Abstract

A diffraction grating is proposed by periodically defining the liquid-crystal director distribution to form alternate parallel aligned and twist nematic regions in a cell placed between two crossed polarizers. Based on the combined phase and amplitude modulation, both 1D and 2D tunable gratings are demonstrated. Low voltage ON/OFF switching of 1st order diffracted light with extinction ratio over 80 is achieved within a small voltage interval of 0.15 Vrms. Unique four-state feature of the cell is obtained and their applications in optical logic devices are discussed.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. E. Jang, H. R. Kim, Y. J. Na, and S. D. Lee, “Multistage optical memory of a liquid crystal diffraction grating in a single beam rewriting scheme,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 071109 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. X. W. Lin, J. B. Wu, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, Z. J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B. B. Jin, and Y. Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Advances 1(3), 032133 (2011).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. J. Kim, J. H. Na, and S. D. Lee, “Fully continuous liquid crystal diffraction grating with alternating semi-circular alignment by imprinting,” Opt. Express 20(3), 3034–3042 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. Y. X. Zhang, Y. P. Chen, and X. F. Chen, “Polarization-based all-optical logic controlled-NOT, XOR, and XNOR gates employing electro-optic effect in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(16), 161117 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  29. J. H. Kim, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “Tristable nematic liquid-crystal device using micropatterned surface alignment,” Nature 420(6912), 159–162 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. Y. Q. Lu, X. Liang, Y. H. Wu, F. Du, and S. T. Wu, “Dual-frequency addressed hybrid-aligned nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(16), 3354–3356 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

2011 (4)

J. Yan, Y. Li, and S. T. Wu, “High-efficiency and fast-response tunable phase grating using a blue phase liquid crystal,” Opt. Lett. 36(8), 1404–1406 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. W. Lin, J. B. Wu, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, Z. J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B. B. Jin, and Y. Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Advances 1(3), 032133 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Srivastava, E. P. Pozhidaev, V. G. Chigrinov, and R. Manohar, “Single walled carbon nano-tube, ferroelectric liquid crystal composites: Excellent diffractive tool,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. X. Zhang, Y. P. Chen, and X. F. Chen, “Polarization-based all-optical logic controlled-NOT, XOR, and XNOR gates employing electro-optic effect in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(16), 161117 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2007 (2)

E. Jang, H. R. Kim, Y. J. Na, and S. D. Lee, “Multistage optical memory of a liquid crystal diffraction grating in a single beam rewriting scheme,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 071109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Y. Wu and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Rewritable liquid crystal gratings fabricated using photoalignment effect in dye-doped poly(vinyl alcohol) film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 46(10A), 6761–6766 (2007).

2006 (4)

S. Y. Huang, S. T. Wu, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Optically switchable twist nematic grating based on a dye-doped liquid crystal film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(4), 041104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Kapoustine, A. Kazakevitch, V. So, and R. Tam, “Simple method of formation of switchable liquid crystal gratings by introducing periodic photoalignment pattern into liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Commun. 266(1), 1–5 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. A. Zaghloul and A. R. M. Zaghloul, “Complete all-optical processing polarization-based binary logic gates and optical processors,” Opt. Express 14(21), 9879–9895 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Presnyakov, K. Asatryan, T. Galstian, and V. Chigrinov, “Optical polarization grating induced liquid crystal micro-structure using azo-dye command layer,” Opt. Express 14(22), 10558–10564 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

B. I. Senyuk, I. I. Smalyukh, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Switchable two-dimensional gratings based on field-induced layer undulations in cholesteric liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 30(4), 349–351 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. L. Gu, X. N. Chen, W. Jiang, B. Howley, and R. T. Chen, “Fringing-field minimization in liquid-crystal-based high-resolution switchable gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 201106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

Y. Q. Lu, F. Du, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization switch using thick holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal grating,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(3), 810–815 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Q. Xianyu, S. Faris, and G. P. Crawford, “In-plane switching of cholesteric liquid crystals for visible and near-infrared applications,” Appl. Opt. 43(26), 5006–5015 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Wu, Y. H. Lin, Y. Q. Lu, H. W. Ren, Y. H. Fan, J. R. Wu, and S. T. Wu, “Submillisecond response variable optical attenuator based on sheared polymer network liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 12(25), 6382–6389 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Q. Lu, X. Liang, Y. H. Wu, F. Du, and S. T. Wu, “Dual-frequency addressed hybrid-aligned nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(16), 3354–3356 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

