Abstract

Single–walled carbon nanotube saturable absorbers were designed and fabricated for passive mode-locking of bulk lasers operating in the 2 μm spectral range. Mode-locked lasers based on Tm:Lu2O3 single crystals containing different Tm3+-doping concentrations were studied. Nearly transform-limited pulses as short as 175 fs at 2070 nm were generated at 88 MHz repetition rate.

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  1. A. Godard, “Infrared (2–12 ?m) solid-state laser sources: a review,” C. R. Phys. 8(10), 1100–1128 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. Adler, P. Mas?owski, A. Foltynowicz, K. C. Cossel, T. C. Briles, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Mid-infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy with a broadband frequency comb,” Opt. Express 18(21), 21861–21872 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. Härkönen, C. Grebing, J. Paajaste, R. Koskinen, J.-P. Alanko, S. Suomalainen, G. Steinmeyer, and M. Guina, “Modelocked GaSb disk laser producing 384 fs pulses at 2 ?m wavelength,” Electron. Lett. 47, 454–456 (2011).
  4. L. E. Nelson, E. P. Ippen, and H. A. Haus, “Broadly tunable sub-500 fs pulses from an additive-pulse mode-locked thulium-doped fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 19–21 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. C. Sharp, D. E. Spock, N. Pan, and J. Elliot, “190-fs passively mode-locked thulium fiber laser with a low threshold,” Opt. Lett. 21(12), 881–883 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Engelbrecht, F. Haxsen, A. Ruehl, D. Wandt, and D. Kracht, “Ultrafast thulium-doped fiber-oscillator with pulse energy of 4.3 nJ,” Opt. Lett. 33(7), 690–692 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. P. Koopmann, R. Peters, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Crystal growth, spectroscopy, and highly efficient laser operation of thulium-doped Lu2O3 around 2 µm,” Appl. Phys. B 102, 19–24 (2011).
  8. P. Koopmann, S. Lamrini, K. Scholle, P. Fuhrberg, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Efficient diode-pumped laser operation of Tm:Lu2O3 around 2??m,” Opt. Lett. 36(6), 948–950 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. W. B. Cho, A. Schmidt, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, F. Rotermund, U. Griebner, G. Steinmeyer, V. Petrov, X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, J. J. Carvajal, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Passive mode-locking of a Tm-doped bulk laser near 2 ?m using a carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 17, 11007–11009 (2009).
    [PubMed]
  10. S. Kivistö, T. Hakulinen, A. Kaskela, B. Aitchison, D. P. Brown, A. G. Nasibulin, E. I. Kauppinen, A. Härkönen, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Carbon nanotube films for ultrafast broadband technology,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2358–2363 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. K. Kieu and F. W. Wise, “Soliton thulium-doped fiber laser with carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(3), 128–130 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. A. A. Lagatsky, F. Fusari, S. Calvez, S. V. Kurilchik, V. E. Kisel, N. V. Kuleshov, M. D. Dawson, C. T. A. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “Femtosecond pulse operation of a Tm,Ho-codoped crystalline laser near 2 µm,” Opt. Lett. 35, 172–175 (2010).
    [PubMed]
  15. A. A. Lagatsky, X. Han, M. D. Serrano, C. Cascales, C. Zaldo, S. Calvez, M. D. Dawson, J. A. Gupta, C. T. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “Femtosecond (191 fs) NaY(WO4)2 Tm,Ho-codoped laser at 2060 nm,” Opt. Lett. 35(18), 3027–3029 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, H. Kataura, E. Itoga, N. Minami, S. Kazaoui, K. Miyashita, M. Tokumoto, and Y. Sakakibara, “Ultrashort pulse-generation by saturable mirrors based on polymer embedded carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Express 13, 8025–8031 (2005).
    [PubMed]
  17. A. Schmidt, S. Rivier, W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, F. Rotermund, D. Rytz, G. Steinmeyer, V. Petrov, and U. Griebner, “Sub-100 fs single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber mode-locked Yb-laser operation near 1 µm,” Opt. Express 17, 20109–20116 (2009).
    [PubMed]
  18. W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, A. Schmidt, G. Steinmeyer, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, D.-I. Yeom, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, “Boosting the nonlinear optical response of carbon nanotube saturable absorbers for broadband mode-locking of bulk lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 1937–1943 (2010).
  19. R. Peters, C. Kränkel, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Crystal growth by the heat exchanger method, spectroscopic characterization and laser operation of high purity Yb:Lu2O3,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(7-9), 1934–1938 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2011

