233–5237 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurian, P. A.

B. Ghosh, P. Chakraborty, S. Mohapatra, P. A. Kurian, C. Vijayan, P. C. Deshmukh, and P. Mazzoldi, “Linear and nonlinear optical absorption in copper nanocluster-glass composites,” Mater. Lett. 61(23-24), 4512–4515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kuroda, H.

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, M. Baba, M. Suzuki, N. Ishizawa, M. Turu, S. Sakakibara, and H. Kuroda, “Nonlinear refraction in CS2,” Appl. Phys. B 78(3-4), 433–438 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. S.

P. K. Jain, K. S. Lee, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Calculated absorption and scattering properties of gold nanoparticles of different size, shape, and composition: applications in biological imaging and biomedicine,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(14), 7238–7248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lenz, G.

Lines, M. E.

Long, H.

Lu, P.

Mansour, N.

K. Jamshidi-Ghaleh, N. Mansour, and A. Namdar, “Nonlinear optical properties of sodalime glass at 800-nm femtosecond irradiation,” Laser Phys. 15, 1714–1717 (2005).

Mazzoldi, P.

B. Ghosh, P. Chakraborty, S. Mohapatra, P. A. Kurian, C. Vijayan, P. C. Deshmukh, and P. Mazzoldi, “Linear and nonlinear optical absorption in copper nanocluster-glass composites,” Mater. Lett. 61(23-24), 4512–4515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Meneghetti, M. R.

R. F. Souza, M. A. R. C. Alencar, E. C. da Silva, M. R. Meneghetti, and J. M. Hickmann, “Nonlinear optical properties of Au nanoparticles colloidal system: local and nonlocal responses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 201902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Meriaudeau, F.

F. Meriaudeau, A. Wig, A. Passian, T. Downey, M. Buncick, and T. L. Ferrell, “Gold island fiber optic sensor for refractive index sensing,” Sens. Actuators B 69(1-2), 51–57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mohapatra, S.

B. Ghosh, P. Chakraborty, S. Mohapatra, P. A. Kurian, C. Vijayan, P. C. Deshmukh, and P. Mazzoldi, “Linear and nonlinear optical absorption in copper nanocluster-glass composites,” Mater. Lett. 61(23-24), 4512–4515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Namdar, A.

K. Jamshidi-Ghaleh, N. Mansour, and A. Namdar, “Nonlinear optical properties of sodalime glass at 800-nm femtosecond irradiation,” Laser Phys. 15, 1714–1717 (2005).

Ni, W.

H. Chen, X. Kou, Z. Yang, W. Ni, and J. Wang, “Shape- and size-dependent refractive index sensitivity of gold nanoparticles,” Langmuir 24(10), 5233–5237 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Passian, A.

F. Meriaudeau, A. Wig, A. Passian, T. Downey, M. Buncick, and T. L. Ferrell, “Gold island fiber optic sensor for refractive index sensing,” Sens. Actuators B 69(1-2), 51–57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rativa, D.

Ricard, D.

Rochford, K. B.

K. W. DeLong, K. B. Rochford, and G. I. Stegeman, “Effect of two-photon absorption on all-optical guided-wave devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55(18), 1823–1825 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Rubinstein, I.

I. Doron-Mor, Z. Barkay, N. Filip-Granit, A. Vaskevich, and I. Rubinstein, “Ultrathin gold island films on silanized glass. Morphology and optical properties,” Chem. Mater. 16(18), 3476–3483 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ryasnyansky, A. I.

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, M. Baba, M. Suzuki, N. Ishizawa, M. Turu, S. Sakakibara, and H. Kuroda, “Nonlinear refraction in CS2,” Appl. Phys. B 78(3-4), 433–438 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Said, A. A.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Saion, E.

E. Shahriari, W. M. M. Yunus, and E. Saion, “Effect of particle size on nonlinear refractive index of Au nanoparticle in PVA solution,” Braz. J. Phys. 40(2), 256–260 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sakakibara, S.

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, M. Baba, M. Suzuki, N. Ishizawa, M. Turu, S. Sakakibara, and H. Kuroda, “Nonlinear refraction in CS2,” Appl. Phys. B 78(3-4), 433–438 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sanghera, J. S.

Schatz, G. C.

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: the influence of size, shape and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(3), 668–677 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shahriari, E.

E. Shahriari, W. M. M. Yunus, and E. Saion, “Effect of particle size on nonlinear refractive index of Au nanoparticle in PVA solution,” Braz. J. Phys. 40(2), 256–260 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Slusher, R. E.

Smith, D. D.