V. Chigrinov, A. Muravski, H. S. Kwok, H. Takada, H. Akiyama, and H. Takatsu, “Anchoring properties of photoaligned azo-dye materials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 68(6), 061702 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

J. H. Kim, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “Tristable nematic liquid-crystal device using micropatterned surface alignment,” Nature 420(6912), 159–162 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Akiyama, T. Kawara, H. Takada, H. Takatsu, V. Chigrinov, E. Prudnikova, V. Kozenkov, and H. Kwok, “Synthesis and properties of azo dye aligning layers for liquid crystal cells,” Liq. Cryst. 29(10), 1321–1327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Wen, R. G. Petschek, and C. Rosenblatt, “Nematic liquid-crystal polarization gratings by modification of surface alignment,” Appl. Opt. 41(7), 1246–1250 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

M. Bouvier and T. Scharf, “Analysis of nematic-liquid-crystal binary gratings with high spatial frequency,” Opt. Eng. 39(8), 2129–2137 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

D. Subacius, S. V. Shiyanovskii, P. Bos, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Cholesteric gratings with field-controlled period,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(23), 3323–3325 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

J. Chen, P. J. Bos, H. Vithana, and D. L. Johnson, “An electro-optically controlled liquid crystal diffraction grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(18), 2588–2590 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

1988 (1)

Akiyama, H.

V. Chigrinov, A. Muravski, H. S. Kwok, H. Takada, H. Akiyama, and H. Takatsu, “Anchoring properties of photoaligned azo-dye materials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 68(6), 061702 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Akiyama, T. Kawara, H. Takada, H. Takatsu, V. Chigrinov, E. Prudnikova, V. Kozenkov, and H. Kwok, “Synthesis and properties of azo dye aligning layers for liquid crystal cells,” Liq. Cryst. 29(10), 1321–1327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Asatryan, K.

Bermak, A.

Bos, P.

D. Subacius, S. V. Shiyanovskii, P. Bos, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Cholesteric gratings with field-controlled period,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(23), 3323–3325 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bos, P. J.

J. Chen, P. J. Bos, H. Vithana, and D. L. Johnson, “An electro-optically controlled liquid crystal diffraction grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(18), 2588–2590 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Boussaid, F.

Bouvier, M.

M. Bouvier and T. Scharf, “Analysis of nematic-liquid-crystal binary gratings with high spatial frequency,” Opt. Eng. 39(8), 2129–2137 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

J. Chen, P. J. Bos, H. Vithana, and D. L. Johnson, “An electro-optically controlled liquid crystal diffraction grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(18), 2588–2590 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chen, R. T.

L. L. Gu, X. N. Chen, W. Jiang, B. Howley, and R. T. Chen, “Fringing-field minimization in liquid-crystal-based high-resolution switchable gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 201106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X. F.

Y. X. Zhang, Y. P. Chen, and X. F. Chen, “Polarization-based all-optical logic controlled-NOT, XOR, and XNOR gates employing electro-optic effect in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(16), 161117 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X. N.

L. L. Gu, X. N. Chen, W. Jiang, B. Howley, and R. T. Chen, “Fringing-field minimization in liquid-crystal-based high-resolution switchable gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 201106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. P.

Y. X. Zhang, Y. P. Chen, and X. F. Chen, “Polarization-based all-optical logic controlled-NOT, XOR, and XNOR gates employing electro-optic effect in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(16), 161117 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chigrinov, V.

V. Presnyakov, K. Asatryan, T. Galstian, and V. Chigrinov, “Optical polarization grating induced liquid crystal micro-structure using azo-dye command layer,” Opt. Express 14(22), 10558–10564 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Chigrinov, A. Muravski, H. S. Kwok, H. Takada, H. Akiyama, and H. Takatsu, “Anchoring properties of photoaligned azo-dye materials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 68(6), 061702 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Akiyama, T. Kawara, H. Takada, H. Takatsu, V. Chigrinov, E. Prudnikova, V. Kozenkov, and H. Kwok, “Synthesis and properties of azo dye aligning layers for liquid crystal cells,” Liq. Cryst. 29(10), 1321–1327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chigrinov, V. G.