A. Härkönen, C. Grebing, J. Paajaste, R. Koskinen, J.-P. Alanko, S. Suomalainen, G. Steinmeyer, and M. Guina, “Modelocked GaSb disk laser producing 384 fs pulses at 2 ?m wavelength,” Electron. Lett. 47, 454–456 (2011).

P. Koopmann, R. Peters, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Crystal growth, spectroscopy, and highly efficient laser operation of thulium-doped Lu2O3 around 2 µm,” Appl. Phys. B 102, 19–24 (2011).

P. Koopmann, S. Lamrini, K. Scholle, P. Fuhrberg, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Efficient diode-pumped laser operation of Tm:Lu2O3 around 2??m,” Opt. Lett. 36(6), 948–950 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Lagatsky, S. Calvez, J. A. Gupta, V. E. Kisel, N. V. Kuleshov, C. T. Brown, M. D. Dawson, and W. Sibbett, “Broadly tunable femtosecond mode-locking in a Tm:KYW laser near 2 ?m,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9995–10000 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

2009

2008

R. Peters, C. Kränkel, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Crystal growth by the heat exchanger method, spectroscopic characterization and laser operation of high purity Yb:Lu2O3,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(7-9), 1934–1938 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Engelbrecht, F. Haxsen, A. Ruehl, D. Wandt, and D. Kracht, “Ultrafast thulium-doped fiber-oscillator with pulse energy of 4.3 nJ,” Opt. Lett. 33(7), 690–692 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

A. Godard, “Infrared (2–12 ?m) solid-state laser sources: a review,” C. R. Phys. 8(10), 1100–1128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

1996

1995

L. E. Nelson, E. P. Ippen, and H. A. Haus, “Broadly tunable sub-500 fs pulses from an additive-pulse mode-locked thulium-doped fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 19–21 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Adler, F.

Aguiló, M.

Aitchison, B.

Alanko, J.-P.

A. Härkönen, C. Grebing, J. Paajaste, R. Koskinen, J.-P. Alanko, S. Suomalainen, G. Steinmeyer, and M. Guina, “Modelocked GaSb disk laser producing 384 fs pulses at 2 ?m wavelength,” Electron. Lett. 47, 454–456 (2011).

Briles, T. C.

Brown, C. T.

Brown, C. T. A.

Brown, D. P.

Calvez, S.

Carvajal, J. J.

Cascales, C.

Cho, W. B.

Choi, S. Y.

Cossel, K. C.

Dawson, M. D.

Díaz, F.

Elliot, J.

Engelbrecht, M.

Foltynowicz, A.

Fuhrberg, P.

Fusari, F.

Godard, A.

A. Godard, “Infrared (2–12 ?m) solid-state laser sources: a review,” C. R. Phys. 8(10), 1100–1128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Grebing, C.

A. Härkönen, C. Grebing, J. Paajaste, R. Koskinen, J.-P. Alanko, S. Suomalainen, G. Steinmeyer, and M. Guina, “Modelocked GaSb disk laser producing 384 fs pulses at 2 ?m wavelength,” Electron. Lett. 47, 454–456 (2011).

Griebner, U.

Guina, M.

A. Härkönen, C. Grebing, J. Paajaste, R. Koskinen, J.-P. Alanko, S. Suomalainen, G. Steinmeyer, and M. Guina, “Modelocked GaSb disk laser producing 384 fs pulses at 2 ?m wavelength,” Electron. Lett. 47, 454–456 (2011).