D. D. Smith, Y. Yoon, R. W. Boyd, J. K. Campbell, L. A. Baker, R. M. Crooks, and M. George, “Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear absorption of a thin gold film,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(11), 6200–6205 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Souza, R. F.

R. F. Souza, M. A. R. C. Alencar, E. C. da Silva, M. R. Meneghetti, and J. M. Hickmann, “Nonlinear optical properties of Au nanoparticles colloidal system: local and nonlocal responses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 201902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Spälter, S.

Stegeman, G. I.

K. W. DeLong, K. B. Rochford, and G. I. Stegeman, “Effect of two-photon absorption on all-optical guided-wave devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55(18), 1823–1825 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, M.

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, M. Baba, M. Suzuki, N. Ishizawa, M. Turu, S. Sakakibara, and H. Kuroda, “Nonlinear refraction in CS2,” Appl. Phys. B 78(3-4), 433–438 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Takami, S.

J. W. Haus, H. S. Zhou, S. Takami, M. Hirasawa, I. Honma, and H. Komiyama, “Enhanced optical properties of metal-coated nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(3), 1043–1048 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Turu, M.

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, M. Baba, M. Suzuki, N. Ishizawa, M. Turu, S. Sakakibara, and H. Kuroda, “Nonlinear refraction in CS2,” Appl. Phys. B 78(3-4), 433–438 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Vaskevich, A.

I. Doron-Mor, Z. Barkay, N. Filip-Granit, A. Vaskevich, and I. Rubinstein, “Ultrathin gold island films on silanized glass. Morphology and optical properties,” Chem. Mater. 16(18), 3476–3483 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vijayan, C.

B. Ghosh, P. Chakraborty, S. Mohapatra, P. A. Kurian, C. Vijayan, P. C. Deshmukh, and P. Mazzoldi, “Linear and nonlinear optical absorption in copper nanocluster-glass composites,” Mater. Lett. 61(23-24), 4512–4515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Villarrubia, J. S.

J. S. Villarrubia, “Algorithms for scanned probe microscope image simulation, surface reconstruction, and tip estimation,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 102, 425–454 (1997).

Wang, J.

H. Chen, X. Kou, Z. Yang, W. Ni, and J. Wang, “Shape- and size-dependent refractive index sensitivity of gold nanoparticles,” Langmuir 24(10), 5233–5237 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, K.

Warmack, R. J.

R. J. Warmack and S. L. Humphrey, “Observation of two surface-plasmon modes on gold particles,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 34(4), 2246–2252 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, T.-H.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Westcott, S. L.

Wig, A.

F. Meriaudeau, A. Wig, A. Passian, T. Downey, M. Buncick, and T. L. Ferrell, “Gold island fiber optic sensor for refractive index sensing,” Sens. Actuators B 69(1-2), 51–57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yang, G.

Yang, Z.

H. Chen, X. Kou, Z. Yang, W. Ni, and J. Wang, “Shape- and size-dependent refractive index sensitivity of gold nanoparticles,” Langmuir 24(10), 5233–5237 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoon, Y.

D. D. Smith, Y. Yoon, R. W. Boyd, J. K. Campbell, L. A. Baker, R. M. Crooks, and M. George, “Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear absorption of a thin gold film,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(11), 6200–6205 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yunus, W. M. M.

E. Shahriari, W. M. M. Yunus, and E. Saion, “Effect of particle size on nonlinear refractive index of Au nanoparticle in PVA solution,” Braz. J. Phys. 40(2), 256–260 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, L. L.

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: the influence of size, shape and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(3), 668–677 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, H. S.

J. W. Haus, H. S. Zhou, S. Takami, M. Hirasawa, I. Honma, and H. Komiyama, “Enhanced optical properties of metal-coated nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(3), 1043–1048 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zimmermann, J.

Anal. Bioanal. Chem.

A. J. Haes and R. P. Duyne, “A unified view of propagating and localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 379(7-8), 920–930 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, M. Baba, M. Suzuki, N. Ishizawa, M. Turu, S. Sakakibara, and H. Kuroda, “Nonlinear refraction in CS2,” Appl. Phys. B 78(3-4), 433–438 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

K. W. DeLong, K. B. Rochford, and G. I. Stegeman, “Effect of two-photon absorption on all-optical guided-wave devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55(18), 1823–1825 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Souza, M. A. R. C. Alencar, E. C. da Silva, M. R. Meneghetti, and J. M. Hickmann, “Nonlinear optical properties of Au nanoparticles colloidal system: local and nonlocal responses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 201902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Braz. J. Phys.

E. Shahriari, W. M. M. Yunus, and E. Saion, “Effect of particle size on nonlinear refractive index of Au nanoparticle in PVA solution,” Braz. J. Phys. 40(2), 256–260 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater.