A. K. Srivastava, E. P. Pozhidaev, V. G. Chigrinov, and R. Manohar, “Single walled carbon nano-tube, ferroelectric liquid crystal composites: Excellent diffractive tool,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhao, A. Bermak, F. Boussaid, T. Du, and V. G. Chigrinov, “High-resolution photoaligned liquid-crystal micropolarizer array for polarization imaging in visible spectrum,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3619–3621 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crawford, G. P.

Du, F.

Y. Q. Lu, X. Liang, Y. H. Wu, F. Du, and S. T. Wu, “Dual-frequency addressed hybrid-aligned nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(16), 3354–3356 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Q. Lu, F. Du, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization switch using thick holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal grating,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(3), 810–815 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Du, T.

Fan, Y. H.

Faris, S.

Friends, M.

Fuh, A. Y. G.

W. Y. Wu and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Rewritable liquid crystal gratings fabricated using photoalignment effect in dye-doped poly(vinyl alcohol) film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 46(10A), 6761–6766 (2007).

S. Y. Huang, S. T. Wu, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Optically switchable twist nematic grating based on a dye-doped liquid crystal film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(4), 041104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Galstian, T.

Gibbons, W. M.

W. M. Gibbons and S. T. Sun, “Optically generated liquid crystal gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(20), 2542–2544 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gu, L. L.

L. L. Gu, X. N. Chen, W. Jiang, B. Howley, and R. T. Chen, “Fringing-field minimization in liquid-crystal-based high-resolution switchable gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 201106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Howley, B.

L. L. Gu, X. N. Chen, W. Jiang, B. Howley, and R. T. Chen, “Fringing-field minimization in liquid-crystal-based high-resolution switchable gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 201106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hu, W.

X. W. Lin, J. B. Wu, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, Z. J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B. B. Jin, and Y. Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Advances 1(3), 032133 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S. Y.

S. Y. Huang, S. T. Wu, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Optically switchable twist nematic grating based on a dye-doped liquid crystal film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(4), 041104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jang, E.

E. Jang, H. R. Kim, Y. J. Na, and S. D. Lee, “Multistage optical memory of a liquid crystal diffraction grating in a single beam rewriting scheme,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 071109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jarem, J. M.

Jiang, W.

L. L. Gu, X. N. Chen, W. Jiang, B. Howley, and R. T. Chen, “Fringing-field minimization in liquid-crystal-based high-resolution switchable gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 201106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jin, B. B.

X. W. Lin, J. B. Wu, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, Z. J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B. B. Jin, and Y. Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Advances 1(3), 032133 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, D. L.

J. Chen, P. J. Bos, H. Vithana, and D. L. Johnson, “An electro-optically controlled liquid crystal diffraction grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(18), 2588–2590 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kapoustine, V.

V. Kapoustine, A. Kazakevitch, V. So, and R. Tam, “Simple method of formation of switchable liquid crystal gratings by introducing periodic photoalignment pattern into liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Commun. 266(1), 1–5 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kawara, T.

H. Akiyama, T. Kawara, H. Takada, H. Takatsu, V. Chigrinov, E. Prudnikova, V. Kozenkov, and H. Kwok, “Synthesis and properties of azo dye aligning layers for liquid crystal cells,” Liq. Cryst. 29(10), 1321–1327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kazakevitch, A.

V. Kapoustine, A. Kazakevitch, V. So, and R. Tam, “Simple method of formation of switchable liquid crystal gratings by introducing periodic photoalignment pattern into liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Commun. 266(1), 1–5 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. R.

E. Jang, H. R. Kim, Y. J. Na, and S. D. Lee, “Multistage optical memory of a liquid crystal diffraction grating in a single beam rewriting scheme,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 071109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

Kim, J. H.

J. H. Kim, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “Tristable nematic liquid-crystal device using micropatterned surface alignment,” Nature 420(6912), 159–162 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Konforti, N.

Kowel, S. T.

Kozenkov, V.

H. Akiyama, T. Kawara, H. Takada, H. Takatsu, V. Chigrinov, E. Prudnikova, V. Kozenkov, and H. Kwok, “Synthesis and properties of azo dye aligning layers for liquid crystal cells,” Liq. Cryst. 29(10), 1321–1327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kulick, J. H.

Kwok, H.

H. Akiyama, T. Kawara, H. Takada, H. Takatsu, V. Chigrinov, E. Prudnikova, V. Kozenkov, and H. Kwok, “Synthesis and properties of azo dye aligning layers for liquid crystal cells,” Liq. Cryst. 29(10), 1321–1327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kwok, H. S.