Gupta, J. A.

Hakulinen, T.

Han, X.

Härkönen, A.

A. Härkönen, C. Grebing, J. Paajaste, R. Koskinen, J.-P. Alanko, S. Suomalainen, G. Steinmeyer, and M. Guina, “Modelocked GaSb disk laser producing 384 fs pulses at 2 ?m wavelength,” Electron. Lett. 47, 454–456 (2011).

S. Kivistö, T. Hakulinen, A. Kaskela, B. Aitchison, D. P. Brown, A. G. Nasibulin, E. I. Kauppinen, A. Härkönen, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Carbon nanotube films for ultrafast broadband technology,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2358–2363 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hartl, I.

Haus, H. A.

L. E. Nelson, E. P. Ippen, and H. A. Haus, “Broadly tunable sub-500 fs pulses from an additive-pulse mode-locked thulium-doped fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 19–21 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Haxsen, F.

Huber, G.

P. Koopmann, S. Lamrini, K. Scholle, P. Fuhrberg, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Efficient diode-pumped laser operation of Tm:Lu2O3 around 2??m,” Opt. Lett. 36(6), 948–950 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Koopmann, R. Peters, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Crystal growth, spectroscopy, and highly efficient laser operation of thulium-doped Lu2O3 around 2 µm,” Appl. Phys. B 102, 19–24 (2011).

R. Peters, C. Kränkel, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Crystal growth by the heat exchanger method, spectroscopic characterization and laser operation of high purity Yb:Lu2O3,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(7-9), 1934–1938 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

L. E. Nelson, E. P. Ippen, and H. A. Haus, “Broadly tunable sub-500 fs pulses from an additive-pulse mode-locked thulium-doped fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 19–21 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Itoga, E.

Jha, A.

Jose, G.

Kaskela, A.

Kataura, H.

Kauppinen, E. I.

Kazaoui, S.

Kieu, K.

K. Kieu and F. W. Wise, “Soliton thulium-doped fiber laser with carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(3), 128–130 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.

W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, A. Schmidt, G. Steinmeyer, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, D.-I. Yeom, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, “Boosting the nonlinear optical response of carbon nanotube saturable absorbers for broadband mode-locking of bulk lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 1937–1943 (2010).

Kisel, V. E.

Kivistö, S.

Koopmann, P.

P. Koopmann, S. Lamrini, K. Scholle, P. Fuhrberg, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Efficient diode-pumped laser operation of Tm:Lu2O3 around 2??m,” Opt. Lett. 36(6), 948–950 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Koopmann, R. Peters, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Crystal growth, spectroscopy, and highly efficient laser operation of thulium-doped Lu2O3 around 2 µm,” Appl. Phys. B 102, 19–24 (2011).

Koskinen, R.

A. Härkönen, C. Grebing, J. Paajaste, R. Koskinen, J.-P. Alanko, S. Suomalainen, G. Steinmeyer, and M. Guina, “Modelocked GaSb disk laser producing 384 fs pulses at 2 ?m wavelength,” Electron. Lett. 47, 454–456 (2011).

Kracht, D.

Kränkel, C.

R. Peters, C. Kränkel, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Crystal growth by the heat exchanger method, spectroscopic characterization and laser operation of high purity Yb:Lu2O3,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(7-9), 1934–1938 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kuleshov, N. V.

Kurilchik, S. V.

Lagatsky, A. A.

Lamrini, S.

Lee, S.

Maslowski, P.

Mateos, X.

Minami, N.

Minoshima, K.

Miyashita, K.

Nasibulin, A. G.

Nelson, L. E.

L. E. Nelson, E. P. Ippen, and H. A. Haus, “Broadly tunable sub-500 fs pulses from an additive-pulse mode-locked thulium-doped fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 19–21 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Okhotnikov, O. G.

Paajaste, J.