I. Doron-Mor, Z. Barkay, N. Filip-Granit, A. Vaskevich, and I. Rubinstein, “Ultrathin gold island films on silanized glass. Morphology and optical properties,” Chem. Mater. 16(18), 3476–3483 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

J. W. Haus, H. S. Zhou, S. Takami, M. Hirasawa, I. Honma, and H. Komiyama, “Enhanced optical properties of metal-coated nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(3), 1043–1048 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. M. P. Gouvêa, H. Jang, I. C. S. Carvalho, M. Cremona, A. M. B. Braga, and M. Fokine, “Internal specular reflection from nanoparticle layers on the end face of optical fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 103114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Z. Henari and A. A. Dakhel, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of gold nanoparticle-Eu oxide composite thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(3), 033110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. P. de Melo, B. J. P. da Silva, F. E. P. dos Santos, A. Azevedo, and C. B. de Araújo, “Nonlinear refraction properties of nickel oxide thin films at 800nm,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(9), 093517 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Smith, Y. Yoon, R. W. Boyd, J. K. Campbell, L. A. Baker, R. M. Crooks, and M. George, “Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear absorption of a thin gold film,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(11), 6200–6205 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. Chem. B

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: the influence of size, shape and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(3), 668–677 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Jain, K. S. Lee, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Calculated absorption and scattering properties of gold nanoparticles of different size, shape, and composition: applications in biological imaging and biomedicine,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(14), 7238–7248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol.

J. S. Villarrubia, “Algorithms for scanned probe microscope image simulation, surface reconstruction, and tip estimation,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 102, 425–454 (1997).

Langmuir

H. Chen, X. Kou, Z. Yang, W. Ni, and J. Wang, “Shape- and size-dependent refractive index sensitivity of gold nanoparticles,” Langmuir 24(10), 5233–5237 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laser Phys.

K. Jamshidi-Ghaleh, N. Mansour, and A. Namdar, “Nonlinear optical properties of sodalime glass at 800-nm femtosecond irradiation,” Laser Phys. 15, 1714–1717 (2005).

Mater. Lett.

B. Ghosh, P. Chakraborty, S. Mohapatra, P. A. Kurian, C. Vijayan, P. C. Deshmukh, and P. Mazzoldi, “Linear and nonlinear optical absorption in copper nanocluster-glass composites,” Mater. Lett. 61(23-24), 4512–4515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev.

W. T. Doyle, “Absorption of light by colloids in alkali halide crystals,” Phys. Rev. 111(4), 1067–1072 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter

R. J. Warmack and S. L. Humphrey, “Observation of two surface-plasmon modes on gold particles,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 34(4), 2246–2252 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sens. Actuators B

F. Meriaudeau, A. Wig, A. Passian, T. Downey, M. Buncick, and T. L. Ferrell, “Gold island fiber optic sensor for refractive index sensing,” Sens. Actuators B 69(1-2), 51–57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other

S. Paciornik and M. H. P. Mauricio, “Digital imaging” in ASM Handbook Vol. 9 Metallography and Microstructures, G. F. V. Voort (ASM International, Materials Park, OH, 2004).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

TM-EZ scan setup, where L1-L5 are converging lenses, Det 1 and Det 2 are photodetectors and B.S. is a beam splitter [figure adapted from ref. 13].

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Height histograms and corresponding AFM images (inset) for a sample with Au film deposited with thickness equal to 6 nm (a) before and (b) after annealing, and for a sample with Au film deposited with thickness equal to 15 nm (c) before and (d) after annealing. The dashed curves are Gaussian fits.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

AFM images of Au thin films deposited with thickness equal to 6 nm [(a) before and (b) after annealing] and 15 nm [(c) before and (d) after annealing].

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Distribution of average NP height formed by annealing the 15 nm Au film, as determined by image analysis.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Absorbance spectra for samples with Au film deposited with thickness equal to 6 nm: as deposited (blue), and annealed at 400°C (red), 600°C (black) and 800°C (cyan).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Absorbance measurements (a) before annealing (as deposited) and (b) after annealing at 600 °C for 4 minutes of Au thin films deposited on bulk glass with thickness equal to: 6 nm (black), 10 nm (red) and 15 nm (blue).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

TM-EZ scan curves before annealing and after annealing at 600 °C for 4 minutes for (a) a sample with an Au film deposited with thickness of 15 nm and for (b) a refence soda-lime substrate.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Thickness and optical properties for the two samples, before and after annealing at 600°C for 4 minutes. S6 – Au thickness of 6 nm. S15 – Au thickness of 15 nm.

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