V. Chigrinov, A. Muravski, H. S. Kwok, H. Takada, H. Akiyama, and H. Takatsu, “Anchoring properties of photoaligned azo-dye materials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 68(6), 061702 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lavrentovich, O. D.

B. I. Senyuk, I. I. Smalyukh, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Switchable two-dimensional gratings based on field-induced layer undulations in cholesteric liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 30(4), 349–351 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Subacius, S. V. Shiyanovskii, P. Bos, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Cholesteric gratings with field-controlled period,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(23), 3323–3325 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. D.

J. Kim, J. H. Na, and S. D. Lee, “Fully continuous liquid crystal diffraction grating with alternating semi-circular alignment by imprinting,” Opt. Express 20(3), 3034–3042 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Jang, H. R. Kim, Y. J. Na, and S. D. Lee, “Multistage optical memory of a liquid crystal diffraction grating in a single beam rewriting scheme,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 071109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Leslie, T. M.

Li, Y.

Liang, X.

Y. Q. Lu, X. Liang, Y. H. Wu, F. Du, and S. T. Wu, “Dual-frequency addressed hybrid-aligned nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(16), 3354–3356 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lin, X. W.

X. W. Lin, J. B. Wu, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, Z. J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B. B. Jin, and Y. Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Advances 1(3), 032133 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. H.

Lindquist, R. G.

Lu, Y. Q.

X. W. Lin, J. B. Wu, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, Z. J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B. B. Jin, and Y. Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Advances 1(3), 032133 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Wu, Y. H. Lin, Y. Q. Lu, H. W. Ren, Y. H. Fan, J. R. Wu, and S. T. Wu, “Submillisecond response variable optical attenuator based on sheared polymer network liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 12(25), 6382–6389 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Q. Lu, X. Liang, Y. H. Wu, F. Du, and S. T. Wu, “Dual-frequency addressed hybrid-aligned nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(16), 3354–3356 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Q. Lu, F. Du, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization switch using thick holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal grating,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(3), 810–815 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Manohar, R.

A. K. Srivastava, E. P. Pozhidaev, V. G. Chigrinov, and R. Manohar, “Single walled carbon nano-tube, ferroelectric liquid crystal composites: Excellent diffractive tool,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Marom, E.

Muravski, A.

V. Chigrinov, A. Muravski, H. S. Kwok, H. Takada, H. Akiyama, and H. Takatsu, “Anchoring properties of photoaligned azo-dye materials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 68(6), 061702 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Na, J. H.

Na, Y. J.

E. Jang, H. R. Kim, Y. J. Na, and S. D. Lee, “Multistage optical memory of a liquid crystal diffraction grating in a single beam rewriting scheme,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 071109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nordin, G. P.

Petschek, R. G.

Pozhidaev, E. P.

A. K. Srivastava, E. P. Pozhidaev, V. G. Chigrinov, and R. Manohar, “Single walled carbon nano-tube, ferroelectric liquid crystal composites: Excellent diffractive tool,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Presnyakov, V.

Prudnikova, E.

H. Akiyama, T. Kawara, H. Takada, H. Takatsu, V. Chigrinov, E. Prudnikova, V. Kozenkov, and H. Kwok, “Synthesis and properties of azo dye aligning layers for liquid crystal cells,” Liq. Cryst. 29(10), 1321–1327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ren, H. W.

Rosenblatt, C.

Scharf, T.

M. Bouvier and T. Scharf, “Analysis of nematic-liquid-crystal binary gratings with high spatial frequency,” Opt. Eng. 39(8), 2129–2137 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Senyuk, B. I.

Shiyanovskii, S. V.

D. Subacius, S. V. Shiyanovskii, P. Bos, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Cholesteric gratings with field-controlled period,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(23), 3323–3325 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Smalyukh, I. I.

So, V.

V. Kapoustine, A. Kazakevitch, V. So, and R. Tam, “Simple method of formation of switchable liquid crystal gratings by introducing periodic photoalignment pattern into liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Commun. 266(1), 1–5 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Srivastava, A. K.

A. K. Srivastava, E. P. Pozhidaev, V. G. Chigrinov, and R. Manohar, “Single walled carbon nano-tube, ferroelectric liquid crystal composites: Excellent diffractive tool,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Subacius, D.