A. Härkönen, C. Grebing, J. Paajaste, R. Koskinen, J.-P. Alanko, S. Suomalainen, G. Steinmeyer, and M. Guina, “Modelocked GaSb disk laser producing 384 fs pulses at 2 ?m wavelength,” Electron. Lett. 47, 454–456 (2011).

Pan, N.

Petermann, K.

P. Koopmann, R. Peters, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Crystal growth, spectroscopy, and highly efficient laser operation of thulium-doped Lu2O3 around 2 µm,” Appl. Phys. B 102, 19–24 (2011).

P. Koopmann, S. Lamrini, K. Scholle, P. Fuhrberg, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Efficient diode-pumped laser operation of Tm:Lu2O3 around 2??m,” Opt. Lett. 36(6), 948–950 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Peters, C. Kränkel, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Crystal growth by the heat exchanger method, spectroscopic characterization and laser operation of high purity Yb:Lu2O3,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(7-9), 1934–1938 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Peters, R.

P. Koopmann, R. Peters, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Crystal growth, spectroscopy, and highly efficient laser operation of thulium-doped Lu2O3 around 2 µm,” Appl. Phys. B 102, 19–24 (2011).

R. Peters, C. Kränkel, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Crystal growth by the heat exchanger method, spectroscopic characterization and laser operation of high purity Yb:Lu2O3,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(7-9), 1934–1938 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, V.

Pujol, M. C.

Rivier, S.

Rotermund, F.

Ruehl, A.

Rytz, D.

Sakakibara, Y.

Schibli, T. R.

Schmidt, A.

Scholle, K.

Serrano, M. D.

Sharp, R. C.

Sibbett, W.

Spock, D. E.

Steinmeyer, G.

A. Härkönen, C. Grebing, J. Paajaste, R. Koskinen, J.-P. Alanko, S. Suomalainen, G. Steinmeyer, and M. Guina, “Modelocked GaSb disk laser producing 384 fs pulses at 2 ?m wavelength,” Electron. Lett. 47, 454–456 (2011).

W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, A. Schmidt, G. Steinmeyer, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, D.-I. Yeom, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, “Boosting the nonlinear optical response of carbon nanotube saturable absorbers for broadband mode-locking of bulk lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 1937–1943 (2010).

W. B. Cho, A. Schmidt, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, F. Rotermund, U. Griebner, G. Steinmeyer, V. Petrov, X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, J. J. Carvajal, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Passive mode-locking of a Tm-doped bulk laser near 2 ?m using a carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 17, 11007–11009 (2009).
[PubMed]

A. Schmidt, S. Rivier, W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, F. Rotermund, D. Rytz, G. Steinmeyer, V. Petrov, and U. Griebner, “Sub-100 fs single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber mode-locked Yb-laser operation near 1 µm,” Opt. Express 17, 20109–20116 (2009).
[PubMed]

Suomalainen, S.

A. Härkönen, C. Grebing, J. Paajaste, R. Koskinen, J.-P. Alanko, S. Suomalainen, G. Steinmeyer, and M. Guina, “Modelocked GaSb disk laser producing 384 fs pulses at 2 ?m wavelength,” Electron. Lett. 47, 454–456 (2011).

Tokumoto, M.

Wandt, D.

Wise, F. W.

K. Kieu and F. W. Wise, “Soliton thulium-doped fiber laser with carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(3), 128–130 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ye, J.

Yeom, D.-I.

W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, A. Schmidt, G. Steinmeyer, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, D.-I. Yeom, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, “Boosting the nonlinear optical response of carbon nanotube saturable absorbers for broadband mode-locking of bulk lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 1937–1943 (2010).

Yim, J. H.

Zaldo, C.

Adv. Funct. Mater.

W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, A. Schmidt, G. Steinmeyer, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, D.-I. Yeom, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, “Boosting the nonlinear optical response of carbon nanotube saturable absorbers for broadband mode-locking of bulk lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 1937–1943 (2010).