D. Subacius, S. V. Shiyanovskii, P. Bos, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Cholesteric gratings with field-controlled period,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(23), 3323–3325 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sun, S. T.

W. M. Gibbons and S. T. Sun, “Optically generated liquid crystal gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(20), 2542–2544 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Takada, H.

V. Chigrinov, A. Muravski, H. S. Kwok, H. Takada, H. Akiyama, and H. Takatsu, “Anchoring properties of photoaligned azo-dye materials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 68(6), 061702 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Akiyama, T. Kawara, H. Takada, H. Takatsu, V. Chigrinov, E. Prudnikova, V. Kozenkov, and H. Kwok, “Synthesis and properties of azo dye aligning layers for liquid crystal cells,” Liq. Cryst. 29(10), 1321–1327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Takatsu, H.

V. Chigrinov, A. Muravski, H. S. Kwok, H. Takada, H. Akiyama, and H. Takatsu, “Anchoring properties of photoaligned azo-dye materials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 68(6), 061702 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Akiyama, T. Kawara, H. Takada, H. Takatsu, V. Chigrinov, E. Prudnikova, V. Kozenkov, and H. Kwok, “Synthesis and properties of azo dye aligning layers for liquid crystal cells,” Liq. Cryst. 29(10), 1321–1327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tam, R.

V. Kapoustine, A. Kazakevitch, V. So, and R. Tam, “Simple method of formation of switchable liquid crystal gratings by introducing periodic photoalignment pattern into liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Commun. 266(1), 1–5 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vithana, H.

J. Chen, P. J. Bos, H. Vithana, and D. L. Johnson, “An electro-optically controlled liquid crystal diffraction grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(18), 2588–2590 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wen, B.

Wu, J. B.

X. W. Lin, J. B. Wu, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, Z. J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B. B. Jin, and Y. Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Advances 1(3), 032133 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J. R.

Wu, S. T.

J. Yan, Y. Li, and S. T. Wu, “High-efficiency and fast-response tunable phase grating using a blue phase liquid crystal,” Opt. Lett. 36(8), 1404–1406 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Huang, S. T. Wu, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Optically switchable twist nematic grating based on a dye-doped liquid crystal film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(4), 041104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Wu, Y. H. Lin, Y. Q. Lu, H. W. Ren, Y. H. Fan, J. R. Wu, and S. T. Wu, “Submillisecond response variable optical attenuator based on sheared polymer network liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 12(25), 6382–6389 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Q. Lu, X. Liang, Y. H. Wu, F. Du, and S. T. Wu, “Dual-frequency addressed hybrid-aligned nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(16), 3354–3356 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Q. Lu, F. Du, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization switch using thick holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal grating,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(3), 810–815 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Konforti, E. Marom, and S. T. Wu, “Phase-only modulation with twisted nematic liquid-crystal spatial light modulators,” Opt. Lett. 13(3), 251–253 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, W. Y.

W. Y. Wu and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Rewritable liquid crystal gratings fabricated using photoalignment effect in dye-doped poly(vinyl alcohol) film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 46(10A), 6761–6766 (2007).

Wu, Y. H.

Wu, Z. J.

X. W. Lin, J. B. Wu, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, Z. J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B. B. Jin, and Y. Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Advances 1(3), 032133 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xianyu, H. Q.

Xu, F.

X. W. Lin, J. B. Wu, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, Z. J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B. B. Jin, and Y. Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Advances 1(3), 032133 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yan, J.

Yokoyama, H.

J. H. Kim, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “Tristable nematic liquid-crystal device using micropatterned surface alignment,” Nature 420(6912), 159–162 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoneya, M.

J. H. Kim, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “Tristable nematic liquid-crystal device using micropatterned surface alignment,” Nature 420(6912), 159–162 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zaghloul, A. R. M.

Zaghloul, Y. A.

Zhang, Y. X.

Y. X. Zhang, Y. P. Chen, and X. F. Chen, “Polarization-based all-optical logic controlled-NOT, XOR, and XNOR gates employing electro-optic effect in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(16), 161117 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, X.

Zheng, Z. G.

X. W. Lin, J. B. Wu, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, Z. J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B. B. Jin, and Y. Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Advances 1(3), 032133 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, G.