Appl. Phys. B

P. Koopmann, R. Peters, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Crystal growth, spectroscopy, and highly efficient laser operation of thulium-doped Lu2O3 around 2 µm,” Appl. Phys. B 102, 19–24 (2011).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

L. E. Nelson, E. P. Ippen, and H. A. Haus, “Broadly tunable sub-500 fs pulses from an additive-pulse mode-locked thulium-doped fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 19–21 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Phys.

A. Godard, “Infrared (2–12 ?m) solid-state laser sources: a review,” C. R. Phys. 8(10), 1100–1128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

A. Härkönen, C. Grebing, J. Paajaste, R. Koskinen, J.-P. Alanko, S. Suomalainen, G. Steinmeyer, and M. Guina, “Modelocked GaSb disk laser producing 384 fs pulses at 2 ?m wavelength,” Electron. Lett. 47, 454–456 (2011).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

K. Kieu and F. W. Wise, “Soliton thulium-doped fiber laser with carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(3), 128–130 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth

R. Peters, C. Kränkel, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Crystal growth by the heat exchanger method, spectroscopic characterization and laser operation of high purity Yb:Lu2O3,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(7-9), 1934–1938 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, H. Kataura, E. Itoga, N. Minami, S. Kazaoui, K. Miyashita, M. Tokumoto, and Y. Sakakibara, “Ultrashort pulse-generation by saturable mirrors based on polymer embedded carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Express 13, 8025–8031 (2005).
[PubMed]

A. A. Lagatsky, S. Calvez, J. A. Gupta, V. E. Kisel, N. V. Kuleshov, C. T. Brown, M. D. Dawson, and W. Sibbett, “Broadly tunable femtosecond mode-locking in a Tm:KYW laser near 2 ?m,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9995–10000 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Adler, P. Mas?owski, A. Foltynowicz, K. C. Cossel, T. C. Briles, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Mid-infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy with a broadband frequency comb,” Opt. Express 18(21), 21861–21872 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Fusari, A. A. Lagatsky, G. Jose, S. Calvez, A. Jha, M. D. Dawson, J. A. Gupta, W. Sibbett, and C. T. Brown, “Femtosecond mode-locked Tm(3+) and Tm(3+)-Ho(3+) doped 2 ?m glass lasers,” Opt. Express 18(21), 22090–22098 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kivistö, T. Hakulinen, A. Kaskela, B. Aitchison, D. P. Brown, A. G. Nasibulin, E. I. Kauppinen, A. Härkönen, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Carbon nanotube films for ultrafast broadband technology,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2358–2363 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. B. Cho, A. Schmidt, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, F. Rotermund, U. Griebner, G. Steinmeyer, V. Petrov, X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, J. J. Carvajal, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Passive mode-locking of a Tm-doped bulk laser near 2 ?m using a carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 17, 11007–11009 (2009).
[PubMed]

A. Schmidt, S. Rivier, W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, F. Rotermund, D. Rytz, G. Steinmeyer, V. Petrov, and U. Griebner, “Sub-100 fs single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber mode-locked Yb-laser operation near 1 µm,” Opt. Express 17, 20109–20116 (2009).
[PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Linear transmission spectrum of the arc-discharge SWCNT saturable absorber indicating the E11- and E22-transitions of semiconducting nanotubes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Picosecond Tm:Lu2O3 laser mode-locked by SWCNT-SA: (a) autocorrelation trace and sech2-fit, (b) first beat note of the RF spectrum; inset: 1 GHz scan.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Femtosecond Tm:Lu2O3 laser mode-locked by SWCNT-SA: (a) autocorrelation trace (dots) and fit (line) assuming a sech2-pulse shape, (b) optical spectrum.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

RF spectrum of the femtosecond Tm:Lu2O3 laser mode-locked by SWCNT-SA: (a) first beat note, (b) 1 GHz scan.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters of Different Mode-Locked Tm:Lu2O3 Lasers

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