X. W. Lin, J. B. Wu, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, Z. J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B. B. Jin, and Y. Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Advances 1(3), 032133 (2011).
[CrossRef]

AIP Advances (1)

X. W. Lin, J. B. Wu, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, Z. J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B. B. Jin, and Y. Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Advances 1(3), 032133 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (9)

Y. Q. Lu, X. Liang, Y. H. Wu, F. Du, and S. T. Wu, “Dual-frequency addressed hybrid-aligned nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(16), 3354–3356 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, P. J. Bos, H. Vithana, and D. L. Johnson, “An electro-optically controlled liquid crystal diffraction grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(18), 2588–2590 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Gibbons and S. T. Sun, “Optically generated liquid crystal gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(20), 2542–2544 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. Jang, H. R. Kim, Y. J. Na, and S. D. Lee, “Multistage optical memory of a liquid crystal diffraction grating in a single beam rewriting scheme,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 071109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Huang, S. T. Wu, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Optically switchable twist nematic grating based on a dye-doped liquid crystal film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(4), 041104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Subacius, S. V. Shiyanovskii, P. Bos, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Cholesteric gratings with field-controlled period,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(23), 3323–3325 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Srivastava, E. P. Pozhidaev, V. G. Chigrinov, and R. Manohar, “Single walled carbon nano-tube, ferroelectric liquid crystal composites: Excellent diffractive tool,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Gu, X. N. Chen, W. Jiang, B. Howley, and R. T. Chen, “Fringing-field minimization in liquid-crystal-based high-resolution switchable gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 201106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. X. Zhang, Y. P. Chen, and X. F. Chen, “Polarization-based all-optical logic controlled-NOT, XOR, and XNOR gates employing electro-optic effect in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(16), 161117 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Q. Lu, F. Du, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization switch using thick holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal grating,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(3), 810–815 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 (1)

W. Y. Wu and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Rewritable liquid crystal gratings fabricated using photoalignment effect in dye-doped poly(vinyl alcohol) film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 46(10A), 6761–6766 (2007).

Liq. Cryst. (1)

H. Akiyama, T. Kawara, H. Takada, H. Takatsu, V. Chigrinov, E. Prudnikova, V. Kozenkov, and H. Kwok, “Synthesis and properties of azo dye aligning layers for liquid crystal cells,” Liq. Cryst. 29(10), 1321–1327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

J. H. Kim, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “Tristable nematic liquid-crystal device using micropatterned surface alignment,” Nature 420(6912), 159–162 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

V. Kapoustine, A. Kazakevitch, V. So, and R. Tam, “Simple method of formation of switchable liquid crystal gratings by introducing periodic photoalignment pattern into liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Commun. 266(1), 1–5 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

M. Bouvier and T. Scharf, “Analysis of nematic-liquid-crystal binary gratings with high spatial frequency,” Opt. Eng. 39(8), 2129–2137 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (1)

V. Chigrinov, A. Muravski, H. S. Kwok, H. Takada, H. Akiyama, and H. Takatsu, “Anchoring properties of photoaligned azo-dye materials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 68(6), 061702 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

V. G. Chigrinov, V. M. Kozenkov, H. S. Kwok, Photoalignment of Liquid Crystalline Materials: Physics and Applications (Wiley, England, August 2008).

I. C. Khoo and S. T. Wu, Optics and Nonlinear Optics of Liquid Crystals (World Scientific, Singapore, 1993).

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: MOV (1123 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (1370 KB)     

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

VT curves of 6.0-μm-thick TN and PA LC cells between crossed polarizers separately. The front polarizer is at 0° and 45° to the LC director of TN cell and PA cell respectively. The insets conceptually reveal four states of this cell under different voltages.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic drawing of photoalignment procedure: a) spincoating SD1, b-c) orthogonal photoalignment on two cell substrates, d) cell assembling and photopatterning with an amplitude mask, and e) cell structure and LC orientations in alternate TN-PA domains

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

a) VT curve of the cell (hollow triangles and line) and contrast ratio between voltage dependent intensity of 1st and 0th orders (solid circles and line). Insets show the four states respectively (all image sizes are 350 × 350 μm2), b) intensity of 1st order as a function of driving voltage. Insets (Media 1) show the diffraction patterns at different voltages.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

a) four states of 2D TN-PA cell (all image sizes are 300 × 300 μm2), b) intensity of 1st order as a function of driving voltage, insets (Media 2) show the diffraction patterns at different voltages.

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